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Astor Piazzolla
Astor Pantaleón Piazzolla (Spanish pronunciation: [pjaˈsola], Italian pronunciation: [pjatˈtsɔlla]; March 11, 1921 – July 4, 1992) was an Argentine tango composer, bandoneon player, and arranger. His oeuvre revolutionized the traditional tango into a new style termed nuevo tango, incorporating elements from jazz and classical music. A virtuoso bandoneonist, he regularly performed his own compositions with a variety of ensembles.

In 1992, American music critic Stephen Holden described Piazzolla as "the world's foremost composer of tango music".
2 days ago
Overview — sshuttle 0.78.5 documentation
As far as I know, sshuttle is the only program that solves the following common case:

Your client machine (or router) is Linux, MacOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD or pfSense.
You have access to a remote network via ssh.
You don’t necessarily have admin access on the remote network.
The remote network has no VPN, or only stupid/complex VPN protocols (IPsec, PPTP, etc). Or maybe you are the admin and you just got frustrated with the awful state of VPN tools.
You don’t want to create an ssh port forward for every single host/port on the remote network.
You hate openssh’s port forwarding because it’s randomly slow and/or stupid.
You can’t use openssh’s PermitTunnel feature because it’s disabled by default on openssh servers; plus it does TCP-over-TCP, which has terrible performance (see below).
ssh  vpn 
3 days ago
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens. The name comes from Greek φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and others as traditional medicine.

As a term, phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research with unestablished effects on health and are not scientifically defined as essential nutrients. Regulatory agencies governing food labeling in Europe and the United States have provided guidance for industry limiting or preventing health claims about phytochemicals on food product or nutrition labels.
8 days ago
Mass amateurization
Mass amateurization refers to the capabilities that new forms of media have given to non-professionals and the ways in which those non-professionals have applied those capabilities to solve problems (e.g. create and distribute content) that compete with the solutions offered by larger, professional institutions.[1] Mass amateurization is most often associated with Web 2.0 technologies. These technologies include the rise of blogs and citizen journalism, photo and video-sharing services such as Flickr and YouTube, user-generated wikis like Wikipedia, and distributed accommodation services such as Airbnb. While the social web is not the only technology responsible for the rise of mass amateurization, Clay Shirky claims Web 2.0 has allowed amateurs to undertake increasingly complex tasks resulting in accomplishments that would seem daunting within the traditional institutional model.
13 days ago
GREAT FORGOTTEN FILMS OF THE INTERNET ERA - Meditations & Observations: - Medium
I’ve long been convinced that Japanese society of the late 20th and 21st centuries has acted as a sort of prophecy for Western society. Nowhere is this more apparent than in Japanese art. One can see predictions of inter-gender crises of trust in Mishima’s works such as Forbidden Colours, and uncomfortable consequences of interactive storytelling represented in Hideo Kojima’s Metal Gear Solid 2. The reasons seem clear — a nation on the forefront of both consumer technologies and corporate social management (see Kaizen, a term you may have heard a manager use before) moving at an accelerated pace also produces insight into the emergent properties and dangers of these advancements.
14 days ago
How the CIA used Crypto AG encryption devices to spy on countries for decades - Washington Post
or more than half a century, governments all over the world trusted a single company to keep the communications of their spies, soldiers and diplomats secret.

The company, Crypto AG, got its first break with a contract to build code-making machines for U.S. troops during World War II. Flush with cash, it became a dominant maker of encryption devices for decades, navigating waves of technology from mechanical gears to electronic circuits and, finally, silicon chips and software.
14 days ago
Book Review: Probing the Corporate Manipulation of Science
In “The Triumph of Doubt,” David Michaels shows how paid experts are used to downplay risks and sow uncertainty.
14 days ago
The Hotel Hackers Are Hiding in the Remote Control Curtains - Bloomberg
Three men dressed for business travel in jeans and dress shirts loaded backpacks into the trunk of a black coupe and wound their way through the center of a major European city. When they arrived at their hotel, they unloaded their luggage and waited giddily to pass through the revolving doors. They were checking into the hotel to hack it.

Hackers target financial institutions because that’s where the money is, and they target retail chains because that’s where people spend the money. Hotels might be a less obvious target, but they’re hacked almost as often because of the valuable data that passes through them, like credit cards and trade secrets. Thieves have targeted electronic door locks to burgle rooms and used malware attacks to log credit card swipes in real time. They’ve even used Wi-Fi to hijack hotels’ internal networks in search of corporate data. Just about all of the industry’s major players have reported breaches, including Hilton Worldwide Holdings, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Hyatt Hotels.
culture  hack 
14 days ago
That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen; by Frederic Bastiat
In the department of economy, an act, a habit, an institution, a law, gives birth not only to an effect, but to a series of effects. Of these effects, the first only is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause — it is seen. The others unfold in succession — they are not seen: it is well for us, if they are foreseen. Between a good and a bad economist this constitutes the whole difference — the one takes account of the visible effect; the other takes account both of the effects which are seen, and also of those which it is necessary to foresee. Now this difference is enormous, for it almost always happens that when the immediate consequence is favourable, the ultimate consequences are fatal, and the converse. Hence it follows that the bad economist pursues a small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while the true economist pursues a great good to come, — at the risk of a small present evil.
economics  philosophy 
14 days ago
A Taxonomy of Moats | Reaction Wheel
Value is created through innovation, but how much of that value accrues to the innovator depends partly on how quickly their competitors imitate the innovation. Innovators must deter competition to get some of the value they created. These ways of deterring competition are called, in various contexts, barriers to entry, sustainable competitive advantages, or, colloquially, moats. There are many different moats but they have at their root only a few different principles. This post is an attempt at categorizing the best-known moats by those principles in order to evaluate them systematically in the context of starting a company.

I am going to try to be focus on only the barriers that seem to have structural causes. This excludes things like management talent, founder vision, company culture, and the like. These things are often not imitated, but not because they are not imitable: in many cases they are simply indications of an apparently rare competence. And while competence may be the ultimate competitive advantage to an individual, it is the property of the individual, not the company. (There are some things about company culture that are more than individual competence, and we’ll talk about them later.)
economics  innovation 
14 days ago
Outside in - Involvements with reality » Blog Archive » Mermaids
Katy was sleeping better. The dark patches beneath her eyes were disappearing. She even smiled now, occasionally. “I don’t mind the bad dreams about mermaids anymore,” she said.
“That’s good, why?”
“Daddy told me nightmares were the world’s only real treasure.”
“He said that?”
“Lots of times,” Katy said.
“He shouldn’t have. Those thoughts are unhealthy. They’re why he has had to spend so much time in hospital.”
14 days ago
School Will Never End: On Infantilization in Digital Environments - Amplifying Empowerment or Propagating Stupidity?
Analysing a recent trend in interface design, this chapter examines the question of software and the interface in relation to the aesthetic of the postdigital. To do this, it first looks at contemporary trends in online design, such as ‘flat design’, created to address adults while looking as if it should be for children. After having described the phenomenon of infantilization in digital environments, the second part of the chapter looks into forces that produce it. Why does it occur especially in a technological environment, and what is the specificity of its occurrence? Considering historical influences on interface design to answer these questions—computer scientists such as Alan Kay or Seymour Papert were informed by theories of Jean Piaget—we find an ambiguous figure at work: there is a fine dividing line within infantilization, between the adaptation of learning to ‘children of all ages’ to emancipate users and manipulating them, engendering stupidity as the desirable state they should be in.
14 days ago
Governments of the world just ramped up spying on reporters - Columbia Journalism Review
One day last summer, I noticed that one of our Middle East correspondents was visiting the Financial Times newsroom. I’m head of cyber security at the paper, and I have found that foreign correspondents are often at the tip of the spear for strange and interesting threats. So I stopped to chat.

The correspondent, who I will not name for reasons that will soon become clear, mentioned that in recent weeks they had been receiving mysterious WhatsApp calls. The numbers were unrecognized. Afterward, their phone battery had drained quickly. And they were sometimes unable to end other calls, because the screen seemed to freeze.

They had been working on an investigation into surveillance on journalists and human rights activists in a particular Middle Eastern nation, and had been in contact with sources the government was hostile to. We decided the reporter was safer with a separate device for this story.
14 days ago
Arthur Conan Doyle and the Adventure of the Boer War | History Today
In May 1899, five months before war was declared between Britain and the two Boer Republics of South Africa, Arthur Conan Doyle turned 40. He was a big man, six feet tall and tipping the scales at 16 stone, with fair hair and a long upper lip on which he cultivated a luxuriant moustache that he combed to either side in what was known as the ‘English’ style. The epitome of the sporting type, he played cricket in the summer, football in the autumn and, in the spring, holidayed in Switzerland, where he was one of the first British tourists to strap on a pair of wooden Norwegian skis. Doyle had trained and practised as a doctor until the success of his Sherlock Holmes stories allowed him to give up medicine and become a full-time writer. He was a great admirer of Sir Walter Scott’s historical novels and he hoped that his own historical novels would form the basis of his literary reputation, along with his histories of the Boer War and the First World War.
14 days ago
The Twittering Machine — The Indigo Press
In surrealist artist Paul Klee’s The Twittering Machine, the bird-song of a diabolical machine acts as bait to lure humankind into a pit of damnation. Leading political writer and broadcaster Richard Seymour argues that this is a chilling metaphor for our relationship with social media.

Former social media executives tell us that the system is an addiction-machine. We are users, waiting for our next hit as we like, comment and share. We write to the machine as individuals, but it responds by aggregating our fantasies, desires and frailties into data, and returning them to us as a commodity experience.

Through journalism, psychoanalytic reflection and insights from users, developers, security experts and others, Seymour probes the human side of the machine, asking what we’re getting out of it, and what we’re getting into.
book  culture 
14 days ago
Love in the time of coronavirus | Idiot Joy Showland
Is there an erotics of the coronavirus?

I ask because I’ve been ill lately, stuck at home, coughing and wheezing and watching old films. It’s probably just the common cold. It’s probably not anything to worry about. But if what you read here seems woozy or feverish, now you know why. I called the NHS helpline and described my symptoms. Where are you located? the faceless voice on the end of the line asked. London, I said. The voice seemed to find this suspicious. It didn’t like my answer. What’s the nearest town to you? it asked. London, I said. Ok, said the voice, irritated and confused, as if it was until now unaware that a major world capital is hiding in the south-east of this island. What’s your nearest city? it said. London, I said. We’re doomed.

What I’ve noticed about the old films is the way people in them do things that you could never get away with now. They touch their faces. They touch each other’s faces. They peck each other on the cheek. Already, these gestures are starting to feel charged, excessive, and dangerous. They have the potential to be either an expression of total devotion – you’re everything to me, pathogens and all – or total cruelty – you’re nothing to me, and if I touch you it’s only to spread my disease.
14 days ago
Stop using Material Design text fields! - Matsuko Friedland
Don't use placeholder text.
Don't use disabled form fields and buttons, whenever possible.
Don't make multi-column forms.
Do make sure labels and instructions are always visible.
Do put your labels and instructions above text fields.
Do make sure your labels, inputs, and any help text are associated properly.
Do make sure all text meets WCAG colour contrast requirements.
design  accessibility 
25 days ago
Hal Finney (computer scientist)
It seemed so obvious to me: "Here we are faced with the problems of loss of privacy, creeping computerization, massive databases, more centralization - and [David] Chaum offers a completely different direction to go in, one which puts power into the hands of individuals rather than governments and corporations. The computer can be used as a tool to liberate and protect people, rather than to control them."
culture  cryptocurrency  crypto  algorithm 
4 weeks ago
Complexity Law
“Every application has an inherent amount of irreducible complexity. The only question is: Who will have to deal with it—the user, the application developer, or the platform developer?”
5 weeks ago
UK tech policy after Brexit
This site tracks updates and developments on the UK’s implementation or adaptation of specific European policies, regulations, and laws impacting the digital and tech industries throughout the Brexit transition. The policy monitoring is split across two areas: the Digital Single Market strategy, and the growing shape of UK domestic legislation which seeks to replace the DSM as well as the EU’s foundational elements such as the e-Commerce Directive.

Research sources include policy statements from Downing Street and the Department for Exiting the European Union; the adversarial examination of the process from Parliament, including the European Scrutiny Committee; Hansard; the European Memoranda repository; research from the House of Commons Library; official EU statements pertaining to Brexit and tech; and well-informed expert commentary.
copyright  brexit 
5 weeks ago
Joscha Bach's answer to What type or algorithm of compression exists in DNA such that all the complexity of creating a person fits in only 2.36 gigabytes of base-pair information? - Quora
Joscha Bach
Answered June 28, 2019

One way to make sense of the relationship between DNA and the organism is a cellular automaton. A cellular automaton is a mathematical simulation that is usually defined as a bunch of cells on a regular grid (which can have two, three or more dimensions). A cell in a cellular automaton is not like a biological cell with a membrane and highly complex molecular machinery inside, but a simple state machine. It has a number of possible states, and in each simulation step, it can change its state into a new one, based on the states of the cells that are adjacent to it on the grid.
7 weeks ago
From the NonProfit Industrial Complex with Love
he art of propaganda has been nothing less than brilliant. The deceit is so thick – you need a knife to cut through it. The corruption and greed so deep you need wings to stay above it and thigh high boots to wade through it. An alluring tapestry of luminous lies, interwoven with finely textured deception and silk-like corruption – as smooth and seductive as freshly churned butter. The pursuit of man’s mind by way of domination has been the greatest and most successful experiment – the manipulation of man’s mind has resulted in a massive erosion of empathy, which has allowed status quo “business as usual” to continue uninterrupted with little resistance. Capitalism effectively bred a contempt for our Earth that multiplied like a virus. The pollution of mind mutated into narcissism with inflicted self-hatred to form a suicidal Molotov cocktail. Those who have succumbed now hold hands in a circle and taunt the very planet that gives us life. The ugly side of humanity continues to violently pierce our Earth Mother with drills and slash her beautiful skin with razors. She is losing breath. She is dying. Yet, when she lashes back, it will be with an Armageddon deathblow against which our own actions will resemble childish prattle. And perhaps not until this time will global society finally recognize that our shared purpose was not to compete with one another and claim dominance and superiority over our Earth Mother – but rather our role was to protect, defend and nurture. The human family – under the arm of its EuroAmerican “big brother” – will have finally succeeded in conquering our shared planet, only to find that we have destroyed ourselves. – Cory Morningstar, excerpt from part II of the exposé, The 2º Death Dance – The 1º Cover-up
7 weeks ago
Maudslay's Methods Of Originating Screws
This section is from the book "Turning And Mechanical Manipulation", by Charles Holtzapffel.

In a subsequent and stronger machine, the bar carrying the mandrel stood lower than the other, to admit of larger change wheels upon it, and the same driving gear was retained. And in another structure of the screw-cutting lathe, Mr. Maudslay placed the triangular bar for the lathe heads in the center, whilst a large and wide slide-plate, moving between chamfer bars attached to the framing, carried the sliding rest for the tool: in this last machine, the mandrel was driven by steam power, and the retrograde motion had about double the velocity of that used in cutting the screw. Indeed these machines may be fairly considered to be the precursors of the present screwing lathes, in which the detached triangular bars or slides have been exchanged for one strong bearer with two ridges or fillets, upon which the slide plate moves for guiding the traverse of the tool.
9 weeks ago
A Rape in Cyberspace | The Village Voice
December 23, 1993

They say he raped them that night. They say he did it with a cunning little doll, fashioned in their image and imbued with the power to make them do whatever he desired. They say that by manipulating the doll he forced them to have sex with him, and with each other, and to do horrible, brutal things to their own bodies. And though I wasn’t there that night, I think I can assure you that what they say is true, because it all happened right in the living room—right there amid the well-stocked bookcases and the sofas and the fireplace—of a house I came for a time to think of as my second home.
9 weeks ago
Condorcet method - Wikipedia
A Condorcet method (English: /kɒndɔːrˈseɪ/; French: [kɔ̃dɔʁsɛ]) is one of several election methods that elects the candidate that wins a majority of the vote in every pairing of head-to-head elections against each of the other candidates, whenever there is such a candidate. A candidate with this property, the pairwise champion, is formally called the Condorcet winner.

A Condorcet winner might not always exist in a particular election because the preference of a group of voters selecting from more than two options can possibly be cyclic — that is, it is possible (but very rare) that each candidate has an opponent that defeats them in a two-candidate contest. (This is similar to the game rock paper scissors, where each hand shape wins against only one opponent and loses to another). The possibility of such cyclic preferences in a group of voters is known as the Condorcet paradox. The Condorcet winner is also usually but not necessarily the utilitarian winner (the one which maximizes social welfare).[1][2]
december 2019
Why databases use ordered indexes but programming uses hash tables (
I think it is safe to state that hash tables (e.g. maps in Go, dicts in Python, HashMap in Java, etc.) are far more common than ordered data structures such as trees for in-memory data structures. One data point is that in a talk about C++ hash table optimization at Google (available in Abseil), the speaker noted that 1% of CPU and 4% of RAM globally at Google is used by hash tables. However, in databases, the default is almost always an ordered index, typically a B-Tree. Why is the "default" choice different between programs and databases, when at the end of the day they both do the same thing: accessing data for our code? More than a year ago I asked about this out loud on Twitter, and got many interesting answers.
december 2019
Welcome to Glottopedia, the free encyclopedia of linguistics.
december 2019
Toyota War
The Toyota War (Arabic: حرب تويوتا‎ Ḥarb Tūyūtā, French: Guerre des Toyota) or Great Toyota War[9] was the last phase of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, which took place in 1987 in Northern Chad and on the Libyan–Chadian border. It takes its name from the Toyota pickup trucks used, primarily the Toyota Hilux and the Toyota Land Cruiser, to provide mobility for the Chadian troops as they fought against the Libyans.[10] The 1987 war resulted in a heavy defeat for Libya, which, according to American sources, lost one tenth of its army, with 7,500 men killed and US$1.5 billion worth of military equipment destroyed or captured.[11] Chadian losses were 1,000 men killed.[8]

The war began with the Libyan occupation of northern Chad in 1983, when Libya's leader Muammar Gaddafi, refusing to recognize the legitimacy of the Chadian President Hissène Habré, militarily supported the attempt by the opposition Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT) to overthrow Habré. The plan was foiled by the intervention of France which, first with Operation Manta and later with Operation Epervier, limited Libyan expansion to north of the 16th parallel, in the most arid and sparsely inhabited part of Chad.[12]
november 2019
The Architecture of Evil - The New Atlantis
For the commission to do a great building, I would have sold my soul like Faust. Now I had found my Mephistopheles. He seemed no less engaging than Goethe’s.
—Albert Speer

Someone designed the furnaces of the Nazi death camps. Someone measured the size and weight of a human corpse to determine how many could be stacked and efficiently incinerated within a crematorium. Someone sketched out on a drafting table the decontamination showers, complete with the fake hot-water spigots used to lull and deceive doomed prisoners. Someone, very well educated, designed the rooftop openings and considered their optimum placement for the cyanide pellets to be dropped among the naked, helpless men, women, and children below. This person was an engineer, an architect, or a technician. This person went home at night, perhaps laughed and played with his children, went to church on Sunday, and kissed his wife goodbye each morning.
history  architecture 
november 2019
The Best of Goethe's Aphorisms
Nothing is more terrible than ignorance in action.
quotes  philosophy 
october 2019
Jacques Ellul - Wikipedia
A prolific writer, he authored 58 books and more than a thousand articles over his lifetime, many of which discussed propaganda, the impact of technology on society, and the interaction between religion and politics. The dominant theme of his work proved to be the threat to human freedom and religion created by modern technology. Among his most influential books are The Technological Society and Propa
october 2019
the green new deal
Author’s note: if you are having suicidal thoughts or feelings, do NOT read this. Get help. I am completely serious. Go here instead:

The first time I saw a Greenlight pod in person was yesterday. It was glossy white with an eye-catching vertical green stripe, cool pine tree green, subtly illuminated by inset LEDs. There was a portrait on the side of it at eye level, a pretty blonde woman holding a young boy, smiling down at him, tranquil and content. The boy had brown hair, and he was also smiling, warm pink cheeks, blue eyes. The woman looked a little like me, like she could have been my cousin. Underneath the portrait was a single Helvetica block cap word: HOPE.
october 2019
How the UK Security Services neutralised the country’s leading liberal newspaper
The Guardian, Britain’s leading liberal newspaper with a global reputation for independent and critical journalism, has been successfully targeted by security agencies to neutralise its adversarial reporting of the ‘security state’, according to newly released documents and evidence from former and current Guardian journalists.
media  propaganda 
october 2019
Don't get locked up into avoiding lock-in
One of an architect's major objectives is to create options. Those options make systems change-tolerant, so we can defer decisions until more information becomes available or react to unforeseen events. Lock-in does the opposite: it makes switching from one solution to another difficult. Many architects may therefore consider it their archenemy while they view themselves as the guardians of the free world of IT systems where components are replaced and interconnected at will.

But architecture is rarely that simple - it's a business of trade-offs. Experienced architects know that there's more behind lock-in than proclaiming that it must be avoided. Lock-in has many facets and can even be the favored solution.
software  archite 
august 2019
Дечко који обећава — Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Дечко који обећава је југословенски филм снимљен 1981. године. Режирао га је Милош Миша Радивојевић на основу приче коју је сам, заједно са Небојшом Пајкићем написао.
august 2019
What’s behind the recent craze for Yugoslavia’s modern architecture? — The Calvert Journal
The socialist federation may have disintegrated a quarter of a century ago, but the modernist gems built during its heyday have been experiencing something of a resurgence — the highpoint of which was a much-lauded, six-month-long exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, Toward a Concrete Utopia. The year also saw a new book, Spomenik Monument Database, devoted to the dozens of otherworldly war memorial monuments that dot the countryside of the six former Yugoslav republics; as well as two documentaries about Yugoslav buildings, Hotel Jugoslavija and Centar, which debuted at the Berlin International Film Festival and Doclisboa respectively.
july 2019
This Land Is Mine - Nina Paley
I replaced the Orthodox-looking mid-century Zionist with a more historically accurate (ha) depiction. Of course if I do that for every character I'll spend my whole life making revisions. Also if you look carefully you can see US flags on the tanks rolling up behind the Israeli soldiers. I'm sure I'll get all kinds of new complaints now.

Original video here:
A brief history of the land called Israel/Palestine/Canaan/the Levant.
Who's-killing-who viewer's guide here:
july 2019
Functional Programming? Don’t Even Bother, It’s a Silly Toy
The so-called “functional” programming has no proper mechanisms of abstraction since it is based on mathematics (which obviously is inferior and has no applications in the real world apart from the academia). Unlike OOP, functional programming makes no attempt to fulfill the numerous rigorous and complex requirements demanded by the enterprise.
july 2019
Surprisingly popular - Wikipedia
The surprisingly popular answer is a wisdom of the crowd technique that taps into the expert minority opinion within a crowd.[1] For a given question, a group is asked both "What do you think the right answer is?" and "What do you think the popular answer will be?" The answer that maximizes the average difference between the "right" answer and the "popular" answer is the "surprisingly popular" answer.[2]
july 2019
Tokyo subway’s humble duct-tape typographer - Chris Gaul - Medium
Tokyo’s cavernous train stations seem to be permanent construction zones. There is always some part or another shrouded in white sheets and skirted by a maze of endlessly shifting temporary paths. Walk the bowels of these stations long enough and you may come across Shuetsu Sato 佐藤修悦. Sixty-five year old Sato san wears a crisp canary yellow uniform, reflective vest and polished white helmet. His job is to guide rush hour commuters through confusing and hazardous construction areas. When Sato san realised he needed more than his megaphone to perform this duty, he took it upon himself to make some temporary signage. With a few rolls of of duct tape and a craft knife, he has elevated the humble worksite sign to an art form.
design  typography 
july 2019
When events become goto-statements
events are an architectural approach, not just a tool to insert whenever you need something to happen in another module. If you notice doing this, you've been thinking about decoupling too late.
july 2019
ACLs don't
The ACL model is unable to make correct access decisions for interactions involving more than two principals, since required information is not retained across message sends. Though this deficiency has long been documented in the published literature, it is not widely understood. This logic error in the ACL model is exploited by both the clickjacking and Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks that affect many Web applications.
security  papers 
july 2019
Capability-based security - Wikipedia
Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems, one of the existing security models. A capability (known in some systems as a key) is a communicable, unforgeable token of authority. It refers to a value that references an object along with an associated set of access rights. A user program on a capability-based operating system must use a capability to access an object. Capability-based security refers to the principle of designing user programs such that they directly share capabilities with each other according to the principle of least privilege, and to the operating system infrastructure necessary to make such transactions efficient and secure. Capability-based security is to be contrasted with an approach that uses hierarchical protection domains.
july 2019
JOSS : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
JOSS (an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) was one of the very first interactive, time sharing programming languages.

JOSS I, developed by J. Clifford Shaw at RAND was first implemented, in beta form, on the JOHNNIAC computer in May 1963. The full implementation was deployed in January 1964, supporting 5 terminals and the final version, JOSS In, supporting 10 terminals, was deployed in January 1965.

JOSS was written in a symbolic assembly language called EasyFox (E and F in the US military's phonetic alphabet of that time). EasyFox was also developed by Cliff Shaw.

JOSS was dubbed "The Helpful Assistant" and is renowned for its conversational user interface. Originally green/black typewriter ribbons were used in its terminals with green being used for user input and black for the computer's response. Any command that was not understood elicited the response "Eh?".

JOSS II, was developed by Charles L. Baker, Joseph W. Smith, Irwin D. Greenwald, and G. Edward Bryan for the PDP-6 computer between 1964 and February 1966.

Many variants of JOSS were developed and implemented on a variety of platforms. Some of these variants remained very similar to the original: TELCOMP, FOCAL, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series); while others, such as MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
history  computing 
july 2019
United Fruit Company - Wikipedia
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Latin American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe. The company was formed in 1899, from the merger of Minor C. Keith's banana-trading concerns with Andrew W. Preston's Boston Fruit Company. It flourished in the early and mid-20th century, and it came to control vast territories and transportation networks in Central America, the Caribbean coast of Colombia, Ecuador, and the West Indies. Though it competed with the Standard Fruit Company (later Dole Food Company) for dominance in the international banana trade, it maintained a virtual monopoly in certain regions, some of which came to be called banana republics, such as Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala.[1]

United Fruit had a deep and long-lasting impact on the economic and political development of several Latin American countries. Critics often accused it of exploitative neocolonialism, and described it as the archetypal example of the influence of a multinational corporation on the internal politics of the banana republics. After a period of financial decline, United Fruit was merged with Eli M. Black's AMK in 1970, to become the United Brands Company. In 1984, Carl Lindner, Jr. transformed United Brands into the present-day Chiquita Brands International.
july 2019
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