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The End of Free College in England - Marginal REVOLUTION
Despite increasing financial pressures on higher education systems throughout the world, many governments remain resolutely opposed to the introduction of tuition fees, and some countries and states where tuition fees have been long established are now reconsidering free higher education. This paper examines the consequences of charging tuition fees on university quality, enrollments, and equity. To do so, we study the English higher education system which has, in just two decades, moved from a free college system to one in which tuition fees are among the highest in the world. Our findings suggest that England’s shift has resulted in increased funding per head, rising enrollments, and a narrowing of the participation gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. In contrast to other systems with high tuition fees, the English system is distinct in that its income-contingent loan system keeps university free at the point of entry, and provides students with comparatively generous assistance for living expenses. We conclude that tuition fees, at least in the English case supported their goals of increasing quality, quantity, and equity in higher education.
tuition  costs  Inequality  England  Cowen 
7 hours ago by HispanicPundit
[no title]
Une étude de l’Institut du Québec arrive à la conclusion, en se servant du coefficient de Gini, qu’au « Canada, le Québec est parmi les provinces les plus inégales en ce qui concerne les inégalités du revenu de marché (avant redistribution, c’est-à-dire avant les impôts et le revenu provenant du gouvernement). Inversement, lorsqu’on considère le revenu après redistribution, le coefficient n’a pas bougé depuis 40 ans : le Québec est une des provinces les plus égalitaires. » « Le Québec est-il égalitaire? Étude de la mobilité sociale et de l’égalité du revenu au Québec et au Canada », Institut du Québec, note de recherche, juin 2017, p. 3. http://www.institutduquebec.ca/docs/default-source/recherche/8890_quebec-egalite_idq_br.pdf?sfvrsn=2 Page consultée le 18 octobre 2017.
inequality 
15 hours ago by lutzray
The Effects of Pre-Trial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges
Over 20 percent of prison and jail inmates in the United States are currently awaiting trial, but little is known about the impact of pre-trial detention on defendants. This paper uses the detention tendencies of quasi-randomly assigned bail judges to estimate the causal effects of pre-trial detention on subsequent defendant outcomes. Using data from administrative court and tax records, we find that pre-trial detention significantly increases the probability of conviction, primarily through an increase in guilty pleas. Pre-trial detention has no net effect on future crime, but decreases formal sector employment and the receipt of employment- and tax-related government benefits. These results are consistent with (i) pre-trial detention weakening defendants' bargaining positions during plea negotiations and (ii) a criminal conviction lowering defendants' prospects in the formal labor market.
race  discrimination  criminal_justice  law  empirical_legal_studies  civil_rights  observational_studies  legal_system  bias  economic_sociology  inequality  united_states_of_america  via:nyhan 
yesterday by rvenkat
Oxford accused of 'social apartheid' as colleges admit no black students | Education | The Guardian
Lammy said the figures showed that many colleges at both Oxford and Cambridge failed to reflect the UK’s population, and called into question the universities’ claims to national standing.

“This is social apartheid and it is utterly unrepresentative of life in modern Britain,” Lammy said. // FIrst this week the BAME report new data new numbers to existing known feelings, then the hate crime report +30%, and followed by crime report +30% (Austerity cuts partly to blame needs more to be looked into), and fact that Austerity hits disproportionately single mothers and BAME single mothers. //&! FA select committee hearing Aluko Sampson FA scandal - https://www.theguardian.com/football/2017/oct/18/fa-apologises-eni-aluko-drew-spence-mark-sampson-racial-remarks
post-racial  UK  discrimination  social  income  mobility  inequality  Racism  BAME  prejudice  bigotry  Gesellschaft  Society  cohesion  diversity  poverty  trap  Precariat  USA  education  policy  Elite  No  Representation  Oligarchy  hate  crime  speech  nasty  party  Tories  Conservative  Austerity  Super  Rich  Plutocracy  1%  10%  Institution  institutional 
2 days ago by asterisk2a
Racial Projects in Black Box Societies – Digital Sociology at VCU – Medium
-- use of fancy high theory seems unnecessary
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_formation_theory

-- discourse on race in this country keeps rediscovering caste system, they should read more sub-continental post-colonial thought.
race  discrimination  inequality  critical_theory  cultural_studies  sociology  cybernetics  tracy.cottom 
2 days ago by rvenkat
White families have nearly 10 times the net worth of black families. And the gap is growing.
Black and Hispanic families are finally recovering from the recession. But the racial economic gap is growing.
inequality 
4 days ago by Pasanpr

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