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Quercki : wwii   21

Instability of Classical Gender Roles in Postwar America - YouTube
Soon after the end of World War II, men returned home and eventually assumed their pre-war occupations that some women were occupying. This drove women out of the manufacturing and industrial trades they were holding and as the baby boomers boomed, women became full time homemakers. Women were now expected to stay at home and take care of the kids while the husband went to work to financially support the family.
As women were forced out of their wartime occupations and into the domesticity of the new American nuclear family, many women felt disenfranchised. Furthermore, the 1950s are often identified as the pinnacle of gender inequality as women were denigrated and portrayed as “stupid, submissive, purely domestic creatures.”
women  post  WWII  work 
6 weeks ago by Quercki
(14) Luvvie Ajayi & Betty Reid Soskin | 2018 MAKERS Conference
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96-year-old Park Ranger Betty Reid Soskin interviewed by Awesomely Luvvie, author, speaker, and digital strategist, about her incredible life of service.
Betty_Reid_Soskin  Luvvie_Ajayi  Rosie  WWII  video  interview 
february 2019 by Quercki
Confirmed: The U.S. Census Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese-Americans in WW II - Scientific American
A new study of U.S. Department of Commerce documents now shows that the Census Bureau complied with an August 4, 1943, request by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau for the names and locations of all people of Japanese ancestry in the Washington, D.C., area, according to historian Margo Anderson of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee and statistician William Seltzer of Fordham University in New York City. The records, however, do not indicate that the Bureau was asked for or divulged such information for Japanese-Americans in other parts of the country.
Anderson and Seltzer discovered in 2000 that the Census Bureau released block-by-block data during WW II that alerted officials to neighborhoods in California, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Arkansas where Japanese-Americans were living. "We had suggestive but not very conclusive evidence that they had also provided microdata for surveillance," Anderson says.
census  history  Japanese  internment  concentration_camps  WWII 
march 2018 by Quercki
For some immigrants, fear is now their daily companion | The Sacramento Bee
We had no idea why he was taken or to where. We did not see him for more than a week. When my father finally returned home his upper body was bruised, black and blue, from the torture he’d endured. It was the start of an era that changed millions of lives forever – looking over our shoulders, keeping our heads down, sheltering each other and living with constant fear.

Now, please do not assume I am equating the consummate evil of the Nazi regime with America under our current administration. I know this nation has checks and balances, elected officials with courage, citizens who are unafraid of speaking out and a democracy that works. I know there are not American gas chambers and gallows awaiting those taken abruptly from our streets. But here is what we have in common: We have fear.

Because Jewish people, Romani families, the disabled and others were the targets of hate speech and despicable actions under Nazi dominance, we all lived in fear. With every knock on the door, my mother rushed to hide my little brother, Avram, who, as a fragile and small boy was a target for the Secret Police. Neighbors huddled inside, afraid to go to work or shop for food. School for me, a place I loved, was deemed too dangerous, and my childhood was stolen.
immigration  fear  Dov  WWII  Trump 
may 2017 by Quercki
What happened to black Germans under the Nazis | The Independent
The 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their German citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with “people of German blood”.

A subsequent ruling confirmed that black people (like “gypsies”) were to be regarded as being “of alien blood” and subject to the Nuremberg principles. Very few people of African descent had German citizenship, even if they were born in Germany, but this became irreversible when they were given passports that designated them as “stateless negroes”.


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Goebbels love nest could be demolished over 'Nazi shrine' fears
In 1941, black children were officially excluded from public schools, but most of them had suffered racial abuse in their classrooms much earlier. Some were forced out of school and none were permitted to go on to university or professional training. Published interviews and memoirs by both men and women, unpublished testimony and post-war compensation claims testify to these and other shared experiences.

Employment prospects which were already poor before 1933 got worse afterwards. Unable to find regular work, some were drafted for forced labour as “foreign workers” during World War II. Films and stage shows making propaganda for the return of Germany’s African colonies became one of the few sources of income, especially after black people were banned from other kinds of public performance in 1939.
Nazi  Black  WWII  discrimination  White  supremacy 
january 2017 by Quercki
The Emperor Strikes Back: Japan’s Monarch Takes On Imperialist Abe - The Daily Beast
The state secrecy bills which make it a potential crime even to ask persistent questions, were passed into laws amid huge protests.
Japan’s remilitarization is steadily underway. The weapons industry has been revived; the country is shipping arms.
The State Security Laws will enable Japan to wage war overseas for the first time since the war ended. And if the ruling coalition somehow fails to alter the pacifist constitution, it will push to pass an emergency powers act, which will give the Prime Minister power to rewrite the laws during a time of crisis—something straight out of the Nazi playbook. (Some members of Abe’s cabinet have a well-known admiration for Hitler’s political stratagems.)
In post-war Japan, the emperor has been constitutionally defined as the “symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power” and he has “no powers related to government.”
The Emperor and his wife, Empress Michiko, have reigned more than 27 years as quiet symbols of a pacifist nation, living voices reminding the Japanese people of the horrific past that the country endured and that Imperial Japan imposed on others.
In light of the current administration’s revisionist inclinations, many observers have picked up on a significant shift in the tone and content of the Emperors’ public statements. This year alone, he has referred several times to wartime experiences and “the need to study and learn from this war.”
Prime Minister Abe and his political allies have long derided Japan’s constitution as a humiliation imposed upon the Japanese people by the United States occupation government, impinging on “basic human rights.”
Japan  Emperor  Japanese  WWII 
august 2016 by Quercki
Rosie the Riveters in living color- photos of the women who built planes during WWII
Rosie the Riveters in living color- photos of the women who built planes during WWII
StrangenessMay 30, 2016
Rosie the Riveter is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories and shipyards during World War II, many of whom produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military.
Rosie  photos  color  WWII 
june 2016 by Quercki
U.S. Dept. of the Interior interviews Betty Reid Soskin in honor of Women's History Month - Richmond Standard
I’ve aged in two important ways since becoming a park ranger: The first: I’ve outlived my rage without losing my passion over the past decade, and that’s a gift! The second, which also took some time, happened after viewing films created for the park. It was the discovery of conflicting truth. There a place where Agnes Moore, a 95-year-old “Rosie” says on the video, “… It was the greatest coming together of the American people that I’ve ever lived through.” For months I found myself cringing in the dark as those words were uttered against a background of dramatic flag-waving, soldiers kissing girls, people parading in the streets. So strange, how could Agnes, whom I know, not know that this was something many of us were outside of, and the more so because we felt shut out? Somewhere along the way that feeling dropped away; and in its place, I found that I could hear that as an honest expression of her reality as she lived it at the time. I found myself able to hear her truth as long as there was a place on the planet where our truths could co-exist. This park became that place. How I wish I’d learned that important lesson earlier in life, maybe in high school. All of it’s true for someone.
Betty_Reid_Soskin  Rosie  WWII  womenshistory 
may 2015 by Quercki
Tim Wise » Bill of Whites: Historical Memory Through the Racial Looking Glass
In his homage to the GI Bill, Shields explains that while higher education had previously been the preserve of the elite, with the passage of this government mandate, “all that changed immediately,” as nearly eight million vets enrolled in college or job training. Additionally, he notes, veterans were extended favorable mortgage terms, allowing them to own a home for the first time. He concludes his Memorial Day essay by describing the bill as an example of “our ability to act for the common good.”
Now, far be it from me to dispute the positive effects of the GI Bill. It was indeed, and still is, in more recent incarnations, a powerful example of what the state can do to provide opportunity when it chooses. Yet, what Shields fails to mention, perhaps because he doesn’t know it himself, or it doesn’t seem relevant to him, is that the GI Bill was hardly a universal triumph; and the same can be said of the VA and FHA loan programs implemented around the same time to expand opportunity for members of the working class. For the working class that was able to take full advantage of these programs was hardly representative: indeed, the benefits of these otherwise laudable efforts were received nearly exclusively by white folks and white men in particular. Universal programs in name and theory: affirmative action and preferential treatment for members of the dominant majority in practice.
WWII  GI_Bill  discrimination  racism  privilege 
june 2014 by Quercki
Local Residents Remember Port Chicago Mutiny. Category: Features from The Berkeley Daily Planet
Robert Allen, who will speak at Saturday’s events, spoke with the Daily Planet about the gathering and about the continuing meaning of what many people simply describe as “Port Chicago. “Allen teaches African American and Ethnic Studies at UC Berkeley. He is an editor of Black Scholar magazine, and is currently researching for a book on the life of local African American labor and civil rights leader C.L. Dellums. 

 

Daily Planet: Why is a pardon not enough for the Port Chicago strikers? 

 

Robert Allen: While the pardon was an important thing to do, and called attention to the injustice, a pardon is like saying, “You did something wrong, but we are going to forgive you for it.” But whatever it was that you may call it, there was not a mutiny. There was never an attempt to usurp military authority. I think of it as a strike, or a protest at the unsafe working conditions and the racial discrimination on the base. And the trauma itself was passed on in the families. So even for today it’s important to have these convictions set aside. For the surviving families, but also for the historical record. 

 

DP: Why do you think some of them were charged with mutiny? 

 

RA: Part of the reason was they wanted to make an example of these guys and indirectly, according to what Thurgood Marshall said, “scapegoat” them for what happened at Port Chicago. By bringing these mutiny charges against these sailors, that created the whole context that the blame could go on the sailors, not only for the mutiny, but for the explosion itself. 

 

DP: What’s the particular relevance of Port Chicago to today? 

 

RA: [Port Chicago was part of] a long history of racism in the military and the effort to confront that and deal with it. And I think that question remains today in terms of, why is it we have large [over-representative] numbers of people of color in the military today? And the other question is, what are unjust orders? What kind of a situation should folks in the military resist? There is an understanding that soldiers have the right—and, in fact, the obligation—to resist unlawful orders. That’s exactly what came up at the prison at Abu Ghraib. These guys [at Port Chicago] were resisting [the racial discrimination] situation there that was certainly unjust and unfair. This was not a mutiny. This was a protest against an unjust situation. And afterwards the Navy gave covert recognition to that position, because it did begin to dismantle racial segregation shortly afterwards, right there at Port Chicago.ª
WWII  African-American  racism  civil_rights  bayarea  history 
june 2014 by Quercki
Port Chicago, site of a World War II home front tragedy, is a classroom today - Page 2 - Los Angeles Times
By 10:15, the Bryan held 4,606 tons of ammunition and explosives. On the pier, nine officers stood among about 100 crewmembers, Marine guards, civilian workers and others. Sixteen railroad boxcars had rolled up, bearing another 429 tons of bombs and projectiles to be loaded.


Then, at 10:18 p.m., the first explosion occurred.

About five seconds later came the second, much bigger blast.

"Everything here was just decimated," ranger Eric Stearns said one recent day, leading a small group toward the inscribed granite markers and the skeleton of a ruined pier. "I think the closest survivors were two guys who were about 1,000 yards away."

In Nevada, seismic devices jumped. In San Francisco, hotel windows shattered. On an Army Air Force plane 9,000 feet up, the pilot reported an aerial ring of fire three miles around. Also, he said, "there were pieces of metal that were white and orange in color, that went quite a ways above us. They were quite large. I would say they were as big as a house or a garage."

The Bryan was all but vaporized. The stern of the shattered Quinault Victory landed 500 feet from where it had been moored. In the Port Chicago movie theater, which was showing a war movie called "China," the north wall gave way — just as a grenade was exploding on the screen. (The Navy later razed the town.)

"It blew me across the room," Lowery said. "I was in the barracks, in a room with two guys, shooting the breeze when it happened, a window to my back."

Lowery worked in the recreational department as an instructor, organizing sports. Though some men first thought the Japanese had attacked, "we knew it was the ammunition blowing up…. We in the rec department had a pickup truck, and we were the first ones out of there with those who were injured," Lowery said.
WWII  history  African-American  disaster  explosion 
june 2014 by Quercki
PRX » Piece » The Port Chicago 50: An Oral History
Piece Description
On July 17, 1944, two Liberty ships anchored at the Port Chicago Munitions Case near San Francisco exploded, killing 320 men and injuring 390. It was the worst homefront disaster of World War II. A majority of the casualties were African-American sailors who loaded ammunition onto the ships at Port Chicago. Shortly after the explosion, the African-American munitions loaders who survived were transferred to a nearby base and ordered back to work. Shaken by the death of their workmates and afraid that another explosion might occur, 50 men refused. In the largest courtmartial in Navy history, they were all convicted of mutiny and sentenced to up to fifteen years of hard labor. In January 1946, only months after the war ended, all convicted men's sentences were suspended as part of a general amnesty. While these men were allowed to return to civilian life, they were left angry, ashamed, and afraid they would be fired from their jobs or worried that they would be seen as unpatriotic. As a result, some did not discuss the case, even with family members, for more than 50 years. Originally broadcast on This American Life in 1996.
WWII  African-American  history  labor  racism 
june 2014 by Quercki
flyby | The old Lie
We don't see so much about the First World War. Occasionally, there will be the odd programme, or a Time Team special from Flanders Fields. Have you ever wondered why that is? I've come to the conclusion that it's because, when you get down to it, there is no way to present the Great War, the War that should have Ended All Wars, as a heroic and necessary struggle. There was no great evil, no terrible dictator wreaking suffering and oppression, no brave and honourable reason for that war. In essence the whole thing was a pissing contest between the great patriarchal powers of Europe, a squabble over land and territory that was played out by privileged generals spending the lives of their troops like spare change.

(Send three and fourpence, we're going to a dance.)

This is what we should be saying about the First World War: that it was brutal, barbaric, decimating - and ultimately close to pointless. The men slogging through waist-deep water in rat-infested trenches, mutilated by gas, lobotomised for shell-shock or just plain lost to the mud and sludge of No Man's Land - they weren't fighting for some noble cause that they were happy to sacrifice themselves for. They were sent there to die, by leaders whose patriarchal honour and reputation meant far more to them than any number of lives lost. The likes of Field Marshal Haig couldn't be seen to back down by changing strategy, or even by stopping the fighting once it was over. At 5am on this day, 95 years ago, the Armistice was officially signed, but since it didn't take effect until 11am, the generals on both sides sent everyone over the top again at 10:30.
WWI  WWII  war 
november 2013 by Quercki
The Kissing Sailor, Part 2 – Debunking Misconceptions | Crates and Ribbons
Here are some of the most common misconceptions.

Misconception #1: That kiss happened in a different time! How can you judge him using modern values?

The purpose of my original post was not to demonize George or to recommend that he be packed off to prison. A user on Reddit called MBlume gave a succinct response to someone who had Misconception #1. I’ll post it here:

“You’re…completely missing the point. The point isn’t that it happened. The point is that there’s three modern articles discussing the picture, all of which basically quote the woman in the picture as stating that it was sexual assault, and in none of the articles does the editorial voice acknowledge that that’s fucked up.”

This is spot on. Thanks, MBlume.
rape.culture  WWII  iconic  image  soldier  kiss  consent  sexual_assault 
december 2012 by Quercki
The Kissing Sailor, or “The Selective Blindness of Rape Culture” | Crates and Ribbons
A few facts have come to light. Far from being a kiss between a loving couple, we learn that George and Greta were perfect strangers. We learn that George was drunk, and that Greta had no idea of his presence, until she was in his arms, with his lips on hers.

The articles even give us Greta’s own words:

“It wasn’t my choice to be kissed. The guy just came over and grabbed!”

“I did not see him approaching, and before I knew it, I was in this vice grip.”

“You don’t forget this guy grabbing you.”

“That man was very strong. I wasn’t kissing him. He was kissing me.”

It seems pretty clear, then, that what George had committed was sexual assault. Yet, in an amazing feat of willful blindness, none of the articles comment on this, even as they reproduce Greta’s words for us. Without a single acknowledgement of the problematic nature of the photo that her comments reveal, they continue to talk about the picture in a whimsical, reverent manner, “still mesmerized by his timeless kiss.” George’s actions are romanticized and glorified; it is almost as if Greta had never spoken.
rape.culture  sexual_assault  WWII  image  history 
october 2012 by Quercki
Bat, Bean, Beam - A Weblog on Memory and Technology: Educating Rosie
That is how in 1943 Ms Childs, an African-American woman, found employment as a welder in the San Francisco shipyard. As she goes on to explain
[w]e’d never had the opportunity to do that kind of work. Do you think that if you did domestic work all of your life, where you’d cleaned somebody’s toilets and did all the cooking for some lazy character who were sitting on top, and you finally get a chance where you can get a dignified job, you wouldn’t fly through the door?

However this is not the picture of the vast new contingent of female factory workers that was being presented through the media at the time. First of all, the women on the posters and in the newsreels – and who became collectively known as Rosie the Riveter from one of the songs that celebrated them – were unfailingly white. Secondly, and no less importantly, they hailed from the middle class.
and just as quickly and meticulously as the image of virtuous Rosie was constructed, it was deconstructed.
WWII  Rosie 
june 2010 by Quercki
W I N G S | A C R O S S | A M E R I C A
W I N G S | A C R O S S | A M E R I C A | is a pioneering project, blazing a trail into the future of education, where digital information will explode into learning adventures, and where history will come alive through the colorful and unique eyewitness accounts of surviving WASP of WWII, FIRST WOMEN IN HISTORY TO FLY AMERICA'S MILITARY AIRCRAFT!
WWII  women  history  heroes  pilots 
june 2009 by Quercki
Unsung World War II heroes finally get their due - CNN.com
By Kevin Bohn
CNN Senior Producer
WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Some 65 years after their service, the 300 surviving Women Airforce Service Pilots are being honored with the Congressional Gold Medal.

The House of Representatives on Tuesday passed a measure awarding the women one of the national's highest civilian honors. The Senate passed a similar measure in May and President Obama is expected to sign it.
Jane Tedeschi when she was in the Women Airforce Service Pilot program.
With only about a quarter of the former WASPs still alive and all in their late 80s or older, it was important for the House to act quickly, Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Florida, a sponsor of the bill.

"This is a largely overlooked veterans group. They haven't gotten the medals they deserve, the recognition they deserve," Ros-Lehtinen told CNN.

From the time she was about 8 years old, Jane Tedeschi wanted to fly.

Flight was still relatively new in the 1920s and 1930s, and female pilots were few.
WWII  history  heroes  women  pilots 
june 2009 by Quercki
Shakesville: "Whites Only"
When the liberation of Paris seemed possible in 1944 and Charles de Gaulle insisted that the French lead the liberation,

Allied High Command agreed, but only on one condition: De Gaulle's division must not contain any black soldiers.

In January 1944 Eisenhower's Chief of Staff, Major General Walter Bedell Smith, was to write in a memo stamped, "confidential": "It is more desirable that the division mentioned above consist of white personnel.”
racism  WWII  miltary 
april 2009 by Quercki

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