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Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation
If the modules are included in the same executable file, they are definitely combined in one program. If modules are designed to run linked together in a shared address space, that almost surely means combining them into one program.
gpl  aggregation  linking 
4 days ago by mac
Social learning strategies regulate the wisdom and madness of interactive crowds | bioRxiv
Why groups of individuals sometimes exhibit collective 'wisdom' and other times maladaptive `herding' is an enduring conundrum. Here we show that this apparent conflict is regulated by the social learning strategies deployed. We examined the patterns of human social learning through an interactive online experiment with 699 participants, varying both task uncertainty and group size, then used hierarchical Bayesian model-fitting to identify the individual learning strategies exhibited by participants. Challenging tasks elicit greater conformity amongst individuals, with rates of copying increasing with group size, leading to high probabilities of herding amongst large groups confronted with uncertainty. Conversely, the reduced social learning of small groups, and the greater probability that social information would be accurate for less-challenging tasks, generated `wisdom of the crowd' effects in other circumstances. Our model-based approach provides evidence that the likelihood of collective intelligence versus herding can be predicted, resolving a longstanding puzzle in the literature.
wisdom-of-crowds  collective-intelligence  collective-behavior  sociology  simulation  aggregation  data-fusion  rather-interesting  to-write-about 
5 days ago by Vaguery
[1703.00045] Aggregated knowledge from a small number of debates outperforms the wisdom of large crowds
The aggregation of many independent estimates can outperform the most accurate individual judgment. This centenarian finding, popularly known as the wisdom of crowds, has been applied to problems ranging from the diagnosis of cancer to financial forecasting. It is widely believed that social influence undermines collective wisdom by reducing the diversity of opinions within the crowd. Here, we show that if a large crowd is structured in small independent groups, deliberation and social influence within groups improve the crowd's collective accuracy. We asked a live crowd (N=5180) to respond to general-knowledge questions (e.g., what is the height of the Eiffel Tower?). Participants first answered individually, then deliberated and made consensus decisions in groups of five, and finally provided revised individual estimates. We found that averaging consensus decisions was substantially more accurate than aggregating the initial independent opinions. Remarkably, combining as few as four consensus choices outperformed the wisdom of thousands of individuals.
collective-intelligence  wisdom-of-crowds  decision-making  aggregation  algorithms  to-write-about  metaheuristics  social-norms  social-engineering 
13 days ago by Vaguery
grafana/loki: Like Prometheus, but for logs.
Loki is a horizontally-scalable, highly-available, multi-tenant log aggregation system inspired by Prometheus
loki  grafana  log  aggregator  aggregation  logging  programming  devops 
9 weeks ago by vicchow
GitHub - grafana/loki: Like Prometheus, but for logs.
"Loki is a horizontally-scalable, highly-available, multi-tenant log aggregation system inspired by Prometheus. It is designed to be very cost effective and easy to operate, as it does not index the contents of the logs, but rather a set of labels for each log stream."
logs  aggregation  search  kibana  fluentd  visualization 
9 weeks ago by devin
Aggregators and Jobs-to-be-Done – Stratechery by Ben Thompson
In short, the “user experience” that propels Aggregators is how well they do the “job” customers need in the space in which they compete. Or, to put it another way, if you want to know where in a value chain an Aggregator is likely to form, figure out what and where the “job” is. By doing more of a job, an Aggregator attracts more marginal users, which attract more suppliers on the edges of a space, which expands what jobs can be done for what users. In concrete terms, Amazon started by selling things to book buyers, then expanded to selling things to CD buyers, until it now sells everything to everyone; the job-to-be-done, though, was only ever selling things.
aggregation  uber  stratechery 
10 weeks ago by elrob

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