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DNS Root Servers: The most critical infrastructure on the internet
DNS was made, just because we humans are not capable enough to remember numbers, or i must say we can remember names better than numbers. But computer's and network addresses are always numbers.

There are 13 IP addresses/number of these DOT server's that every DNS software's already know by default. Read carefully..i said 13 IP addresses and not 13 servers. (Don't even think that there are 13 DNS root servers. Its a big technical joke..:)

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Humans are generally better with names. Which is why we would tell telephone operators the name. Just like we tell DNS. Machines are better with numbers.

For DNS: And this is exactly how DNS works. It checks one of a number of DNS servers, there are quite a few levels of caching and checking all the way down but that's not so important, to see what name matches up to who
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23 hours ago by thotw
What happens when you type an URL in the browser and press enter?
The main purpose of DNS is human-friendly navigation. You can easily access a website by typing the correct IP address for it on your browser but imagine having to remember different sets of numbers for all the websites we regularly access?

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[Explain how DNS works with switchboard operator]. And that's what happens when you type an address in your browser. And here's the thing. It predated the web by a good twenty years.
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23 hours ago by thotw
How a URL Works for Locating Resources on the Internet
URL strings consist of three parts (substrings):

protocol designation
host name or address
file or resource location
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23 hours ago by thotw
URL: Uniform Resource Locator | HowStuffWorks
DNS servers accept requests from programs and other name servers to convert domain names into IP addresses. When a request comes in, the DNS server can do one of four things with it:

- It can answer the request with an IP address because it already knows the IP address for the requested domain.
- It can contact another DNS server and try to find the IP address for the name requested. It may have to do this multiple times.
- It can say, "I don't know the IP address for the domain you requested, but here's the IP address for a DNS server that knows more than I do."
- It can return an error message because the requested domain name is invalid or does not exist.

The root servers know the IP addresses for all of the DNS servers that handle the top-level domains (.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.)
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23 hours ago by thotw
How Domain Name Servers Work | HowStuffWorks
Thanks to DNS, though, you don't have to keep your own address book of IP addresses. Instead, you just connect through a domain name server, also called a DNS server or name server, which manages a massive database that maps domain names to IP addresses.

Web servers and other computers that need a consistent point of contact use static IP addresses

The last word in a domain name represents a top-level domain. These top-level domains are controlled by the IANA in what's called the Root Zone Database

A registrar is an authority that can assign domain names directly under one or more top-level domains and register them with InterNIC, a service of ICANN, which enforces uniqueness of domain names across the Internet

That's one of the most amazing parts of DNS -- it is completely distributed throughout the world on millions of machines, managed by millions of people, and yet it behaves like a single, integrated database

Maintain a small database of domain names and IP addresses most often used on its own network, and delegate name resolution for all other names to other DNS servers on the Internet.

A DNS server that manages a specific domain is called the start of authority (SOA) for that domain. Over time, the results from looking up hosts at the SOA will propagate to other DNS servers, which in turn propagate to other DNS servers, and so on across the Internet.


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Our own internal phone numbers are changing all the time. This is is happening all the time, without us ever noticing.
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23 hours ago by thotw
History of the URL, or why you are confused by serving many domains with a single server — Django deployment
I don’t, of course, hold anything against its designers; I wouldn’t have done better in their place, and it’s Tim Berners Lee himself who said the syntax is clumsy. In a URL like https://www.djangoproject.com/start/overview/, the “host” part, that is, the domain, goes from the most specific (djangoproject) to the most general (com), whereas the path goes from the most general to the most specific. What’s more, why should the user care about the protocol, the host, and the port? The URL should be something like “/com/djangoproject/start/overview”; the web browser would ask the DNS where to find it, and the DNS would reply “to get this resource, connect to 146.20.110.22, port 80, with HTTP”. While in 1990 the URL design looked cool, it’s the root of today’s confusion.
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23 hours ago by thotw
The History of the URL: Domain, Protocol, and Port - Eager Blog
This issue was occuring now because the ARPANET was on the verge of switching from its original NCP protocol, to the TCP/IP protocol which powers what we now call the Internet. With that switch suddenly there would be a multitude of interconnected networks (an ‘Inter... net’) requiring a more ‘hierarchical’ domain system where ARPANET could resolve its own domains while the other networks resolved theirs.


“The conclusion in this area was that the current ‘user@host’ mailbox identifier should be extended to ‘user@host.domain’ where ‘domain’ could be a hierarchy of domains.” And the domain was born.

For example, if you wanted to send me a file, you would have your modem call my modem, and we would transfer the file.

You can find the list of DNS classes on the IANA website, but it’s no surprise only one potential value is in common use today.

The first TLD was .arpa. It allowed users to address their old traditional ARPANET hostnames during the transition.

When we say DNS is hierarchical, what we mean is there is a set of root DNS servers which are responsible for, for example, turning .com into the .com nameservers, who will in turn answer how to get to google.com. The root DNS zone of the internet is composed of thirteen DNS server clusters. There are only 13 server clusters, because that’s all we can fit in a single UDP packet. Historically, DNS has operated through UDP packets, meaning the response to a request can never be more than 512 bytes.

Root DNS servers operate in safes, inside locked cages. A clock sits on the safe to ensure the camera feed hasn’t been looped.

When you purchase a .com domain, about $0.18 goes to the ICANN, and $7.85 goes to Verisign.

The most common protocol is http, which is the simple document transfer protocol Tim Berners-Lee invented specifically to power the web.

In other words, TCP/IP sends a whole bunch of bytes to another computer, the protocol says what those bytes should be and what they mean.

And TBL copied that scheme. Incidentally, he now regrets that decision, wishing the domain (in this case example.com) was the first portion of the path:
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23 hours ago by thotw
AppTalk - Let iOS apps talk
A user contributable directory of iOS apps with x-callback-urls.
x-callback-url  list  app  application  support  ios  automate  callback  URL 
2 days ago by ebouchut
x-callback-url Support – Contrast Help
About x-callback-url The x-callback-url specification is a standardized means of specifying inter-app communication on the iOS platform....
x-callback-url  example  lcp  launchcenterpro  URL  scheme 
2 days ago by ebouchut

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