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Alcohol, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly: a systematic review | Age and Ageing | Oxford Academic
there is some evidence to suggest that limited alcohol intake in earlier adult life may be protective against incident dementia later.
alcohol  dementia  alzheimers  neuroscience  brain 
6 hours ago by mdpatrick
If you can't stand the sound of people chewing, blame your brain
The AIC is buried deep in the fold separating the frontal lobe and parietal lobe from the temporal lobe of the brain. It's responsible for a bunch of mediation tasks, including managing emotional experience. It also plays a role in integrating signals from the outside world with information inside the body.

Those with misophonia not only had increased AIC and frontal lobe activity, but also in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Measurements taken of the structure of the vmPFC indicated they had thicker insulating myelin sheaths, which helps nerves carry messages.

Taken together, the evidence suggests that those with misophonia have brains that struggle to control the spread of messages associated with certain sounds.

While we all might feel a twinge of bother, having misophonia turns an annoying sound into an enraging experience, as it spreads through different parts of the brain associated with 'fight or flight' responses.
neuroscience  psychology 
2 days ago by dstarr1
Poldrack, R.: The New Mind Readers: What Neuroimaging Can and Cannot Reveal about Our Thoughts (Hardcover) | Princeton University Press
"The ability to read minds has long been the stuff of science fiction, but revolutionary new brain-imaging methods are bringing it closer to scientific reality. The New Mind Readers provides a compelling look at the origins, development, and future of these extraordinary tools, revealing how they are increasingly being used to decode our thoughts and experiences—and how this raises sometimes troubling questions about their application in domains such as marketing, politics, and the law.
"Russell Poldrack takes readers on a journey of scientific discovery, telling the stories of the visionaries behind these breakthroughs. Along the way, he gives an insider’s perspective on what is perhaps the single most important technology in cognitive neuroscience today—functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, which is providing astonishing new insights into the contents and workings of the mind. He highlights both the amazing power and major limitations of these techniques and describes how applications outside the lab often exceed the bounds of responsible science. Poldrack also details the unique and sometimes disorienting experience of having his own brain scanned more than a hundred times as part of a landmark study of how human brain function changes over time.
"Written by one of the world’s leading pioneers in the field, The New Mind Readers cuts through the hype and misperceptions surrounding these emerging new methods, offering needed perspective on what they can and cannot do—and demonstrating how they can provide new answers to age-old questions about the nature of consciousness and what it means to be human."

--- Poldrack is great and has his head screwed on straight (you should pardon the expression), so I really look forward to this.
to:NB  books:noted  fmri  neuroscience  cognitive_science  poldrack.russell_a.  popular_science 
3 days ago by cshalizi
Memory in the Flesh | The Verge
What Levin has yet to do is show that the transfer is memory-specific, he says. "The effect of stress could have the same consequences as learning."
memory  brain  neuroscience  flatworm 
4 days ago by yorksranter
Memory transfer between snails challenges view of how brain remembers
Ryan knows Glanzman and trusts his work. He said he believes the data in the new paper. But he doesn’t think the behavior of the snails, or the cells, proves that RNA is transferring memories. He said he doesn’t understand how RNA, which works on a time scale of minutes to hours, could be causing memory recall that is almost instantaneous, or how RNA could connect numerous parts of the brain, like the auditory and visual systems, that are involved in more complex memorie
memory  neuroscience  brain  snails  rna 
4 days ago by yorksranter
Altered Brain Activity in Unipolar Depression Revisited: Meta-analyses of Neuroimaging Studies | Depressive Disorders | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
"Importance During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings.
"Objective To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing.
"Data Sources Neuroimaging experiments published from January 1, 1997, to October 1, 2015, were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using different combinations of the terms fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), neural, major depression, depression, major depressive disorder, unipolar depression, dysthymia, emotion, emotional, affective, cognitive, task, memory, working memory, inhibition, control, n-back, and Stroop.
"Study Selection Neuroimaging experiments (using fMRI or PET) reporting whole-brain results of group comparisons between adults with UD and healthy control individuals as coordinates in a standard anatomic reference space and using an emotional or/and cognitive challenging task were selected.
"Data Extraction and Synthesis Coordinates reported to show significant activation differences between UD and healthy controls during emotional or cognitive processing were extracted. By using the revised activation likelihood estimation algorithm, different meta-analyses were calculated.
"Main Outcomes and Measures Meta-analyses tested for brain regions consistently found to show aberrant brain activation in UD compared with controls. Analyses were calculated across all emotional processing experiments, all cognitive processing experiments, positive emotion processing, negative emotion processing, experiments using emotional face stimuli, experiments with a sex discrimination task, and memory processing. All meta-analyses were calculated across experiments independent of reporting an increase or decrease of activity in major depressive disorder. For meta-analyses with a minimum of 17 experiments available, separate analyses were performed for increases and decreases.
"Results In total, 57 studies with 99 individual neuroimaging experiments comprising in total 1058 patients were included; 34 of them tested cognitive and 65 emotional processing. Overall analyses across cognitive processing experiments (P > .29) and across emotional processing experiments (P > .47) revealed no significant results. Similarly, no convergence was found in analyses investigating positive (all P > .15), negative (all P > .76), or memory (all P > .48) processes. Analyses that restricted inclusion of confounds (eg, medication, comorbidity, age) did not change the results.
"Conclusions and Relevance Inconsistencies exist across individual experiments investigating aberrant brain activity in UD and replication problems across previous neuroimaging meta-analyses. For individual experiments, these inconsistencies may relate to use of uncorrected inference procedures, differences in experimental design and contrasts, or heterogeneous clinical populations; meta-analytically, differences may be attributable to varying inclusion and exclusion criteria or rather liberal statistical inference approaches."
fmri  neuroscience  depression  meta-analysis  re:neutral_model_of_inquiry  to_be_shot_after_a_fair_trial 
4 days ago by cshalizi

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