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How Lisp Became God's Own Programming Language
John McCarthy, Lisp’s creator, did not originally intend for Lisp to be an elegant distillation of the principles of computation. But, after one or two fortunate insights and a series of refinements, that’s what Lisp became. Paul Graham—we will talk about him some more later—has written that, with Lisp, McCarthy “did for programming something like what Euclid did for geometry.”2 People might see a deeper meaning in Lisp because McCarthy built Lisp out of parts so fundamental that it is hard to say whether he invented it or discovered it.

McCarthy began thinking about creating a language during the 1956 Darthmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. The Summer Research Project was in effect an ongoing, multi-week academic conference, the very first in the field of artificial intelligence. McCarthy, then an assistant professor of Mathematics at Dartmouth, had actually coined the term “artificial intelligence” when he proposed the event.3 About ten or so people attended the conference for its entire duration.4 Among them were Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, two researchers affiliated with the RAND Corporation and Carnegie Mellon that had just designed a language called IPL.
history  engineering  functional 
yesterday by janpeuker
Louis Hyman on Twitter: "In my history of consumption class, I teach about #Sears, but what most people don't know is just how radical the catalogue was in the era of #Jim Crow. #twitterstorians"
In my history of consumption class, I teach about #Sears, but what most people don't know is just how radical the catalogue was in the era of #Jim Crow. #twitterstorians
history  racism  jimcrow  retail  sears  twitterthread 
yesterday by dirtystylus
The True Story of Pocahontas as NOT told by Disney
Matoaka often visited the settlement at Jamestown to help the settlers during times when food was in short supply. On 13 th April, 1613 AD, during one of these visits, Samuel Argall captured Matoaka to ransom her for some English prisoners held by her father. She was held hostage at Jamestown for over a year. During her captivity, tobacco planter John Rolfe took a ‘special interest’ in the attractive young prisoner, and he eventually conditioned her release upon her agreeing to marry him. Matoaka was baptized ‘Rebecca’ and in 1614, she was married John Rolfe - the first recorded marriage between a European and a Native American.
history  whitewashing  nativeamericans 
yesterday by campylobacter
Chiune Sugihara - Wikipedia
holocaust -- righteous among the nations
history  Jewish.history 
yesterday by susing
The collective impact of California history on Native/Indigenous Tribes.
All California natives do not actually own the land that they claim — the American government holds the land for them in trust, meaning America still owns all Native land — even if they call it a reservation. On top of that, California natives have had to endure even more atrocities. Many tribes have been so decimated that they have no living members who still speak the language. Tribal language use is key to retaining the character of the tribe, and the loss of Native language speakers is a type of death for that tribe. Additionally some tribes don’t even have a reservation ANYWHERE in their ancestral lands. Some tribes have no native speakers any more and have no land set aside — a harsh condition for them to be able to retain a connection to their culture. Additionally, the American government made treaties with California tribes around 1851 and then refused to honor the treaties. This land legally belongs to Natives according to the American government and it is just being held from them illegally. Additionally, When Americans illegally immigrated to California when it was under Mexican control, during the Gold Rush, they tried to wipe out the Natives, in a series of mass murders where anywhere from 30–400 men, women and children would be killed at a time, and the California government established by these illegal American immigrants set up a formal campaign of genocide paying 25 cents for every severed head of a Native person. It is difficult to tell if a Tribe is actually gone or not, because Native tribes are sometimes afraid to identify themselves given the history of genocide and intimidation that has been launched at them for most of the last century.
california  Native_American  tribe  Indigenous  history 
yesterday by Quercki
Television is lying to you about gay history | The Outline
In one of the more memorable scenes in the HBO series Rome, Atia scolds her son Octavian, the future first emperor of Rome, for having not, as she put it, “penetrated” anyone yet. Whether or not Octavian has sex with a woman or a man is just a matter of detail.
IFTTT  Pocket  gay  history  to:read 
yesterday by travellersam
Here’s a list of all the places where you will not be allowed to wear a poppy – U OK Hun?
"I had a fascinating chat a few years ago with a British veteran who took part in the D-Day landings at Gold Beach in Normandy in June 1944.

He told me about a conversation that he had with one of the other soldiers on the vessel while they were leaping out into the shallow waters and approached the beach with Nazi machine gun bullets shooting past their helmets.

Apparently, he asked him why they were actually doing this and risking their lives.

He replied, ‘It’s quite simple really. In 74 years’ time, British people will be able to use this story to justify leaving the European Union without paying any sort of divorce bill.’"
war  uk  history  brexit 
yesterday by ssam
The History of Philosophy
A summary of the history of philosophy showing the positive/negative connections between ideas
philosophy  history  visualisation 
yesterday by lidel
Science Stories
Science Stories brings scientific work into social spaces. Communicating scientific information in spaces where people can discover it in-context creates a jumping-off point for further exploration. For an institution with cultural heritage collections, there are many scientific resources held in libraries, archives, museums and galleries that are not yet available on the web. We provide a web application that leverages linked open data, the International Image Interoperability Framework, the Wikidata knowledge base, and semantic web technologies to demonstrate a vision of what getting scientific work products and scientific information into social spaces can do.
OpenData  science  history 
yesterday by pgslr

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