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Diet And Depression: What You Eat Can Help Improve Mood, New Study Finds : The Salt : NPR
There's fresh evidence that eating a healthy diet, one that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables and limits highly processed foods, can help reduce symptoms of depression.

A randomized controlled trial published in the journal PLOS ONE finds that symptoms of depression dropped significantly among a group of young adults after they followed a Mediterranean-style pattern of eating for three weeks. Participants saw their depression "score" fall from the "moderate" range down to the "normal" range, and they reported lower levels of anxiety and stress too.

Alternatively, the depression scores among the control group of participants — who didn't change their diets — didn't budge. These participants continued to eat a diet higher in refined carbohydrates, processed foods and sugary foods and beverages. Their depression scores remained in the "moderate severity" range.

"We were quite surprised by the findings,"
depression  diet  health  psychology  Mediterranean 
8 days ago by Quercki
Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms

Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.
Keywords: cravings, evolutionary conflict, host manipulation, microbiome, microbiota, obesity
diet  health  mood  obesity  microbes  gut  brain 
8 weeks ago by Quercki
Big nutrition research scandal sees 6 more retractions, purging popular diet tips | Ars Technica
Thus, JAMA editors retracted the six articles.
Years of work

One had appeared in JAMA in 2005. The study claimed to find that large serving bowl sizes at a Super Bowl party were linked to more snack eating.

Three had been published in JAMA Internal Medicine. A 2012 study claimed that hungry people go for starchy foods first over vegetables. Another study in 2013 claimed similarly that hungry grocery shoppers go for more calories but not necessarily more food. And a study from 2014 was reported as finding that the more distracting a TV show, the less viewers watched how much they ate and thus ate more.

The last two retracted studies were from JAMA Pediatrics. One from 2008 suggested that kids who are told to clean their plates by their moms were statistically more likely to request more food. The other, published in 2013, claimed that kids made healthier school lunch choices if they pre-ordered their meals rather than made decisions in the lunch line, where they can smell less-healthy entrees.
diet  nutrition  science  fraud 
september 2018 by Quercki
Diet Culture Exists to Fight Off the Fear of Death - The Atlantic
iet culture is constantly shifting. Today’s token foods of health may seem tainted or passé tomorrow, and within diet culture, there are contradictory ideologies: what is safe and clean to one is filth and decadence to another. Legumes and grains are wholesome, life-giving staples to many vegan eaters, while they represent the corrupting influences of agriculture on the state of nature to those who prefer a meat-heavy, grain-free Paleo diet.

Nutrition science itself is a self-correcting series of refutations. There is no certain path to purity and blamelessness through food. The only common thread between competing dietary ideologies is the belief that by adhering to them, one can escape the human condition, and become a purer, less animal, kind of being.

This is why arguments about diet get so vicious, so quickly. You are not merely disputing facts, you are pitting your wild gamble to avoid death against someone else’s. You are poking at their life raft. But if their diet proves to be the One True Diet, yours must not be. If they are right, you are wrong. This is why diet culture seems so religious. People adhere to a dietary faith in the hope they will be saved. That if they’re good enough, pure enough in their eating, they can keep illness and mortality at bay. And the pursuit of life everlasting always requires a leap of faith.
diet  food  culture  Fat_Nutritionist  death 
august 2018 by Quercki
The Last Conversation You’ll Need to Have About Eating Right
Mark Bittman and doctor David L. Katz patiently answer pretty much every question we could think of about healthy food.
Ask us anything at all about diet and nutrition and we will give you an answer that is grounded in real scientific consensus, with no “healthy-ish” chit-chat, nary a mention of “wellness,” and no goal other than to cut through all the noise and help everyone see how simple it is to eat well.

Here, then, are the exhaustively assembled, thoroughly researched, meticulously detailed answers to any and all of your dietary questions.
nutrition  diet  health  food 
march 2018 by Quercki
Whole30 Downloads | The Whole30® Program
Here is a compilation of all of our free Whole30-related PDF guides. Download only the ones you need, or click on this special Zip file and get them all at once. Save these to your computer, print them for your fridge, and feel free to link to them on your own site or social media feed.
food  Whole30  diet 
october 2017 by Quercki
Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study - The Lancet
Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day).
food  diet  health  eating  guidelines  research 
september 2017 by Quercki
Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study - The Lancet
During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12–1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67–0·87], ptrend<0·0001; saturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76–0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71–0·92], ptrend<0·0001; and polyunsaturated fat: HR 0·80 [0·71–0·89], ptrend<0·0001). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with lower risk of stroke (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·64–0·98], ptrend=0·0498). Total fat and saturated and unsaturated fats were not significantly associated with risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality.
food  health  eating  diet  guidelines 
september 2017 by Quercki
PURE – Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological Study
PURE (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological Study)

Study Overview

To examine the impact of urbanization on the development of primordial risk factors (for example: physical activity and nutrition changes), primary risk factors (for example: obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia, smoking), and CVD.

Study Design: Observational Study

Intervention: N/A

Length of Study: 12 years

# of Participants: 225,000

# of Countries: 25
food  health  eating  diet  guidelines 
september 2017 by Quercki
PURE, a New Global Nutrition Study, Changes Nothing - The Atlantic
eating vegetables in any state was associated with good health, but as compared to cooked vegetables, eating raw vegetables was more strongly linked to a lower risk of death (during the study) compared to cooked vegetable intake.

As researcher Victoria Miller of McMaster University put it, “Our results indicate that recommendations should emphasize raw vegetable intake over cooked.”
food  health  eating  diet  guidelines 
september 2017 by Quercki
Sweet Science: High Sugar Diet Could Actually 'Program' You to Die Younger
Eating a high sugar diet shortens your life, even long after you improve what you eat, because during the time you spent eating badly your genes have been reprogrammed for the long-term, according to scientists, and there's no cheating – low calorie sweeteners aren't any better for you!

A team of researchers from University College London (UCL) and Monash University (Australia), in an experiment on Drosophila flies, discovered that flies fed a high sugar diet in early life died sooner even if their diet was improved later on. The reason is that the unhealthy diet inhibits the action of a gene called FOXO which causes long-term effects, according to a study published on Wednesday in Cell Reports on January 10.

“Dietary history has a long lasting effect on health, and now we know a mechanism behind this. We think the reprogramming of the flies' genes caused by the high sugar diet might occur in other animals. We don't know that it happens in humans, but the signs suggest that it could,” said the report’s first author, Dr. Adam Dobson from UCL Institute of Healthy Ageing.
sugar  diet  health  death 
may 2017 by Quercki
JCI - Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake
RESULTS. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion.

CONCLUSION. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion.

FUNDING. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO, Coppenrath und Wiese, ENERVIT, HIPP, Katadyn, Kellogg, Molda, and Unilever.
salt  water  diet 
may 2017 by Quercki
Notes From The Fatosphere: Should Newly Diagnosed Diabetics Attempt to Lose Weight?
People with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes are faced with difficult decisions about weight loss.

They are often pushed to lose weight with the promise that this will improve their long-term health. The implication is that if they don't lose weight and change their lifestyle, they will surely have a heart attack and die sooner than later. Some care providers (and insurance companies) pressure new diabetics into weight loss programs through strong-arm tactics, shaming, and penalties.

However, the evidence is less than clear on the pros and cons of weight loss for diabetes. 

Short-term research seems to suggest benefits, but long-term research is much less clear. Some research even suggests potential harms. Let's talk about the benefits and risks.

The Look AHEAD Trial 

The Look AHEAD trial is the biggest example of the trade-off of pros and cons. It used an intensive life-style intervention to encourage intentional weight loss in type 2 diabetics. The trial was done with 5,145 people in 16 centers in the United States.

Details of the Study

Unlike most weight-loss trials, this one was long-term; major evaluations were done at 4 years and 8 years, but the study had a "median of 9.6 years of intervention and a maximal follow-up of 11.5 years." Participants were between the ages of 45 and 76 years old, and had to have a BMI over 25. 60% were women, and just over a third were from minority groups.

About half had a BMI under 35, with only about 22% from the heaviest group (BMI over 40). This means study participants skewed towards the lighter end of the BMI spectrum.
diabetes  diet 
february 2017 by Quercki
The Foodscape Argument: When Fatphobia Poses as Radical Social Critique - Food, Fatness and Fitness
According to the foodscape argument, low-income people lack access to nutritious foods and are therefore forced to consume an “unhealthy” diet, which causes them to become too fat. Certainly, it is true that many people live in food deserts (neighborhoods in which food choices are severely restricted), and this injustice urgently needs to be rectified. But the foodscape argument is not the emancipatory theory that it seems to be; as we shall see, it reinforces fatphobia, along with many other interlinked forms of oppression. Here are some reasons why.
fat  diet  social  justice 
june 2016 by Quercki
Why 40 years of official nutritional guidelines prescribed a low-fat diet that promoted heart disease / Boing Boing
Simple does not mean right, of course. It’s difficult to square this theory with the dramatic rise in obesity since 1980, or with much other evidence. In America, average calorific intake increased by just a sixth over that period. In the UK, it actually fell. There has been no commensurate decline in physical activity, in either country – in the UK, exercise levels have increased over the last 20 years. Obesity is a problem in some of the poorest parts of the world, even among communities in which food is scarce. Controlled trials have repeatedly failed to show that people lose weight on low-fat or low-calorie diets, over the long-term.

Those prewar European researchers would have regarded the idea that obesity results from “excess calories” as laughably simplistic. Biochemists and endocrinologists are more likely to think of obesity as a hormonal disorder, triggered by the kinds of foods we started eating a lot more of when we cut back on fat: easily digestible starches and sugars. In his new book, Always Hungry, David Ludwig, an endocrinologist and professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, calls this the “Insulin-Carbohydrate” model of obesity. According to this model, an excess of refined carbohydrates interferes with the self-balancing equilibrium of the metabolic system.
diet  weight  fat  sugar  calories  nutrition 
april 2016 by Quercki
A Vegan No More - The Story of a Recovering Vegan at Diet & Nutrition Support Forum, with image embedded, topic 1728051
Part 3 – Rethinking my Beliefs

3.5 years of veganism didn’t just leave me exhausted, depressed, and very sick, it also filled my head with doubts and questions about the ethics of veganism. If I actually need to eat animals to be healthy, how can it be so wrong? It has been a complicated and eye-opening journey, and I now find myself in a much different place than I was 3 years ago, a year ago, or even several months ago. Perhaps if my health hadn’t improved so dramatically upon the reintroduction of animal flesh I wouldn’t be so sure, but it did improve remarkably, and now that I have my life and my happiness back, I will never give it up again. Ultimately, I can no longer think it is wrong to eat animals.
vegan  diet 
march 2016 by Quercki
Characterization of Adults With a Self-Diagnosis of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity
Background: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), occurring in patients without celiac disease yet whose gastrointestinal symptoms improve on a gluten-free diet (GFD), is largely a self-reported diagnosis and would appear to be very common. The aims of this study were to characterize patients who believe they have NCGS. Materials and Methods: Advertising was directed toward adults who believed they had NCGS and were willing to participate in a clinical trial. Respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire about symptoms, diet, and celiac investigation. Results: Of 248 respondents, 147 completed the survey. Mean age was 43.5 years, and 130 were women. Seventy-two percent did not meet the description of NCGS due to inadequate exclusion of celiac disease (62%), uncontrolled symptoms despite gluten restriction (24%), and not following a GFD (27%), alone or in combination. The GFD was self-initiated in 44% of respondents; in other respondents it was prescribed by alternative health professionals (21%), dietitians (19%), and general practitioners (16%). No celiac investigations had been performed in 15% of respondents. Of 75 respondents who had duodenal biopsies, 29% had no or inadequate gluten intake at the time of endoscopy. Inadequate celiac investigation was common if the GFD was initiated by self (69%), alternative health professionals (70%), general practitioners (46%), or dietitians (43%). In 40 respondents who fulfilled the criteria for NCGS, their knowledge of and adherence to the GFD were excellent, and 65% identified other food intolerances. Conclusions: Just over 1 in 4 respondents self-reporting as NCGS fulfill criteria for its diagnosis. Initiation of a GFD without adequate exclusion of celiac disease is common. In 1 of 4 respondents, symptoms are poorly controlled despite gluten avoidance.
diet  gluten  science  research 
february 2016 by Quercki
Dreams on the Operating Room Table (Bariatric Surgery)
People are misled about the extent and severity of the health risks associated with being fat and told that bariatric surgery is a solution. It’s not. It would be more appropriately labeled high-risk disease- inducing cosmetic surgery than a health-enhancing procedure. And unlike a diet, you usually can’t abandon it when you realize you made a mistake.
Bariatric surgery is nothing more than a forced diet: The various techniques reduce your stomach’s capacity to hold food and/or dam- age your organs so that they can’t absorb as many nutrients. The goal is to intentionally induce malnutrition, and post-surgical nutrition deficiencies are the norm.100,101,102,103,104,105
Dying is a distinct possibility. One study published in the Jour- nal of the American Medical Association followed more than 16,000 people who underwent bariatric surgery and found that 4.6 percent died within a year.106 (Men had higher death rates than women: 7.5 percent versus 3.7 percent.)
Other sources indicate lower mortality rates, but even the Amer- ican Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, which presents the most optimistic picture, indicates that two to five out of every thou- sand individuals die within a month of gastric bypass, the most com- monly conducted surgery.107 Reported results are likely to be deceptively low: One investigative report found that deaths directly attributable to gastric bypass surgery were recorded as deaths from other causes, resulting in many never being accounted for.108
diet  bariatric  surgery  weight  loss 
january 2016 by Quercki
Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses: Cell. David Zeevi8, Tal Korem8, Niv Zmora8, David Israeli8,
•High interpersonal variability in post-meal glucose observed in an 800-person cohort
•Using personal and microbiome features enables accurate glucose response prediction
•Prediction is accurate and superior to common practice in an independent cohort
•Short-term personalized dietary interventions successfully lower post-meal glucose
Elevated postprandial blood glucose levels constitute a global epidemic and a major risk factor for prediabetes and type II diabetes, but existing dietary methods for controlling them have limited efficacy. Here, we continuously monitored week-long glucose levels in an 800-person cohort, measured responses to 46,898 meals, and found high variability in the response to identical meals, suggesting that universal dietary recommendations may have limited utility. We devised a machine-learning algorithm that integrates blood parameters, dietary habits, anthropometrics, physical activity, and gut microbiota measured in this cohort and showed that it accurately predicts personalized postprandial glycemic response to real-life meals. We validated these predictions in an independent 100-person cohort. Finally, a blinded randomized controlled dietary intervention based on this algorithm resulted in significantly lower postprandial responses and consistent alterations to gut microbiota configuration. Together, our results suggest that personalized diets may successfully modify elevated postprandial blood glucose and its metabolic consequences
diet  diabetes  research 
november 2015 by Quercki
The Algorithm That Creates Diets That Work for You - The Atlantic
The team found a huge amount of variation between the volunteers. The same food would cause huge sugar spikes in some people but tiny blips in others. The volunteers also differed substantially in the foods that triggered the sharpest spikes: Participant 445, for example, reacted strongly to bananas, while participant 644 spiked heavily post-cookies. “When people talk to their diabetic friends about foods that spike their glucose level, it's really different for everyone,” says Segal. “That's the intuition but, as far as I know, it's never been demonstrated quantitatively on this scale.”

Zeevi and Korem showed that these personal differences were influenced by familiar factors like age and body mass index, and also less familiar ones like gut microbes. They found several groups of bacteria, and families of bacterial genes, that were linked to stronger PPGRs.

The team developed an algorithm that used all of these individual characteristics—some 137 factors in total—to predict a person's blood-sugar responses to different foods. Unlike carbohydrate counting or the glycemic index, this algorithm doesn't just look at the nutrient content of a meal, but also the traits of the person eating it.
diet  diabetes  research 
november 2015 by Quercki
This diet study upends everything we thought we knew about ‘healthy’ food - The Washington Post
the researchers designed another experiment that involved personalized dietary interventions on 26 new volunteers. The goal was to reduce post-meal blood sugar levels. The clinicians designed two sets of specialized meals — breakfast, lunch, dinner and up to two intermediate meals — for each person that were theorized to be a "good" diet or a "bad" diet. Every participant followed the diets for a full week. The good diets worked, and not only did they see their blood sugar levels going down, they found alterations in their gut microbiota. One interesting finding was that even though the diets were very personalized, several of the changes in the microbiota were similar for participants.

This appears to imply, the researcher said, that we're "really conceptually wrong" in our thinking about the obesity and diabetes epidemic.

We think "we know how to treat these conditions, and it's just that people are not listening and are eating out of control," Segal said, "but maybe people are actually compliant and in many cases we were giving them the wrong advice."
diet  diabetes  weight  genetics 
november 2015 by Quercki
Why diets don’t actually work, according to a researcher who has studied them for decades - The Washington Post
The question that seems to hover over all this diet talk is whether any of the myriad weight loss schemes have worked. If one had, shouldn't it have survived the test of time? And if we've gone this long without a diet that has been shown to work — according to science, not simply the sellers of the fad — will one ever emerge that actually does?

The short answer is no, according to Traci Mann, who teaches psychology at the University of Minnesota and has been studying eating habits, self-control and dieting for more than 20 years. Over the course of her research, largely conducted at the University of Minnesota's Health and Eating Lab, Mann has repeatedly asked these sorts of questions, and always found the same disappointing answers.

Her findings, chronicled in her newly published book "Secrets from the Eating Lab," offer a fascinating explanation for why dieting over the long term is actually impossible.
diet  weight 
may 2015 by Quercki
Decolonizing Diet Project Blog
This blog provides updates on the Decolonizing Diet Project (DDP) an academic research initiative of the Northern Michigan University Center for Native American Studies (approved by IRB: project #HS11-415).

The Northern Michigan University Center for Native American Studies is now in the midst of the analysis and reporting phase of the Decolonizing Diet Project. The DDP staff are busy sorting through the data and preparing presentations and reports. We will be hosting some DDP sponsored events periodically as we continue working on the data. Although the implementation phase has come and gone, we know that the research subjects and friends and family of the DDP are still interacting on Facebook and will continue to incorporate what we have learned from our experience into our daily lives.

We would like to say chi-miigwech (many thanks) to those who have supported our project thus far including Northern Michigan University, the US Forest Service, the Cedar Tree Institute, the Kewenaw Bay Indian Community, and several businesses (please see the list of supporters at the DDP Group Site). If you or your organization would like to donate to this project (whether in the form of food, equipment, or cash), or if you have any questions about the DDP, please contact Dr. Martin Reinhardt, principal investigator, at (906)-227-1397, or email:

We wish everyone the very best as we continue on this exciting adventure.
Native_American  diet  DeColonize 
march 2015 by Quercki
Eating indigenously changes diets and lives of Native Americans | Al Jazeera America
The loss of culture and the rise in diet-related ailments have created a movement across Indian Country for a better way. Reinhardt’s project may be the most academically rigorous, but it is not alone. He was inspired by Devon Mihesuah’s American Indian Health and Diet Project at University of Kansas.

Elsewhere, Winona LaDuke’s Native Harvest connects Indians on Minnesota’s White Earth Reservation with the gathering of traditional foods such as wild rice, corn and maple syrup not only for consumption but also for sale internationally as premium, organic products. Profits from Native Harvest support the affiliated White Earth Land Recovery Project, which aims to reclaim the original land base and preserve original land practices.

Also, two pueblos in New Mexico are fostering indigenous food programs to not only save ancient seed varieties but also to get people to eat them. Ten tribes and urban Indian groups in North Carolina are combating obesity and diabetes by establishing gardens through the University of North Carolina’s Healthy, Native North Carolinians project.
Native_American  diet  DeColonize 
march 2015 by Quercki
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity May Not Exist | RealClearScience
By extension, the study also lent credibility to the meteoric rise of the gluten-free diet. Surveys now show that 30% of Americans would like to eat less gluten, and sales of gluten-free products are estimated to hit $15 billion by 2016 -- that's a 50% jump over 2013's numbers!

But like any meticulous scientist, Gibson wasn't satisfied with his first study. His research turned up no clues to what actually might be causing subjects' adverse reactions to gluten. Moreover, there were many more variables to control! What if some hidden confounder was mucking up the results? He resolved to repeat the trial with a level of rigor lacking in most nutritional research. Subjects would be provided with every single meal for the duration of the trial. Any and all potential dietary triggers for gastrointestinal symptoms would be removed, including lactose (from milk products), certain preservatives like benzoates, propionate, sulfites, and nitrites, and fermentable, poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates, also known as FODMAPs. And last, but not least, nine days worth of urine and fecal matter would be collected. With this new study, Gibson wasn't messing around.

Analyzing the data, Gibson found that each treatment diet, whether it included gluten or not, prompted subjects to report a worsening of gastrointestinal symptoms to similar degrees. Reported pain, bloating, nausea, and gas all increased over the baseline low-FODMAP diet. Even in the second experiment, when the placebo diet was identical to the baseline diet, subjects reported a worsening of symptoms! The data clearly indicated that a nocebo effect, the same reaction that prompts some people to get sick from wind turbines and wireless internet, was at work here. Patients reported gastrointestinal distress without any apparent physical cause. Gluten wasn't the culprit; the cause was likely psychological. Participants expected the diets to make them sick, and so they did. The finding led Gibson to the opposite conclusion of his 2011 research:

“In contrast to our first study… we could find absolutely no specific response to gluten."
gluten  food  science  diet  research 
september 2014 by Quercki
Balancing Jane: I Wish My Friends Trying to Lose Weight Would Read This
Here I am, over a year into (dare I say it) liking myself.

What changed? My diet.

Not my food diet (although, that has changed a lot as I started eating food that made me feel good, consciously avoiding the chemicals and crap I used to rely on as "healthy" alternatives). I changed my media diet. I stopped feeding myself messages that told me my body was worth hating and started consciously seeking out messages that made me realize that health was much more than a number on a scale. And it's health I'm after.

I won't (though I certainly could if I chose) be wearing a bikini to the beach anytime soon, but I did squat 120 pounds in the gym yesterday. My shirts are still size XL, but I did run for an hour in the rain on Sunday. My BMI is still in the overweight category, but my blood pressure is better than it was when I was twenty (and dieting). These are certainly not the only ways to be healthy (and we all have to find our own versions of fit and healthy from within the bodies and abilities we have), but they have certainly been a lot more rewarding for me than my old goals of "get thin" and "be prettier."

So here's my tough spot. I have found what I was really looking for: the ability to take care of myself without hatred, the ability to work out regularly, eat healthy, and not see myself as a failure for not meeting some arbitrary standard of "beautiful." And I want to share.
media  diet  fat  self_image  Love 
september 2013 by Quercki
A gut infection can keep mice lean | Nutrition | Science News
Skinniness could be contagious. Gut bacteria from thin people can invade the intestines of mice carrying microbes from obese people. And these invaders can keep mice from getting tubby, researchers report in the Sept. 6 Science.

“It’s very surprising,” says molecular microbiologist Andreas Schwiertz of the University of Giessen in Germany, who was not involved in the work. “It’s like a beneficial infection.”

But the benefits come with a catch. The invading microbes drop in and get to work only when mice eat healthy food. Even fat-blocking bacteria can’t fight a bad diet, suggests study leader Jeffrey Gordon, a microbiologist at Washington University in St. Louis.

In recent years, researchers have collected clues that suggest that gut microbes can tweak people’s metabolism. Fat and thin people have different microbes teeming in their intestines, for example. And normal-weight mice given microbes from obese mice pack on extra fat, says coauthor Vanessa Ridaura, also of Washington University.

These and other hints have led researchers to experiment with fecal transplants to flush out bad gut microbes and dump in good ones. The transplants can clear up diarrhea and may even help some obese people regain insulin sensitivity. But feces can house dangerous microbes as well as friendly ones.
diet  obesity  microbes  research 
september 2013 by Quercki
You Are Your Bacteria | MIT Technology Review
After a trip to Peru last year, microbiologist Rob Knight came home with a horrendous case of traveler’s diarrhea. He took some antibiotics and quickly recovered. But because Knight had been participating in one of his own studies of the human microbiome–the diverse collection of bacteria and other organisms that inhabit our gut, skin, mouths, and other parts–he could examine how the drugs changed the microbial population in his gut. Microbes did repopulate his digestive tract, but the community makeup was different.

Soon after his trip, Knight restarted a diet and exercise program that had previously proved ineffective at helping him lose weight. This time around, he lost 60 pounds. His mind went straight to his microbes. Previous research from his lab at the University of Colorado, in Boulder, showed that microbes can have a transmissible effect on weight–transplanting microbes from fat, hungry mice into normal mice causes the recipients to eat more and gain weight. “The conjecture was that the antibiotics might clear out the microbes that were already there and make it easier to reshape the community,” says Knight.

Of course, not everyone who takes antibiotics loses weight. And livestock are routinely given the drugs to beef up rather than slim down. But a growing body of evidence suggests that our microbes vary greatly from person to person and play a key role in both metabolism and obesity. By cataloging the variability in different individual’s microbial communities, as well as how those communities change in response to certain drugs or other environmental factors, scientists hope to harness the malleability of our microbes for medical uses.
diet  microbes  bacteria 
june 2013 by Quercki
Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-ana... [Am J Clin Nutr. 2001] - PubMed - NCBI
Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):579-84.
Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies.
Anderson JW, Konz EC, Frederich RC, Wood CL.
VA Medical Center, Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky Health Management Resources Weight Management Program, Lexington, KY, USA.
Current perception is that participants of a structured weight-loss program regain all of their weight loss within 5 y.
The objective was to examine the long-term weight-loss maintenance of individuals completing a structured weight-loss program.
Studies were required to 1) have been conducted in the United States, 2) have included participants in a structured weight-loss program, 3) have provided follow-up data with variance estimates for > or =2 y. Primary outcome variables were weight-loss maintenance in kilograms, weight-loss maintenance as a percentage of initial weight loss, and weight loss as a percentage of initial body weight (reduced weight).
Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Successful very-low-energy diets (VLEDs) were associated with significantly greater weight-loss maintenance than were successful hypoenergetic balanced diets (HBDs) at all years of follow-up. The percentage of individuals at 4 or 5 y of follow-up for VLEDs and HBDs were 55.4% and 79.7%, respectively. The results for VLEDs and HBDs, respectively, were as follows: weight-loss maintenance, 7.1 kg (95% CI: 6.1, 8.1 kg) and 2.0 (1.5, 2.5) kg; percentage weight-loss maintenance, 29% (25%, 33%) and 17% (13%, 22%); and reduced weight, 6.6% (5.7%, 7.5%) and 2.1% (1.6%, 2.7%). Weight-loss maintenance did not differ significantly between women and men. Six studies reported that groups who exercised more had significantly greater weight-loss maintenance than did those who exercised less.
Five years after completing structured weight-loss programs, the average individual maintained a weight loss of >3 kg and a reduced weight of >3% of initial body weight. After VLEDs or weight loss of > or =20 kg, individuals maintained significantly more weight loss than after HBDs or weight losses of <10 kg.
diet  weight  fat  obesity  **** 
june 2013 by Quercki
Long-term weight loss maintenance. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005] - PubMed - NCBI
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 Suppl):222S-225S.
Long-term weight loss maintenance.
Wing RR, Phelan S.
Brown Medical School, The Miriam Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Providence, RI, USA.
There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research has shown that approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss when defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. National Weight Control Registry members have lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 y. To maintain their weight loss, members report engaging in high levels of physical activity ( approximately 1 h/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. Moreover, weight loss maintenance may get easier over time; after individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2-5 y, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases. Continued adherence to diet and exercise strategies, low levels of depression and disinhibition, and medical triggers for weight loss are also associated with long-term success. National Weight Control Registry members provide evidence that long-term weight loss maintenance is possible and help identify the specific approaches associated with long-term success.
PMID: 16002825 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text
fat  weight  diet  obesity  **** 
june 2013 by Quercki
Fat Is Officially Incurable (According to Science) |
Let's get this straight: The number of people who go from fat to thin, and stay there, statistically rounds down to zero.
Every study says so. No study says otherwise. None.
Oh, you can lose a ton of weight. You'll gain it back. Here's one study running the numbers. Here's a much larger analysis of every long-term weight loss study they could find. They all find the exact same thing: You can lose and keep off some minor amount, 10 or 15 pounds, for the rest of your life -- it's hard, but it can be done. Rarer cases may keep off a little more. But no one goes from actually fat to actually thin and stays thin permanently.
diet  fat  weight 
may 2013 by Quercki
The Masai Part II: A Glimpse of the Masai Diet at the Turn of the 20th Century — A Land of Milk and Honey, Bananas From Afar | Mother Nature Obeyed - Weston A Price Foundation
In keeping with the spirit of the first part of this series in which I acknowledged that Masai society has always been in a dynamic state of transition, I’d like to offer a “glimpse” of the traditional Masai diet as it was recorded by the German military officer Moritz Merker at the turn of the twentieth century.
Merker’s extensive study reveals a people who herded cattle for a living, not simply to consume milk, meat, and blood, but to trade with neighboring tribes for a great variety of plant foods and other goods.  It reveals a people who used hundreds of local plants for a great variety of purposes, and who regularly consumed wild honey.
The myth that the Masai eat nothing but milk, blood and meat is derived from the idealized diet of young warriors called moran, a diet that men only eat for 15 years of their life and that women never eat.  Contrary to popular myth, women exist, and Masai women are just as Masai as Masai men.  Indeed, it was the women who conducted most trade during that time, so ignoring the parts of the Masai diet obtained from foreign trade is particularly insulting to the memory of these women.  Merker’s study, moreover, shows that even the supposed exclusivity of the warrior diet is a gross exaggeration and ignores their extensive use of herbs and tree barks, as well as the fact that necessity often drove them to consume honey, roots, tubers and fruit as sources of water and calories while on the march.
Masaai  diet  Africa  Masai 
april 2013 by Quercki
JAMA Network | JAMA | Association of All-Cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index CategoriesA Systematic Review and Meta-analysisAll-Cause Mortality Using BMI Categories
Results  Random-effects summary all-cause mortality HRs for overweight (BMI of 25-<30), obesity (BMI of ≥30), grade 1 obesity (BMI of 30-<35), and grades 2 and 3 obesity (BMI of ≥35) were calculated relative to normal weight (BMI of 18.5-<25). The summary HRs were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.96) for overweight, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for obesity (all grades combined), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01) for grade 1 obesity, and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.18-1.41) for grades 2 and 3 obesity. These findings persisted when limited to studies with measured weight and height that were considered to be adequately adjusted. The HRs tended to be higher when weight and height were self-reported rather than measured.

Conclusions and Relevance  Relative to normal weight, both obesity (all grades) and grades 2 and 3 obesity were associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality. Grade 1 obesity overall was not associated with higher mortality, and overweight was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality.
weigth  obesity  death  mortality  health  diet 
january 2013 by Quercki
Weight Watchers Works. For Two Out of a Thousand. (And They Probably Weren’t Fat to Begin With) « fat fu
But why should I feel obligated to do that when weight loss researchers – including this one – aren’t engaged in anything remotely related to science either. And when they feel no compulsion to be honest or transparent, selectively culling data to play up the faintest glimmers of hope, and downplay the overwhelmingly negative evidence — purely to promote a treatment that is wildly unsuccessful. And leading millions to believe that if we’re fat we can be thin. Because unless we’re extremely lucky – lottery lucky – we can’t.

There’s This Thing Called Informed Consent
But mainly I just raised the bar for “weight loss success” to the level that most people have in mind when they start a weight loss program. I don’t feel the least bit apologetic about this, because weight loss industry advocates for decades have been quietly lowering the bar further and further down so that by now their definition of “a successful weight loss program” bears little relation to what the ordinary person would think it means.

When you hear diet drug claims that they “double” weight loss – it’s probably true – they probably had a study where their 2 lb weight loss doubled the average of 1 lb weight loss.

Which is why a popular topic for weight loss researchers to write about these days is whether “unrealistic weight loss expectations” matter. This is code for “should we feel guilty about the fact that when we talk about ‘success’ we’ve come to mean something completely different from what the public’s been duped into thinking we mean?”

I have a two-word answer: informed consent.

(By the way, if anyone wants a good review of the data out there on weight loss programs I suggest UCLA’s study.)
weight  diet  research  statistics 
january 2013 by Quercki
Abstract 14146: The Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Associated With Pravastatin and Relationship Between Pravastatin and Diet Adherence -- Mizuno et al. 122 (10021): A14146 -- Circulation
Background and aims: In February 2010, a meta-analysis of 13 statin trials with more than 90,000 individuals, including the MEGA Study, reported that statin treatment significantly increased the risk of new-onset diabetes (NODM) by 9%. In the present analysis, we aim to clarify the factors that contributed to NODM in the MEGA Study.
Conclusions: Male sex, high BMI, and triglycerides are the significant risk factors that contribute to the development of NODM, independent of statin use. Poor diet adherence during statin treatment significantly increases the incidence of new-onset diabetes. These results suggest that poor diet adherence is of key importance of new-onset diabetes when patients are treated with a statin.
statins  diabetes  diet 
november 2012 by Quercki
Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift
Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES) challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids), health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality), and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image), and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.
diet  HAES  fat  research  PubMed  obesity  hypertension  diabetes 
july 2012 by Quercki
Vitamin D and Prevention of Cancer — Ready for Prime Time? — NEJM
The committee's comprehensive review of the evidence regarding vitamin D's role in preventing cancer, however, revealed that the research is inconsistent and doesn't establish a cause–effect relationship. Other recent reviews have reached similar conclusions.2,3 No large-scale randomized clinical trial of vitamin D has been completed with cancer as the primary prespecified outcome. Most evidence is derived from laboratory studies, ecologic correlations, and observational investigations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in association with cancer outcomes. Although this serum measure is a useful marker of current vitamin D exposure, associational studies have important limitations. Specifically, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are also linked with confounding factors related to higher cancer risk, including obesity (vitamin D becomes sequestered in adipose tissue), lack of physical activity (correlated with less time outdoors and less solar exposure), dark skin pigmentation (less skin synthesis of vitamin D in response to sun), and diet or supplementation practices. Reverse-causation bias may also occur if poor health reduces participation in outdoor activities and sun exposure or adversely affects diet, resulting in lower vitamin D levels. Association therefore cannot prove causation. Many micronutrients that seemed promising in observational studies (e.g., beta carotene, vitamins C and E, folic acid, and selenium) were not found to reduce cancer risk in randomized clinical trials, and some were found to cause harm at high doses.4
VitaminD  cancer  diet 
march 2011 by Quercki
New Evidence Shakes Up Perceptions of Salt | Reuters
Study Analysis Finds Sodium Consumption Is Not at Extreme Levels The researchers evaluated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, the standard measure of daily sodium intake, from 19,151 individuals collected in 62 previously published surveys from 33 countries worldwide. In contrast to the widely held notion that salt intake has reached extreme levels in Western societies, the analysis indicates that daily sodium intake across a wide range of "food environments" tracks within a relatively narrow range: 117 mmol-212 mmol (2,700-4,900 mg). In addition, previous studies provide supportive evidence that adult humans naturally seek this range of sodium intake.
sodium  hypertension  diet 
october 2009 by Quercki
Soy food consumption does not lower LDL cholesterol in either equol or nonequol producers -- Thorp et al. 88 (2): 298 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
TChol was 3% lower with the S diet (–0.17 ± 0.06 mmol/L; P < 0.05) than with the D diet, and TGs were 4% lower with both the S (–0.14 ± 0.05 mmol/L; P < 0.05) and SD (–0.12 ± 0.05 mmol/L; P < 0.05) diets. There were no significant effects on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or the TChol:HDL cholesterol ratio. On the basis of urinary ISOs, 30 subjects were equol producers. Lipids were not affected significantly by equol production.

Conclusions:Regular consumption of foods providing 24 g SP/d from ISOs had no significant effect on plasma LDL cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, regardless of equol-producing status.
cholesterol  LDL  soy  diet 
may 2009 by Quercki
Junkfood Science: How we’ve come to believe that overeating causes obesity
The biological reality of our weights and weight control, and the effects of dieting, were clinically demonstrated more than 50 years ago in what remains the definitive research on the subject. The findings in this famous study, revolutionary at the time, have been replicated in the most precise, complicated metabolic studies of food intake behavior, energy expenditure and the biochemistry of fat conducted by the country’s top obesity researchers.

This classic study made the most important contributions to our understanding of dieting, yet surprisingly few consumers today have ever heard of it. It was led by one of the world’s most renowned scientists, Ancel Benjamin Keys, Ph.D., popularly known for inventing K-rations — those indestructible transportable foodstuffs of white crackers, greasy sausage, chocolate and candy — that kept our soldiers alive during World War II.
health  food  science  diet  research  fat  history  nutrition 
april 2009 by Quercki
Fructose sets table for weight gain without warning
Although previous studies have shown that being leptin resistant can lead to rapid weight gain on a high-fat, high-calorie diet, this is the first study to show that leptin resistance can develop as a result of high fructose consumption. The study also showed for the first time that leptin resistance can develop silently, that is, with little indication that it is happening.
science  food  fat  biology  diet 
october 2008 by Quercki
Nutrition and the Brain Created by Cavendish IT Services - University of Westminster
omegas, brains, protein, evolution, etc. 39 minute video lecture with slides.
diet  nutrition  omegas  cholesterol  food 
may 2008 by Quercki
Nutrition THESIS
"If everybody ate this way, there would be no disease"
diet  nutrition  food 
may 2008 by Quercki
Letters From the Global Literature
Ornish, Sears, Zone, Atkins duke it out over A to Z study results
september 2007 by Quercki
Seth’s blog
The science Seth who self-experiments
blog  science  health  diet 
march 2007 by Quercki
Cornell University Food and Brand Lab
Why, What, When, and How Much We Eat
food  diet 
november 2006 by Quercki

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