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The role of privacy fatigue in online privacy behavior - ScienceDirect
Based on literature on burnout, we developed measurement items for privacy fatigue, which has two key dimensions —emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Data analyzed from a survey of 324 Internet users showed that privacy fatigue has a stronger impact on privacy behavior than privacy concerns do, although the latter is widely regarded as the dominant factor in explaining online privacy behavior.
privacy  behaviour  people  privacybydesign  fatigue  design  research 
12 days ago by corrickwales
Byzantine fault tolerance - Wikipedia
Lamport devised a colorful allegory in which a group of army generals formulate a plan for attacking a city. [...] This formulation of the problem, together with some additional results, were presented by the same authors in their 1982 paper, "The Byzantine Generals Problem".[9]
In its simplest form, the generals must decide only whether to attack or retreat. Some generals may prefer to attack, while others prefer to retreat. The important thing is that every general agrees on a common decision, for a halfhearted attack by a few generals would become a rout, and would be worse than either a coordinated attack or a coordinated retreat.
The problem is complicated by the presence of treacherous generals who may not only cast a vote for a suboptimal strategy, they may do so selectively. For instance, if nine generals are voting, four of whom support attacking while four others are in favor of retreat, the ninth general may send a vote of retreat to those generals in favor of retreat, and a vote of attack to the rest. Those who received a retreat vote from the ninth general will retreat, while the rest will attack (which may not go well for the attackers). The problem is complicated further by the generals being physically separated and having to send their votes via messengers who may fail to deliver votes or may forge false votes.
Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved if the loyal (non-faulty) generals have a majority agreement on their strategy. There can be a default vote value given to missing messages. For example, missing messages can be given the value <Null>. Further, if the agreement is that the <Null> votes are in the majority, a pre-assigned default strategy can be used (e.g., retreat).
A similar problem faces honeybee swarms. They have to find a new home, and the many scouts and wider participants have to reach consensus about which of perhaps several candidate homes to fly to. And then they all have to fly there, with their queen.[12]
Bitcoin, Boeing 777
Some spacecraft flight systems such as that of the SpaceX Dragon[30] consider Byzantine fault tolerance in their design.
Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) is the dependability of a fault-tolerant computer system, particularly distributed computing systems, where components may fail and there is imperfect information on whether a component has failed.
In a "Byzantine failure", a component such as a server can inconsistently appear both failed and functioning to failure-detection systems, presenting different symptoms to different observers.
It is difficult for the other components to declare it failed and shut it out of the network, because they need to first reach a consensus regarding which component has failed in the first place. The term is derived from the Byzantine Generals' Problem,[1] where actors must agree on a concerted strategy to avoid catastrophic system failure, but some of the actors are unreliable.
Byzantine fault tolerance has been also referred to with the phrases
interactive consistency or
source congruency,
error avalanche,
Byzantine agreement problem,
Byzantine generals problem, and
Byzantine failure.
insect  behaviour  honeybees  space  rocket  engineering  Bitcoin  computer  node  system-service  failure  information  consensus  politics  actor  liar  deception 
20 days ago by andreasbuzzing
UX in the Age of Personalization (A List Apart)
Colin Eagan показывает, как можно проектировать сервисы, предполагающие персонализацию.
UX  patterns  behaviour  issue 
23 days ago by jvetrau
Finally, A Personality Quiz Backed By Science | FiveThirtyEight
The Big Five is the way most psychologists test personality. See your score on different traits like extraversion and agreeableness and then find how your personality compares with that of the average American.
psychology  test  life  behaviour  people  personality  psykologi  read  selftest  selvtest 
25 days ago by atran
'The goal is to automate us': welcome to the age of surveillance capitalism | Technology | The Guardian
For example, the idea of “data ownership” is often championed as a solution. But what is the point of owning data that should not exist in the first place? All that does is further institutionalise and legitimate data capture. It’s like negotiating how many hours a day a seven-year-old should be allowed to work, rather than contesting the fundamental legitimacy of child labour. Data ownership also fails to reckon with the realities of behavioural surplus. Surveillance capitalists extract predictive value from the exclamation points in your post, not merely the content of what you write, or from how you walk and not merely where you walk. Users might get “ownership” of the data that they give to surveillance capitalists in the first place, but they will not get ownership of the surplus or the predictions gleaned from it – not without new legal concepts built on an understanding of these operations.
technology  businessModels  surveillance  surveillanceCapitalism  tracking  predictions  manipulation  personalisation  power  democracy  Facebook  Google  advertising  behaviour  control  dataProtection  ownership  GDPR  dctagged  dc:creator=ZuboffShoshana 
28 days ago by petej

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