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SPOILER alert, literally: Intel CPUs afflicted with simple data-spewing spec-exec vulnerability
In a research paper distributed this month through pre-print service ArXiv, "SPOILER: Speculative Load Hazards Boost Rowhammer and Cache Attacks," computer scientists at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the US, and the University of Lübeck in Germany, describe a new way to abuse the performance boost. The researchers – Saad Islam, Ahmad Moghimi, Ida Bruhns, Moritz Krebbel, Berk Gulmezoglu, Thomas Eisenbarth and Berk Sunar – have found that "a weakness in the address speculation of Intel’s proprietary implementation of the memory subsystem" reveals memory layout data, making other attacks like Rowhammer much easier to carry out. The researchers also examined Arm and AMD processor cores, but found they did not exhibit similar behavior. "The leakage can be exploited by a limited set of instructions, which is visible in all Intel generations starting from the 1st generation of Intel Core processors, independent of the OS and also works from within virtual machines and sandboxed environments." An Intel spokesperson told us after publication that it hopes applications can be built in future to defend against SPOILER attacks, or hardware protections can be deployed.
register, 05.03.2019
itsicherheit_cpu_spoiler  itsicherheit_seitenkanal_analyse_angriff  itsicherheit_speicher_rowhammer  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  itsicherheit_speicher  tech_hw_chip_intel  tech_hw_chip_cpu_cache  unternehmen_intel  software_javascript  itsicherheit_hardware  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  uni_us_wpi  uni_de_lübeck  software_browser_allg 
13 days ago by kraven
Prozessor-Sicherheit: Intels sichere Software-Enklave SGX wurde geknackt
Mitglieder des Forscherteams, das Anfang letzten Jahres die Hardware-Sicherheitslücken Meltdown und Spectre ans Licht gebracht hat, haben nun Schwachstellen in Intels Software Guard Extensions (SGX) enthüllt. Michael Schwarz, Daniel Gruss und Samuel Weiser zeigen in ihrer neuesten wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichung, wie sich die SGX-Enklaven im Prozessor dazu missbrauchen lassen, Schadcode zu verstecken, der selbst vor dem Administrator des Systems sicher ist. SGX steckt in einer Reihe von Intel-Prozessoren seit der Skylake-Architektur und wird vor allem in Cloud-Rechenzentren verwendet, um Krypto-Operationen zu schützen. Seltener wird es auch auf Desktop-Rechnern eingesetzt, um mit DRM geschützte Videos zu dekodieren. Lange Zeit musste Code, der im normalen Betriebsmodus von SGX laufen soll, mit einem von Intel zertifizierten Entwicklerschlüssel signiert sein. Ansonsten führte der Prozessor ihn nicht aus. Intel stellt dabei recht hohe Sicherheitsanforderungen an Firmen, die solche Schlüssel nutzen und SGX-Code programmieren wollen. Die zweite Version der Architektur erlaubt allerdings die sogenannte Flexible Launch Control, bei der nicht mehr Intel, sondern der Systemadministrator bestimmt, wer lauffähigen Code signieren kann. Die Forscher postulieren somit einen Angriff, der sensible Exploits oder Schadcode in einer Enklave versteckt und dann von außerhalb des Systems ausgelöst wird. Das hindert Schutzsoftware und Sicherheitstechniker daran, die Exploits oder den geheimen Schadcode vor dem Angriff zu entdecken, da er durch SGX vor dem Rest des Systems versteckt wird.
heise, 12.02.2019
unternehmen_intel  tech_hw_chip_intel_sgx  tech_hw_chip_intel_tsx  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  unternehmen_allg_desinformation_propaganda 
4 weeks ago by kraven
Downgrade Attack on TLS 1.3 and Vulnerabilities in Major TLS Libraries
On November 30, 2018. We disclosed CVE-2018-12404, CVE-2018-19608, CVE-2018-16868, CVE-2018-16869, and CVE-2018-16870. These were from vulnerabilities found back in August 2018 in several TLS libraries. Back on May 15, I approached Yuval Yarom with a few issues I had found in some TLS implementations. This led to a collaboration between Eyal Ronen, Robert Gillham, Daniel Genkin, Adi Shamir, Yuval Yarom and me. And as you can see, the inventor of RSA himself is now recommending you to deprecate RSA in TLS. We tested nine different TLS implementations against cache attacks and seven were found to be vulnerable: OpenSSL, Amazon s2n, MbedTLS, Apple CoreTLS, Mozilla NSS, WolfSSL, and GnuTLS. The cat is not dead yet, with two lives remaining thanks to BearSSL (developed by my colleague Thomas Pornin) and Google's BoringSSL. The attack leverages a side-channel leak via cache access timings of these implementations in order to break the RSA key exchanges of TLS implementations. The attack is interesting from multiple points of view (besides the fact that it affects many major TLS implementations): It affects all versions of TLS (including TLS 1.3) and QUIC. Where the latter version of TLS does not even offer an RSA key exchange! This prowess is achieved because of the only known downgrade attack on TLS 1.3. It uses state-of-the-art cache attack techniques. Flush+Reload? Prime+Probe? Branch-Predition? We have it. The attack is very efficient. We found ways to ACTIVELY target any browser, slow some of them down, or use the long tail distribution to repeatdly try to break a session. We even make use of lattices to speed up the problem. Manger and Ben-Or on RSA PKCS#1 v1.5. You heard of Bleichenbacher's million messages attack? Guess what, we found better. We use Manger's OAEP attack on RSA PKCS#1 v1.5 and even Ben-Or's algorithm which is more efficient than and was published BEFORE Bleichenbacher's work in 1998.
ncc group, 07.02.2019
itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  krypto_tls  krypto_algo_rsa  krypto_analyse_seitenkanal  krypto_downgrading  krypto_key_agreement_exchange  krypto_tls_cert  itsicherheit_seitenkanal_analyse_angriff  krypto_signierung  itsicherheit_implementierung  krypto_entschlüsselung  überwachung_internet_mitm  software_javascript 
5 weeks ago by kraven
Mayhem, the Machine That Finds Software Vulnerabilities, Then Patches Them
Every year, 111 billion lines are added to the mass of software code in existence, and every line presents a potential new target. Steve Morgan, founder and editor in chief at the research firm Cybersecurity Ventures, predicts that system break-ins made through a previously unknown weakness—what the industry calls “zero-day exploits”—will average one per day in the United States by 2021, up from one per week in 2015. It was to solve this problem that my colleagues and I at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), in Pittsburgh, spent nearly 10 years building technology that would make software safe, automatically. Then, in 2012, we founded ForAllSecure to bring our product to the world. The one thing we needed was a way to prove that we could do what we said we could do, and we got it in the form of a prize competition. In 2014, DARPA announced the Cyber Grand Challenge as a two-year project with the goal of testing whether it was possible to develop AI systems that could find, verify, and patch software weaknesses. In 2015, some 100 teams entered the prequalification stage. In 2016, the top seven advanced to the grand championship finale, where they’d need to enter a full cyber-reasoning system—one that would not merely notice a problem but could also infer its nature. The system we entered in the competition, Mayhem, automated what white-hat hackers do. It not only pointed to possible weaknesses, it exploited them, thus proving conclusively that they were in fact weaknesses. This was also a key part of the CGC, as demonstrating a proof of vulnerability with a working exploit was part of how your machine scored points. After Mayhem identifies a vulnerability, it generates a working exploit—that is, code of the sort a black-hat hacker might use to break into a program. The point is to demonstrate that the exploit can be used to obtain privileged, or root, access to the operating system. The result is that Mayhem identifies vulnerabilities with absolute certainty, rather than merely flagging possible problems, as most code-analysis tools do. Right now, ForAllSecure is selling the first versions of its new service to early adopters, including the U.S. government and companies in the high-tech and aerospace industries. At this stage, the service mostly indicates problems that human experts then go in and fix. For a good while to come, systems like Mayhem will work together with human security experts to make the world’s software safer. In the more distant future, we believe that machine intelligence will handle the job alone.
ieee spectrum, 29.01.2019
itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_autonom_automatisch  uni_us_cmu  militär_us_darpa_cgc  itsicherheit_pentesting  itsicherheit_audit  itsicherheit_os  tech_ki_experten_assistenz_system  unternehmen_forallsecure  unternehmen_allg_marketing 
6 weeks ago by kraven
Websites can steal browser data via extensions APIs
Malicious websites can exploit browser extension APIs to execute code inside the browser and steal sensitive information such as bookmarks, browsing history, and even user cookies. These types of attacks are not theoretical but have been proven in an academic paper published this month by Dolière Francis Somé, a researcher with the Université Côte d'Azur and with INRIA, a French researcher institute. Somé created a tool and tested over 78,000 Chrome, Firefox, and Opera extensions. Through his efforts, he was able to identify 197 extensions that exposed internal extension API communication interfaces to web applications, allowing malicious websites a direct avenue to the data stored inside a user's browser, data that under normal circumstances only the extension's own code could have reached (when the proper permissions were obtained). The researcher also created a tool that lets users test if their extensions also contain vulnerable APIs that can be exploited by malicious websites. To use it, users would have to copy-paste the content of an extension's manifest.json file. More details about Somé's work are available in a research paper entitled "EmPoWeb: Empowering Web Applications with Browser Extensions".
zdnet, 19.01.2019
itsicherheit_software_browser  software_browser_allg_addon_webextension  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  überwachung_internet_tracking  fr_inria  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw 
8 weeks ago by kraven
Page Cache Attacks
We present a new hardware-agnostic side-channel attack that targets one of the most fundamental software caches in modern computer systems: the operating system page cache. The page cache is a pure software cache that contains all disk-backed pages, including program binaries, shared libraries, and other files, and our attacks thus work across cores and CPUs. Our side-channel permits unprivileged monitoring of some memory accesses of other processes, with a spatial resolution of 4KB and a temporal resolution of 2 microseconds on Linux (restricted to 6.7 measurements per second) and 466 nanoseconds on Windows (restricted to 223 measurements per second); this is roughly the same order of magnitude as the current state-of-the-art cache attacks. We systematically analyze our side channel by demonstrating different local attacks, including a sandbox bypassing high-speed covert channel, timed user-interface redressing attacks, and an attack recovering automatically generated temporary passwords. We further show that we can trade off the side channel's hardware agnostic property for remote exploitability. We demonstrate this via a low profile remote covert channel that uses this page-cache side-channel to exfiltrate information from a malicious sender process through innocuous server requests. Finally, we propose mitigations for some of our attacks, which have been acknowledged by operating system vendors and slated for future security patches.
arvix, 04.01.2019
software_os_page_cache  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_sandbox_isolierung  itsicherheit_seitenkanal_analyse_angriff  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  software_os_linux  software_os_windows  software_os_linux_kernel_syscall  itsicherheit_speicher  uni_at_tu_graz  uni_us_boston 
8 weeks ago by kraven
Attacking end-to-end email encryption: Efail, other attacks and lessons learned
In this talk, I’ll present several attacks that leak the plaintext of OpenPGP or S/MIME encrypted emails to an attacker. Some of the attacks are technically interesting, i.e. the two different efail attacks, some are somewhat silly, yet effective. Some abuse HTML emails, some also work with plain ASCII emails. The disclosure of the efail vulnerabilities caused a lot of stir in the press and the community, which also led to confusion about how the vulnerabilities work, about the mitigations and about the consequences for the OpenPGP and S/MIME standards. I’ll discuss our lessons learned and describe the efail-related changes to mail clients and the OpenPGP and S/MIME standards.
35c3, 28.12.2018
krypto_openpgp  software_krypto_gnupg  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  krypto_smime  itsicherheit_implementierung  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  krypto_openpgp_mdc  internet_protokoll_mime  itsicherheit_software_mua 
11 weeks ago by kraven
All Your Gesundheitsakten Are Belong To Us: "So sicher wie beim Online-Banking" - Die elektronische Patientenakte kommt - für alle.
Die elektronische Gesundheitskarte ist gescheitert. Stattdessen kommt jetzt die elektronische Patientenakte: In spätestens drei Jahren sollen die Befunde, Diagnosen, Röntgenbilder und Rezepte aller gesetzlich Krankenversicherten online und zentral gespeichert verfügbar sein. Schon heute können Millionen Versicherte eine solche Lösung nutzen und, wie Gesundheitsminister Jens Spahn fordert, "auch auf Tablets und Smartphones auf ihre elektronische Patientenakte zugreifen". Zeitgleich zur elektronischen Patientenakte steht die Onlinebehandlung vor der Tür: Das Fernbehandlungsverbot wurde vor wenigen Monaten gekippt, und schon heute können sich Millionen Versicherte ausschließlich online behandeln lassen. Nach Jahren des Wartens geht dabei alles ganz schnell. "Diese Maßnahmen dulden keinen Aufschub", sagt Spahn. Und macht uns alle damit zu Beta-Testern in Sachen Gesundheit. Mit fatalen Folgen: Unsere streng vertraulichen Gesundheitsdaten liegen für alle sichtbar im Netz. In diesem Vortrag zeige ich an fünf konkreten Beispielen, welche fahrlässigen Entscheidungen die Online-Plattformen und Apps der Anbieter aus dem Bereich Gesundheitsakte und Telemedizin so angreifbar machen und demonstriere, wie einfach der massenhafte Zugriff auf unsere vertraulichen Gesundheitsdaten gelang. Zur Debatte steht, was angesichts dieser neuen alten Erkenntnisse zu tun ist - und was wir besser bleiben lassen.
35c3, 27.12.2018
absurdistan  land_deutschland  itsicherheit_datensicherheit  itsicherheit_implementierung  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  itsicherheit_mobil_apps  itsicherheit_mobil_os  datenschutz_patient_gesundheitsdaten  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  unternehmen_allg_desinformation_propaganda  unternehmen_allg_versicherung_kk  gesetz_de_ehealth  de_ministerium_bmg  itsicherheit_audit  itsicherheit_web_anwendung_framework  software_javascript  internet_cloud_datenspeicher  unternehmen_allg_inkompetenz  itsicherheit_authentisierung  itsicherheit_prüfsigel_zertifizierung  datenschutz_kontrolle_pseudo  staat_allg_inkompetenz  datenschutz_niveau_senkung  unternehmen_modzero  eid_dokument_egk  staat_politik_it_gesundheit_ega_epa  staat_politik_it_gesundheit_telemedizin 
11 weeks ago by kraven
New Privacy Threat on 3G, 4G, and Upcoming 5G AKA Protocols
Mobile communications are used by more than two thirds of the world population who expect security and privacy guarantees. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) responsible for the worldwide standardization of mobile communication has designed and mandated the use of the AKA protocol to protect the subscribers' mobile services. Even though privacy was a requirement, numerous subscriber location attacks have been demonstrated against AKA, some of which have been fixed or mitigated in the enhanced AKA protocol designed for 5G. In this paper, we reveal a new privacy attack against all variants of the AKA protocol, including 5G AKA, that breaches subscriber privacy more severely than known location privacy attacks do. Our attack exploits a new logical vulnerability we uncovered that would require dedicated fixes. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of our attack using low cost and widely available setups. Finally we conduct a security analysis of the vulnerability and discuss countermeasures to remedy our attack.
uni_de_tu_berlin  uni_ch_eth  tech_mobilfunk_lte_ngmn  tech_mobilfunk_standard  krypto_key_agreement_exchange  krypto_algo_aka  überwachung_lokalisierung_bewegung  überwachung_mobilfunk  überwachung_mobilfunk_imsi_catcher  privatsphäre  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_implementierung  npo_3gpp  verband_gsma  überwachung_verhalten  überwachung_itk_verkehrs_metadaten  wissenschaft_forschungsinstitut_sintef  überwachung_person_profil 
december 2018 by kraven
GCHQ opens kimono for infosec world to ogle its vuln disclosure process
In a briefing note today the agency revealed it may keep vulns in unsupported software to itself. "Where the software in question is no longer supported by the vendor," it said, "were a vulnerability to be discovered in such software, there would be no route by which it could be patched." When it decides whether or not to give up a vuln, GCHQ said three internal bodies are involved: the Equities Technical Panel, made up of "subject matter expert" spies; the GCHQ Equity Board, which is chaired by a civil servant from GCHQ's public-facing arm, the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), and staffed by people from other government departments; and the Equities Oversight Committee, chaired by the chief exec of the NCSC, Ciaran Martin. Broadly speaking, Martin gets the final word on whether or not a vuln is "released" to be patched. Those decisions are "regularly reviewed at a period appropriate to the security risk" and, regardless of the risk, "at least every 12 months". Today a post-Snowden legal tweak comes into force: state employees wanting to hack targets' networks and devices must now get a judge-issued warrant, under section 106 of the Investigatory Powers Act. Using hacking tools to investigate alleged crimes that fall under sections 1 to 3 of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 is now subject to the "equipment interference warrant" procedure, rather than the bog-standard Police Act 1997 "property interference authorisation". "In exceptional cases, the CEO of the NCSC may decide that further escalation via submissions to Director GCHQ and, if required, the Foreign Secretary should be invoked," said the GCHQ press briefing note.
register, 29.11.2018
land_uk  geheimdienst_uk_gchq_ncsc  geheimdienst_uk_gchq_jtrig_cna_cne  geheimdienst_polizei_infiltration_tech  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  gesetz_uk_ipa  recht_richtervorbehalt  geheimdienst_uk_gchq_cne_equipment_interference 
november 2018 by kraven
My name is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – I can prove it
The German government-issued identity card (nPA) allows German citizens to not only prove their identity in person, but also against online services (by using the embedded RFID chip). SEC Consult conducted a short security test on a software component commonly used to implement this authentication mechanism. A critical security vulnerability was found during this security test, allowing an attacker to impersonate arbitrary users against affected web applications. To start an authentication, the web application sends a request to the eID client, which then initiates all further steps needed for the authentication. It requests a PIN from the user, communicates with an authentication server (eID-Server or SAML-Processor), the web application and the RFID chip and finally sends a response to the web application. This response contains the data retrieved from the id card, e.g. the name or date of birth of the citizen. To prohibit an attacker from manipulating this data, the response is digitally signed by the authentication server (which takes on the role of a trusted third party). The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab identified a vulnerability that allows an attacker to arbitrarily manipulate the response without invalidating the signature. An attacker could therefore abuse this vulnerability e.g. to alter data coming from the id card, fool age verification or authenticate as any other citizen. We have informed the CERT-Bund about this vulnerability in July 2018. The CERT-Bund (BSI) took on further communication and coordination with the vendor. In August 2018, Governikus released a patched version ( of the Autent SDK and informed affected customers.
sec consult, 20.11.2018
land_deutschland  itsicherheit_authentisierung  eid_dokument_software  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  unternehmen_governikus  itsicherheit_authentisierung_saml  itsicherheit_authentisierung_sso  itsicherheit_authentisierung_protokoll  itsicherheit_implementierung  internet_protokoll_http  staat_politik_it_egovernance_egovernment  eid_dokument_personalausweis 
november 2018 by kraven
Spectre, Meltdown researchers unveil 7 more speculative execution attacks
A research team—including many of the original researchers behind Meltdown, Spectre, and the related Foreshadow and BranchScope attacks—has published a new paper disclosing yet more attacks in the Spectre and Meltdown families. The result? Seven new possible attacks. Some are mitigated by known mitigation techniques, but others are not. That means further work is required to safeguard vulnerable systems. In the new research, these Meltdown variants are joined by a new one using Intel's "Protection Keys for Userspace" (PKU). Similarly, another Intel extension is the Memory Protection eXtensions (MPX). Just as all the Meltdown variants follow a similar pattern, so, too, do the Spectre variants. In total, five different misprediction scenarios were identified (four based on branch predictors, one based on stores to memory being overlooked momentarily). Of the four branch predictor attacks, each attack can be used either against the same address space or a different one, and it can be used against the same branch or one that's related. This creates 16 branch predictor-based variants as well as the store-based attack. In particular, one of the variants of the original Spectre attacks has been shown to have greater applicability against AMD's latest processors than previously known; likewise the attack has also been shown to be effective against ARM processors.
ars technica, 14.11.2018
itsicherheit_cpu_meltdown_spectre  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_seitenkanal_analyse_angriff  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil 
november 2018 by kraven
Gesundheitsdaten: Krankenkassen-App Vivy hatte womöglich erhebliche Sicherheitslücken
Vor knapp sechs Wochen ist mit der Gesundheits-App Vivy diejenige gelauncht worden, die der bislang größte Kreis an Menschen in Deutschland nutzen könnte: 13,5 Millionen Menschen sind versichert bei den beteiligten gesetzlichen wie privaten Krankenversicherungen, die sie anbieten. Darunter sind die DAK, verschiedene Innungskrankenkassen, die BertelsmannBKK, Gothaer, Barmenia und Allianz. Letztere ist auch als Gesellschafter mit 70 Prozent beteiligt an der Betreiberfirma der App, der in Berlin ansässigen Vivy GmbH. Die hat am 22. September, fünf Tage nach dem Start der App, morgens um 9.45 Uhr eine Mail der schweizerisch-deutschen IT-Sicherheitsfirma modzero erhalten. Der Inhalt des Schreibens musste alarmierend sein: Die Vivy-App, verfügbar für die Smartphone-Betriebssysteme Android und iOS enthalte nach einer Analyse von modzero schwerwiegende Schwachstellen in Sachen Datensicherheit. Martin Tschirsich, ein bei modzero beschäftigter IT-Security-Analyst, hatte kurz nach dem Launch der App im September "schwere Sicherheitsmängel sowohl in der Smartphone-App als auch in der Cloud-Plattform und der Browser-Anwendung für Ärzte" gefunden – mithin also an allen nur erdenklichen Punkten, an denen Hacker ansetzen könnten. Am 25. Oktober verfasste Thorsten Schröder, Geschäftsführer von modzero, die finale Version eines 35-seitigen Berichtes, den seine Firma umgehend an die Vivy GmbH sandte. Die Mängelliste, die modzero zur Vivy-App erstellt hat, ist lang. So seien etwa Informationen darüber, wer wann mit welchem Arzt Gesundheitsdaten geteilt hatte, "ungeschützt für jede Person lesbar im Internet" gewesen. Versicherte seien identifizierbar gewesen "anhand von Namen, Foto, E-Mailadresse, Geburtsdatum und Versichertennummer", auch die Namen der von ihnen kontaktierten Medizinerinnen und Ärzte seien auslesbar gewesen. Schlimmer noch: "Unbefugte konnten über das Internet alle Dokumente, die an einen Arzt gesendet werden sollten, abfangen und entschlüsseln."
zeit, 30.10.2018
itsicherheit_datensicherheit  itsicherheit_implementierung  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  itsicherheit_mobil_apps  itsicherheit_mobil_os  datenschutz_patient_gesundheitsdaten  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  unternehmen_vivy  unternehmen_modzero  unternehmen_allg_desinformation_propaganda  unternehmen_allg_versicherung_kk  unternehmen_allianz  itsicherheit_audit  itsicherheit_prüfsigel_zertifizierung  land_deutschland  staat_politik_it_gesundheit_ega_epa 
november 2018 by kraven
Überwachungsexporte: Bundesregierung stellt Industrie vor Menschenrechte
Vor zwei Jahren startete die EU-Kommission auf Druck der Bundesregierung eine Initiative, um den Handel der europäischen Überwachungsindustrie mit autokratischen Regimen zu stoppen. Vertrauliche Verhandlungsprotokolle zeigen nun: Die Bundesregierung nutzt die laufenden Brüsseler Verhandlungen, um Wünsche der deutschen Industrie zu erfüllen – und wird bei Regelungen zum menschenrechtlichen Schutz vor Überwachung ausgetrickst. Gemeinsam mit der Menschenrechtsorganisation Reporter ohne Grenzen veröffentlichen wir die Dokumente im Volltext, die belegen, dass von den einstigen Versprechungen heute kaum noch etwas übrig geblieben ist. Tatsächlich hat die Bundesregierung nun in einigen Punkten sogar gegen Verbesserungsvorschläge gestimmt, die EU-Kommission und Europaparlament in jahrelangen Verhandlungsrunden erarbeitet hatten. In anderen Bereichen scheiterte die Strategie der deutschen Beamten in Brüssel durch taktische Fehleinschätzungen, sodass sich mittlerweile ein regelrechter Block gegen Deutschland gebildet hat. Die historische Reform steht damit vor dem Aus.
netzpolitik, 29.10.2018
de_bundesregierung  land_europa  abkommen_waasenaar  recht_eu_vo_dual_use  land_deutschland  staat_politik_wirtschaft_förderung_schutz  staat_politik_wirtschaft_exportkontrolle  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  unternehmen_allg_exploit_malware_dealer  unternehmen_allg_lobbyismus  verband_bdi  staat_form_autoritarismus  staat_form_polizeistaat  staat_repression_medien_presse  staat_repression_opposition_dissidenz  staat_repression_politische_verfolgung  überwachung_ngo_npo  überwachung_medien_presse  überwachung_int_sigint_comint  geheimdienst_polizei_infiltration_tech  staat_politik_aktionismus_symbolisch  staat_politik_geheimhaltung  staat_politik_diplomatie  überwachung_itk_inhaltsdaten  überwachung_onlinedurchsuchung  überwachung_quellen_tkü  land_schweden  land_finnland  staat_repression_ngo_npo  eu_rat_der_eu 
october 2018 by kraven
In March 2017, the ShadowBrokers published a chunk of stolen data that included two frameworks: DanderSpritz and FuzzBunch. DanderSpritz consists entirely of plugins to gather intelligence, use exploits and examine already controlled machines. Fuzzbunch on the other hand provides a framework for different utilities to interact and work together. It contains various types of plugins designed to analyze victims, exploit vulnerabilities, schedule tasks, etc. One of the most interesting Fuzzbunch’s categories is called ImplantConfig and includes plugins designed to control the infected machines via an implant at the post-exploitation stage. DarkPulsar is a very interesting administrative module for controlling a passive backdoor named ‘sipauth32.tsp’ that provides remote control, belonging to this category. We found around 50 victims located in Russia, Iran and Egypt, typically infecting Windows 2003/2008 Server. Targets were related to nuclear energy, telecommunications, IT, aerospace and R&D.
kaspersky labs, 19.10.2018
geheimdienst_us_nsa_tao_cna_cne  itsicherheit_botnetz_c&c  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  geheimdienst_polizei_infiltration_tech  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  software_os_windows  überwachung_backdoor_software  software_server  itsicherheit_authentisierung 
october 2018 by kraven
If Supermicro boards were so bug-ridden, why would hackers ever need implants?
Whether spy chips reported by Bloomberg existed, attackers had much easier options. By now, everyone knows the premise behind two unconfirmed Bloomberg articles that have dominated security headlines over the past week. The complexity, sophistication, and surgical precision needed to pull off such attacks as reported are breathtaking, particularly at the reported scale. The other monumental effort required by the reported supply-chain attacks is the vast amount of engineering and reverse engineering. Based on Bloomberg’s descriptions, the attacks involved designing at least two custom implants (one that was no bigger than a grain of rice), modifying the motherboards to work with the custom implants, and ensuring the modified boards would work even when administrators installed new firmware on the boards. While the requirements are within the means of a determined nation, three hardware security experts interviewed for this story said the factory-seeded hardware implants are unnecessarily complex and cumbersome, particularly at the reported scale, which involved almost 30 targets. “Attackers tend to prefer the lowest-hanging fruit that gets them the best access for the longest period of time,” Steve Lord, a researcher specializing in hardware hacking and co-founder of UK conference 44CON, told me. “Hardware attacks could provide very long lifetimes but are very high up the tree in terms of cost to implement.” “I spoke with Jordan a few months ago,” Moore said, referring to Jordan Robertson, one of two reporters whose names appear in the Bloomberg articles. “We chatted about a bunch of things, but I pushed back on the idea that it would be practical to backdoor Supermicro BMCs with hardware, as it is still trivial to do so in software. It would be really silly for someone to add a chip when even a non-subtle change to the flashed firmware would be sufficient.”
ars technica, 11.10.2018
medien_presse_bloomberg  land_usa  land_china  überwachung_abhörschnittstelle  überwachung_backdoor_hardware  tech_computer_server  itsicherheit_verdeckterkanal_data_exfil  geheimdienst_polizei_infiltration_tech  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  itsicherheit_firmware  unternehmen_supermicro  überwachung_backdoor_software  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_code_signing 
october 2018 by kraven
Voting Machine Used in Half of U.S. Is Vulnerable to Attack, Report Finds
Election machines used in more than half of U.S. states carry a flaw disclosed more than a decade ago that makes them vulnerable to a cyberattack, according to a report to be delivered Thursday on Capitol Hill. The issue was found in the widely used Model 650 high-speed ballot-counting machine made by Election Systems & Software LLC, the nation’s leading manufacturer of election equipment. It is one of about seven security problems in several models of voting equipment described in the report, which is based on research conducted last month at the Def Con hacker conference. The flaw in the ES&S machine stood out because it was detailed in a security report commissioned by Ohio’s secretary of state in 2007, said Harri Hursti, an election-security researcher who co-wrote both the Ohio and Def Con reports. “There has been more than plenty of time to fix it,” he said.
wsj, 27.09.2018
tech_hw_wahlcomputer  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  land_usa 
september 2018 by kraven
DARPA Wants to Find Botnets Before They Attack
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency on Aug. 30 awarded a $1.2 million contract to cybersecurity firm Packet Forensics to develop novel ways to locate and identify these hidden online armies. The award comes as part of the agency’s Harnessing Autonomy for Countering Cyber-adversary Systems program, a DARPA spokesperson told Nextgov. Through the HACCS program, DARPA aims to build a system that can automatically pinpoint botnet-infected devices and disable their malware without their owners ever knowing. Launched in 2017, the program is investing in three main technologies: systems that uncover and fingerprint botnets across the internet, tools that upload software to infected devices through known security gaps, and software that disables botnet malware once it’s uploaded. Packet Forensics’ technology falls under that first category, the DARPA spokesperson said.The effort is scheduled to last to four years, with the first phase running 16 months. Later phases include additional funding.
defense one, 12.09.2018
militär_us_darpa_projekt_haccs  militär_allg_infiltration_tech  itsicherheit_botnetz_c&c  itsicherheit_malware_spyware  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  geheimdienst_us_nsa_treasure_map  geheimdienst_us_nsa_turbulence_genie_turbine  geheimdienst_us_nsa_tao_quantum  tech_dual_use  militär_allg_kriegsführung_elektro_it_ki  unternehmen_packet_forensics  land_usa  itsicherheit_botnetz_c&c_gchq_nsa 
september 2018 by kraven
UIDAI’s Aadhaar Software Hacked, ID Database Compromised, Experts Confirm
The authenticity of the data stored in India's controversial Aadhaar identity database, which contains the biometrics and personal information of over 1 billion Indians, has been compromised by a software patch that disables critical security features of the software used to enrol new Aadhaar users, a three month-long investigation by HuffPost India reveals. The patch—freely available for as little as Rs 2,500 (around $35)— allows unauthorised persons, based anywhere in the world, to generate Aadhaar numbers at will, and is still in widespread use. This has significant implications for national security at a time when the Indian government has sought to make Aadhaar numbers the gold standard for citizen identification, and mandatory for everything from using a mobile phone to accessing a bank account. HuffPost India is in possession of the patch, and had it analysed by three internationally reputed experts, and two Indian analysts (one of whom sought anonymity as he works at a state-funded university), to find that: The patch lets a user bypass critical security features such as biometric authentication of enrolment operators to generate unauthorised Aadhaar numbers. The patch disables the enrolment software's in-built GPS security feature (used to identify the physical location of every enrolment centre), which means anyone anywhere in the world — say, Beijing, Karachi or Kabul — can use the software to enrol users. The patch reduces the sensitivity of the enrolment software's iris-recognition system, making it easier to spoof the software with a photograph of a registered operator, rather than requiring the operator to be present in person. The experts consulted by HuffPost India said that the vulnerability is intrinsic to a technology choice made at the inception of the Aadhaar programme, which means that fixing it and other future threats would require altering Aadhaar's fundamental structure. HuffPost India could not establish just how many enrolment centres used the patch, but even the UIDAI has admitted that the enrolment process has been marred by corruption. In 2017, the UIDAI said it had blacklisted 49,000 enrolment centres for various violations, and in February 2018, the UIDAI terminated all contracts with common service centres as well. Henceforth, only banks and government institutions like the postal service can enrol Aadhaar users. As a consequence, tens of thousands of young men, with rudimentary education but great familiarity with the Aadhaar system, were put out of work.
huffington post, 11.09.2018
datenbank_biometrie_in_aadhaar  land_indien  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  datenbank_population  itsicherheit_authentisierung_biometrie  biometrie_täuschung  itsicherheit_implementierung  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  datenschutz_id_management  itsicherheit_datensicherheit  staat_outsourcing  in_uidai  in_nciipc  biometrie_erfassung  video_youtube  gesellschaft_armut  staat_politik_desinformation  staat_allg_inkompetenz 
september 2018 by kraven
Worries arise about security of new WebAuthn protocol
At the end of last month, the team of security researchers at Paragon Initiative, known for their strong background in cryptography, have taken a close look at this new protocol making its way into browsers like Chrome, Edge, and Firefox. In a security audit, researchers say they identified various issues with the algorithms used to generate the attestation keys (signatures). They point out that the W3C WebAuthn specification recommends the use of outdated algorithms such as the FIDO Alliance's Elliptic Curve (EC) Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA), or RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5. The Paragon team detailed a long list of issues with both algorithms in a technical report, here, but in short, they are vulnerable to quite a few known cryptographic attacks. In particular, they took an issue with the use of RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5. But the FIDO Alliance's custom ECDAA crypto algorithm is not that safe either. "If converted into a practical exploit, the ECDAA attacks discussed in the article would allow attackers to steal the key from a [server's] TPM, which would allow attackers to effectively clone the user's hardware security token remotely," Arciszewski said. "The scenarios that follow depend on how much trust was placed into the hardware security token," he added. "At minimum, I imagine it would enable 2FA bypasses and re-enable phishing attacks. However, if companies elected to use hardware security tokens to obviate passwords, it would allow direct user impersonation by attackers." In subsequent email exchanges with the Paragon team, ZDNet understands that at the heart of the issue may be the confusing WebAuthn documentation released by the FIDO Alliance team, which, for legacy purposes, categorizes both algorithms as "required" (for RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5) and "recommended" (two ECDAA-based algorithms). This may lead to situations where implementers may believe the two algorithms may be minimal thresholds for implementation and support only these. "There are plenty of COSE algorithms to choose from," Arciszewski said.
zdnet, 09.09.2018
internet_spezifikation_w3c_webauthn  itsicherheit_by_obscurity  itsicherheit_exploit_flaw  itsicherheit_implementierung  itsicherheit_authentisierung_2fa_u2f_fido  itsicherheit_authentisierung_id_token  internet_spezifikation_cose  internet_spezifikation_jose  krypto_algo_fido_ecdaa  krypto_algo_rsassa_pkcs1v15  unternehmen_paragonie 
september 2018 by kraven

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