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Witte handel in zwarte mensen. Een terugblik op het Nederlandse slavernijverleden.
»Elk jaar op 1 juli vieren we het einde van de slavernij. Wat gebeurde er percies en welke rol speelde Nederland in deze pijnlijke geschiedenis?«
netherlands  slavery  triangular-trade  bantu  west-africa 
october 2018 by aidan
Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook - Martin Haspelmath, Uri Tadmor - Google Books
This landmark publication in comparative linguistics is the first comprehensive work to address the general issue of what kinds of words tend to be borrowed from other languages. The authors have assembled a unique database of over 70,000 words from 40 languages from around the world, 18,000 of which are loanwords. This database (http: //loanwords.info) allows the authors to make empirically founded generalizations about general tendencies of word exchange among languages.
adjectives  Amharic  Arabic  Archi  Aslian  Austronesian  Avar  Bantu  Berber  Bezhta  bilingualism  calques  Ceq  Wong  Chinese  dialects  dictionary  Dutch  English  French  function_words  Gawwada  borrowing  Gurindji  Hausa  Hawaiian  Hmong  Hungarian  Imbabura  Indonesian  integration  Iraq  Japanese  Kali’na  Kanuri  Kildin  language_contact  Latin  lexicon  linguistics  Typology  loanwords  Lower_Sorbian  Malagasy  Malay  Mandarin  morphology  Nepali  nouns  Oroqen  Otomi  phonemes  phonology  Portuguese  Q’eqchi  Quechua  Romani  Romanian  Russian  Saami  Sakha  Sanskrit  Saramaccan  Selice  semantics  fields  semantic  Seychelles  Creole  Slavic  Sranan  suffix  Swahili  syllable  Tarifiyt  Tzotzil  Upper_Sorbian  verbs  Vietnamese  vocabulary  vowel  Yaqui  haspelmath  tadmor  googlebooks  books  reference 
october 2016 by dicewitch
The Internet Isn't Available in Most Languages - The Atlantic
"Tweet, tuít, or giolc? These were the three iterations of a Gaelic version of the word “tweet” that Twitter’s Irish translators debated in 2012. The agonizing choice between an Anglicized spelling, a Gaelic spelling, or the use of the Gaelic word for “tweeting like a bird” stalled the project for an entire year. Finally, a small group of translators made an executive decision to use the Anglicized spelling of “tweet” with Irish grammar. As of April 2015, Gaelic Twitter is online.

Indigenous and under-resourced cultures face a number of obstacles when establishing their languages on the Internet. English, along with a few other languages like Spanish and French, dominates the web. People who speak these languages often take for granted access to social-media sites with agreed-upon vocabularies, built-in translation services, and basic grammar and spell-checkers.

For Gaelic, a minority language spoken by only two to three percent of the Irish population, it can be difficult to access these digital services. And even languages with millions of speakers can lack the resources needed to make the Internet relevant to daily life.

In September of this year, the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, an organization established five years ago to monitor the growth and use of the Internet around the world, released its 2015 report on the state of broadband. The report argues that representation of the world's languages online remains one of the major challenges in expanding the Internet to reach the four billion people who don’t yet have access.

At the moment, the Internet only has webpages in about five percent of the world's languages. Even national languages like Hindi and Swahili are used on only .01 percent of the 10 million most popular websites. The majority of the world’s languages lack an online presence that is actually useful.

Ethnologue, a directory of the world’s living languages, has determined that 1,519 out of the 7,100 languages spoken today are in danger of extinction. For these threatened languages, social-networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, which rely primarily on user-generated content, as well as other digital platforms like Google and Wikipedia, have a chance to contribute to their preservation. While the best way to keep a language alive is to speak it, using one’s native language online could help.

The computational linguistics professor Kevin Scannell devotes his time to developing the technical infrastructure—often using open-source software—that can work for multiple languages. He’s worked with more than 40 languages around the world, his efforts part of a larger struggle to promote under-resourced languages. “[The languages] are not part of the world of the Internet or computing,” he says. “We’re trying to change that mindset by providing the tools for people to use.”

One such under-resourced language is Chichewa, a Bantu language spoken by 12 million people, many of whom are in the country of Malawi. According to Edmond Kachale, a programmer who began developing a basic word processor for the language in 2005 and has been working on translating Google search into Chichewa for the last five years, his language doesn’t have sufficient content online. This makes it difficult for its speakers to compete in a digital, globalized world. “Unless a language improves its visibility in the digital world,” he says, “it is heading for extinction.”

In Malawi, over 60 percent of the population lacks Internet access; but Kachale says that “even if there would be free Internet nation-wide, chances are that [Chichewa speakers] may not use it at all because of the language barrier.” The 2015 Broadband Report bears Kachale’s point out. Using the benchmark of 100,000 Wikipedia pages in any given language, it found that only 53 percent of the world’s population has access to sufficient content in their native language to make use of the Internet relevant.

People who can’t use the Internet risk falling behind economically because they can’t take advantage of e-commerce. In Malawi, Facebook has become a key platform for Internet businesses, even though the site has not yet been translated into Chichewa. Instead, users tack-on a work-around browser plug-in, a quick-fix for languages that don’t have official translations for big social-media sites.

“Unless a language improves its visibility in the digital world, it is heading for extinction.”
In 2014, Facebook added 20 new languages to its site and launched several more this year, bringing it to more than 80 languages. The site also opens up languages for community-based translation. This option is currently available for about 50 languages, including Aymara, an indigenous language spoken mainly in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. Though it has approximately 2 million speakers, UNESCO has designated Aymara as “vulnerable.” Beginning in May of 2014, a group of 20 volunteer translators have been chipping away at the 25,000 words used on the site—and the project is on course to be finished by Christmas.

The project is important because it will encourage young people to use their native language. “We are sure when Aymara is available on Facebook as an official language, it will be a source of motivation for Aymara people,” says Elias Quisepe Chura, who manages the translation effort (it happens primarily online, unsurprisingly via a Facebook page).

Ruben Hilari, another member of the translation team, told the Spanish newspaper El Pais, “Aymara is alive. It does not need to be revitalized. It needs to be strengthened and that is exactly what we are doing. If we do not work for our language and culture today, it will be too late tomorrow to remember who we are, and we will always feel insecure about our identity.”

Despite its reputation as the so-called information superhighway, the Internet is only legible to speakers of a few languages; this limit to the web’s accessibility proves that it can be as just as insular and discriminative as the modern world at large."
internet  languages  language  linguistics  2015  translation  insularity  web  online  gaelic  hindi  swahili  kevinscannell  via:unthinkingly  katherineschwab  edmondkachele  accessibility  enlgish  aymara  rubenhilari  eliasquisepechura  bolivia  perú  chile  indigenous  indigeneity  chichewa  bantu  google  kevinsannell  twitter  facebook  instagram  software  computation  computing  inclusivity 
january 2016 by robertogreco
XhosaKhaya - YouTube
A YouTube channel for learning Xhosa, a Bantu language noted for its clicking sounds.
video  youtube  xhosa  bantu  languages  languagelearning  howto  africa  learn 
january 2015 by miramarco
Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution
The agricultural revolution had a dramatic effect on all aspects of human society, but piecing together how humans lived as they spread farming practices worldwide remains difficult. In particular, the fundamental structures of human society, namely the way that property is inherited and the rules governing postmarriage residence, do not leave a clear trace in the archaeological record and, therefore, have been largely intractable. However, the recent availability of phylogenetic language trees coupled with new Bayesian statistical techniques makes it possible to reconstruct the ancestral state of Bantu kinship and reveals that inheritance and residence rules coevolved as farming spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Our results question current theory suggesting that residence rules are the primary driver of all other human social structures.
linguistics  historicallinguistics  computationallinguistics  wop  bantu  socialscience 
december 2014 by ars
http://www.njas.helsinki.fi/pdf-files/vol15num4/bosh7.pdf
Northern Sotho and Zulu are two South African Bantu languages that make use of different writing systems, viz. a disjunctive and a conjunctive writing system respectively. In this article it is argued that the different orthographic systems obscure the morphological similarities and that these systems impact directly on word class tagging for the two languages. It is illustrated that not only different approaches are needed for word class tagging, but also that the sequencing of tasks is to a large extent determined by the difference in writing systems.
word  class  tagging  conjunctive  writing  system  disjunctive  natural  language  processing  Bantu  languages  studium/seminare/afrikalinguistik 
september 2009 by derliebemarcus

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