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PPT - Power, Authority, Legitimacy PowerPoint Presentation - ID:799507
Power, Authority, Legitimacy. Power = ability to get people to do things they would not have chosen to do on their own (overt and concealed) Authority = form of power accepted as right and proper by those who submit/comply Why do citizens comply?
Pol.11  Pol.12  Pol._120  state  Power_materials  authority  Passions  reasoning  Violence_y_Power 
2 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Milgram Experiment | Simply Psychology
The experiments began in July 1961, a year after the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Milgram devised the experiment to answer the question:

Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" (Milgram, 1974).
Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate whether Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was a common explanation for the Nazi killings in World War II. Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University. 
Pol.11  Pol.12  Pol._120  state  authority  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  Passions  reasoning 
2 hours ago by Jibarosoy
A Brighter Look at Milgram's Obedience Study | Mises Institute
If the legitimacy of the state arises from the people's consent, then the prospects for a free society largely depend on the psychological processes of the individual members of society. That is to say, if people's psychological processes are designed for a social order in which there exists an institution that uses force to acquire resources and that monopolizes protection and defense — to use Rothbard's description of the state — then the prospects of a free society stand little chance. If, however, people's psychological processes are designed best to maintain order through bottom-up techniques (e.g., by natural social order developing through a mutual and cultural acceptance of what is appropriate for coexistence in peace), then Rothbard's vision stands a very good chance.
Pol.11  Pol.12  Pol._120  state  authority  Power_materials  legitimacy  Violence_y_Power 
2 hours ago by Jibarosoy
5 Psychological Experiments That Prove Humanity is Doomed |
Psychologists know you have to be careful when you go poking around the human mind because you're never sure what you'll find there. A number of psychological experiments over the years have yielded terrifying conclusions about the subjects.

Oh, we're not talking about the occasional psychopath who turns up. No, we're talking about you. The experiments speak for themselves:
Pol.11  Pol.12  Passions  reasoning  SON  state  authority  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
2 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the month: Thomas Hobbes | OUPblog
There would be no restriction on the power exercised by the head of state, hence the name Leviathan, because to do so would imply that there was some other law by which his actions could be assessed, and this would imply another law-giver with power to enforce that other law. It is the function of the sovereign to rule in such a way as to maximize the amount of liberty that every person has, compatible with the security of the state. Despite debate over Hobbes’s view of human nature and the formation of a social contract when trust is at a minimum, Leviathan changed political philosophy in a fundamental way. There have been many interpretations of his work but few, if any, clear refutations of his analysis. Hobbes’s reputation as high today as it has ever been.
pol.505  philosophy  state  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power  SON  Leadership 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the month: Friedrich Nietzsche | OUPblog
Nietzsche was greatly concerned with basic problems in contemporary Western culture and society, which he believed were growing more acute, and for which he considered it imperative to try to find new solutions. His examination of unconscious drives found “will to power” to be a fundamental element of human nature, and metaphysically, in all of nature. The one who escapes all this, Nietzsche’s “Übermensch,” describes a person who has mastered passion, risen above irrational flux, and endowed her or his character with creative style. One of Nietzsche’s best-known ideas, “the death of God,” speaks to the unfeasibility of belief in God in late modernity, and the resulting consequences. The fundamental problem of how to overcome nihilism and affirm life without illusions was central to Nietzsche’s thought, and his skepticism of the notions of truth and fact anticipated many of the central tenets of postmodernism.

For more on Nietzsche’s life and work, browse our interactive timeline below.
pol.505  philosophy  Society  state  Religion  Leadership  Power_materials  Violence_y_Power 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the month: Jean-Jacques Rousseau [timeline] | OUPblog
The publication of Social Contract and Emile, however, scandalised the French and Genevan authorities, with the result that Rousseau had to flee into Switzerland and England. Towards the later stage of his career, Rousseau composed more autobiographical works. Les Confessions (1764-1770), the first autobiography ever written in the history of literature deals with his childhood and adolescence, and his adventure as a young man, his career as a writer and living in exile. His last work, Reveries of the Solitary Walker (Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire, 1776-1778) which is a meditation on his life and philosophy, has become a seminal text on the development of Romantic sensibilities.

For more on Rousseau’s life and work, browse our interactive timeline below.
pol.505  philosophy  state  teaching_pol_theory  Society 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the month: Adam Smith [Timeline] | OUPblog
Smith also wrote the philosophical work The Theory of Moral Sentiment, in which he considered sympathy as the most important moral sentiment – the knowledge that one shares others’ feelings and our ability to understand the situation of the other person – and this fellow feeling we have with others help us to know whether our action or the action of another person is good or bad and conducive towards some good end.

Smith was more of an Epicurean rather than a Stoic. He shared David Hume’s views on morals and economics and inherited from his teacher Francis Hutcheson the spectator theory of virtue, a form of psychological naturalism which views moral good as a particular kind of pleasure, that of a spectator watching virtue at work.

For more on Adam Smith’s life and work, browse our interactive timeline below:
pol.505  philosophy  capitalism  state  Economics  teaching_pol_theory 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the month: Saint Thomas Aquinas [timeline] | OUPblog
Although many have named him the greatest of the medieval philosopher-theologians, he and his work have received centuries of neglect by thinkers outside of the Catholic Church. Aquinas’ writings are increasingly studied by members of the wider philosophical community, however, and his insights have been put to work in present-day philosophical debates in the fields of philosophical logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, moral philosophy, and the philosophy of religion.

For more on Thomas Aquinas’ life and work, browse our interactive timeline below:
philosophy  pol.505  Religion  state  teaching_pol_theory 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
Philosopher of the Month: Plato [infographic] | OUPblog
Plato wrote many philosophical works. Most of these are in dialogue form between two or more characters, usually with Socrates as a leading protagonist. The dialogues are incentives for philosophical discussions and debates; the characters engage in cross examination, asking questions and analysing each other’s ideas and presumptions. The early dialogues hold a central place in his writing as they provide a portrait of Socrates and reveal the full range of his philosophy.

Like his mentor Socrates, Plato believed that it is vital to question received dogma and traditional moral beliefs and to distinguish truth from opinions. He also insisted on the importance of virtue and wisdom as a basis for happiness in our lives. Among Plato’s masterpieces are The Republic, an extended dialogue in which he outlines his view of an ideal state and develops a comparison between justice and order in the soul; Symposium, and Phaedrus which contain profound ideas on the true nature of love; and Phaedo, which explores the nature of the soul and immortality.

We’ve created the infographic below to highlight more from the life and work of Plato.
philosophy  pol.505  state  Leadership  teaching_pol_theory 
9 hours ago by Jibarosoy
The Erlangelist - To spawn, or not to spawn?
How to decide when to use a process and when to just use a module
elixir  state 
yesterday by bostonvaulter
Programming paradigms for dummies: what every programmer should know
Adrian Collyer's review of Peter Van Roy's 2009 paper (and also book).

Two key properties of a programming paradigm are whether or not it has observable non-determinism, and how strongly it supports state.

Non-determinism is observable if a user can see different results from executions that start at the same internal configuration. This is highly undesirable… we conclude that observable nondeterminism should be supported only if its expressive power is needed.

Regarding state, we’re interested in how a paradigm supports storing a sequence of values in time. State can be unnamed or named; deterministic or non-determinstic; and sequential or concurrent. Not all combinations are useful!

The four most important programming concepts are records, lexically scoped closures, independence (concurrency) and named state.
programming  paradigms  programminglanguages  determinism  state 
5 days ago by drmeme

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