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Discovering Judith Shklar’s skeptical liberalism of fear | Aeon Essays
Interesting piece on Shklar and her place in American political thought, in particular; focuses on her idea of a "liberalism of fear," which aims to prevent cruelty more than to realize an ideal political society.
political_theory  liberalism  philosophy  justice  PSC_235  judith_shklar 
9 days ago by johnmfrench
The Democracy Doomsayers Consider 2020 - The New York Times
Comparative politics didn’t used to be a best-selling topic that got people booked on cable news. That was before Trump.
political_theory  comparative_Politics  LIU  politics  political_science  career 
december 2019 by Jibarosoy
Nietzsche’s Cure for Negativity - Steven Gambardella - Medium
Firstly, to be driven is to change. Nietzsche believed that the idea of “becoming” should take precedence over the idea of “being”. In ancient Greece, two schools of thought emerged regarding the nature of the universe. While Parmenides believed change to be an illusion, Heraclitus of Ephesus reasoned that the only constant thing in the world is change.
“All entities move and nothing remain still […] You cannot step in the same river twice.”
To Heraclitus, the world is an “eternal fire”:
“ This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.”
philosophy  pol.505  political_theory  teaching_pol_theory  Nietzsche  Power_materials  humanities 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
Graham, Haidt, & Nosek (2009): Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations - Brian Nosek Dataverse
How and why do moral judgments vary across the political spectrum? To test moral foundations theory (J. Haidt & J. Graham, 2007; J. Haidt & C. Joseph, 2004), the authors developed several ways to measure people’s use of 5 sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. Across 4 studies using multiple methods, liberals consistently showed greater endorsement and use of the Harm/care and Fairness/reciprocity foundations compared to the other 3 foundations, whereas conservatives endorsed and used the 5 foundations more equally. This differ ence was observed in abstract assessments of the moral relevance of foundation-related concerns such as violence or loyalty (Study 1), moral judgments of statements and scenarios (Study 2), “sacredness” reactions to taboo trade-offs (Study 3), and use of foundation-related words in the moral texts of religious sermons (Study 4). These findings help to illuminate the nature and intractability of moral disagreements in the American “culture war.” (2009)
pol.508  pol.185  Passions  reasoning  polarization  Power_in_America  political_science  political_theory  database 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
Morality Between the Lines: Detecting Moral Sentiment in Text
Expressions of moral sentiment play a fundamental role in political framing, social solidarity, and basic human motivation. Moral rhetoric helps us com- municate the reasoning behind our choices, how we feel we should govern, and the communities to which we belong. In this paper, we use short- post social media to compare the accuracy of text analysis methods for detecting moral rhetoric and longer form political speeches to explore detecting shifts in that rhetoric over time. Building on previ- ous work using word count methods and the Moral Foundations Dictionary [Graham et al., 2009], we make use of pre-trained distributed representations for words to extend this dictionary. We show that combining the MFD with distributed representa- tions allows us to capture a cleaner signal when detecting moral rhetoric, particularly with short- form text. We further demonstrate how the addition of distributed representations can simplify dictio- nary creation. Finally, we demonstrate how captur- ing moral rhetoric in text over time opens up new avenues for research such as assessing when and how arguments become moralized and how moral rhetoric impacts subsequent behavior.
pol.508  pol.200  pol.185  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  polarization  political_science  political_theory 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
Moral Foundations Theory |
Moral Foundations Theory was created by a group of social and cultural psychologists (see us here) to understand why morality varies so much across cultures yet still shows so many similarities and recurrent themes. In brief, the theory proposes that several innate and universally available psychological systems are the foundations of “intuitive ethics.” Each culture then constructs virtues, narratives, and institutions on top of these foundations, thereby creating the unique moralities we see around the world, and conflicting within nations too.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  polarization  pol.185  Power_in_America  political_theory  political_science 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
A Visual Book Review of The Righteous Mind by Jonathan Haidt | Steve Thomason
This is one of those books that has caused me to go back and reshuffle some of the building blocks in my worldview. The main reason I appreciate this book is that it offers a very practical approach, rooted deeply in sociological research, to understand why we have such a deep divide in our society and how we can seek to bridge that gap and seek a better way forward together. This is closely related to my ongoing study of communicative rationality.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Power_in_America  morals  political_theory  Psychology  Trump 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
‘The Righteous Mind,’ by Jonathan Haidt - The New York Times
These moral systems aren’t ignorant or backward. Haidt argues that they’re common in history and across the globe because they fit human nature. He compares them to cuisines. We acquire morality the same way we acquire food preferences: we start with what we’re given. If it tastes good, we stick with it. If it doesn’t, we reject it. People accept God, authority and karma because these ideas suit their moral taste buds. Haidt points to research showing that people punish cheaters, accept many hierarchies and don’t support equal distribution of benefits when contributions are unequal.
pol.508  Passions  reasoning  Trump  Power_in_America  political_theory  Psychology  morals 
november 2019 by Jibarosoy
Basic Principles of Political Theory - E Book
From Classical to Rawls, NoZick, Marx, and Public Choice theory
political_theory  Teaching  books 
october 2019 by Jibarosoy

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