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Resource-rational analysis: understanding human cognition as the optimal use of limited computational resources | Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Cambridge Core
Modeling human cognition is challenging because there are infinitely many mechanisms that can generate any given observation. Some researchers address this by constraining the hypothesis space through assumptions about what the human mind can and cannot do, while others constrain it through principles of rationality and adaptation. Recent work in economics, psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics has begun to integrate both approaches by augmenting rational models with cognitive constraints, incorporating rational principles into cognitive architectures, and applying optimality principles to understanding neural representations. We identify the rational use of limited resources as a unifying principle underlying these diverse approaches, expressing it in a new cognitive modeling paradigm called resource-rational analysis. The integration of rational principles with realistic cognitive constraints makes resource-rational analysis a promising framework for reverse-engineering cognitive mechanisms and representations. It has already shed new light on the debate about human rationality and can be leveraged to revisit classic questions of cognitive psychology within a principled computational framework. We demonstrate that resource-rational models can reconcile the mind's most impressive cognitive skills with people's ostensive irrationality. Resource-rational analysis also provides a new way to connect psychological theory more deeply with artificial intelligence, economics, neuroscience, and linguistics.
cognitive_science  computational_complexity  rationality  to:rcit_project 
4 days ago by rvenkat
Is Conspiracy Theorising Irrational? Neil Levy – Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective
"Conspiratorial ideation—as I will call the disposition to be accepting of unwarranted conspiracy theories—is widely regarded as a product of irrationality or epistemic vice. I argue that it is not: the dispositions that underlie it are not rationally criticisable. Some of the dispositions underlying such ideation is the product of mistrust and heightened vigilance, and these dispositions are warranted as responses to (usually real) inequality and exploitation. Other dispositions are warranted as adaptations for filtering testimony. While those who accept unwarranted conspiracy theories are being led astray epistemically, the solution to this problem is not to alter their dispositions but instead to change the conditions that make their mistrust appropriate."
conspiracy  epistemology  rationality 
10 days ago by tsuomela
What's the point of arguing with an idiot? - UnHerd
Furiously disagreeing with a caricature gets us precisely nowhere
arguments  internet  ai  turing  rationality  philosophy 
13 days ago by pozorvlak
Correlation Neglect in Belief Formation
Many information structures generate correlated rather than mutually independent signals, the news media being a prime example. This article provides experimental evidence that many people neglect the resulting double-counting problem in the updating process. In consequence, beliefs are too sensitive to the ubiquitous “telling and re-telling of stories” and exhibit excessive swings. We identify substantial and systematic heterogeneity in the presence of the bias and investigate the underlying mechanisms. The evidence points to the paramount importance of complexity in combination with people’s problems in identifying and thinking through the correlation. Even though most participants in principle have the computational skills that are necessary to develop rational beliefs, many approach the problem in a wrong way when the environment is moderately complex. Thus, experimentally nudging people’s focus towards the correlation and the underlying independent signals has large effects on beliefs.
study  psychology  cog-psych  social-psych  polisci  epistemic  rationality  biases  dependence-independence  degrees-of-freedom  iidness  media  propaganda  info-dynamics  info-foraging  truth  managerial-state  communication  correlation  🎩 
13 days ago by nhaliday
Taming Uncertainty - welcome
"How do people navigate uncertainty, continuously making near-effortless decisions under conditions of imperfect knowledge, high complexity, and time pressure? Taming Uncertainty argues that the human mind has developed three types of tools to grapple with different types of uncertainty: simple heuristics, tools for information search, and tools for harnessing the wisdom of others. This set of strategies for making predictions, inferences, and decisions constitute the mind's adaptive toolbox. The authors argue that the toolbox, its cognitive foundation, and the environment are in constant flux and subject to developmental change, and that each cognitive tool can be analyzed in terms of its ecological rationality—that is, the fit between specific tools and specific environments. Chapters deal with instances of decision making such as food choice architecture, intertemporal choice, financial uncertainty, pedestrian navigation, and adolescent behavior."
to:NB  books:noted  decision-making  heuristics  rationality  cognitive_science  via:dedeo 
25 days ago by cshalizi
The Scholar's Stage: Do Not Trust Your Arguments
Identify a major political or ethical conviction you have. Then write out what you would need to know or have proven to you in order for you to change your position. Your position may be wrong or it may be right. But if you are not willing to sketch out what would make it wrong, you will not recognize when it has been proven so! Instead you will shift your arguments.
rationality 
26 days ago by williamrandolph

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