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Quercki : study   6

New York City's Health Department Calls Criminal Justice System A Health Risk
“What New York is doing is smart — people don’t often see how the health care system and criminal justice are interlinked,” University of Georgia sociologist Sarah Shannon, who studies the health effects of incarceration on prisoners and families, said. “But especially in our era of mass incarceration, there has been a lot of evidence they have to affect each other.”

The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene estimates around 577,000 people, 9% of New Yorkers, have been physically threatened or abused by the police. Overall, 29%, roughly 1.9 million people, report even being stopped, frisked, or questioned by the police.

Those people have higher rates of heart disease, diabetes, drug abuse, and mental illness, warns the department, which is starting a new public health campaign focused on educating health care workers about chronic health conditions linked to these patients. Around 27% of those formerly incarcerated, for example, reported poor mental health, compared with 13% among the never incarcerated (the national rate for mental illness is 19%). And 29% of those reporting threats or abuse by the police had poor physical health, compared with 12% of those who hadn’t.
NY  police  contacts  public  health  risk  study 
10 weeks ago by Quercki
New study finds police-related fatalities may occur twice as often as reported | Cornell Chronicle
“One thing that really stands out within our research is that while the large central metros see a large chunk of killings by police, it is only a third of the total,” Edwards said. “That means two-thirds of all the shootings we’re finding are in suburban, smaller metropolitan and rural areas, which have received scant attention from both researchers and the media.”

In the Mountain States, police were responsible for about 17 percent of all homicides, while in the Middle Atlantic states, police accounted for about 5 percent of all homicides. Police accounted for more than 10 percent of all homicides in predominantly rural areas and about 7 percent of all homicides in large central metropolitan areas.
police  murder  people  rural  study  data 
10 weeks ago by Quercki
8% of all male homicides are committed by police, study says — and black men are most at risk
It was clear to me that we didn’t have an understanding of basic police killing facts — how prevalent they are, and some of the geographic regions they happen a lot in,” he added. “We hadn’t really established good baselines for what the rates of killing were.”

Many questions still need to be answered. Edwards is currently working on a future study that will more closely look at the lifetime risk of being killed by police among black, white, Latino/Latina, American Indian, Alaskan Native and Asian-Pacific Islander men and women. So far, his research suggests black women are at the highest risk of police homicide, followed generally by Latina women, then American Indian, white and Asian.

There’s also a question of why so many people die during encounters with police, regardless of whether or not it was a homicide.
police  murder  people  study  data 
10 weeks ago by Quercki
Risk of Police-Involved Death by Race/Ethnicity and Place, United States, 2012–2018 | AJPH | Vol. 108 Issue 9
Objectives. To estimate the risk of mortality from police homicide by race/ethnicity and place in the United States.

Methods. We used novel data on police-involved fatalities and Bayesian models to estimate mortality risk for Black, Latino, and White men for all US counties by Census division and metropolitan area type.

Results. Police kill, on average, 2.8 men per day. Police were responsible for about 8% of all homicides with adult male victims between 2012 and 2018. Black men’s mortality risk is between 1.9 and 2.4 deaths per 100 000 per year, Latino risk is between 0.8 and 1.2, and White risk is between 0.6 and 0.7.

Conclusions. Police homicide risk is higher than suggested by official data. Black and Latino men are at higher risk for death than are White men, and these disparities vary markedly across place.

Public Health Implications. Homicide reduction efforts should consider interventions to reduce the use of lethal force by police. Efforts to address unequal police violence should target places with high mortality risk.
police  murder  Black  Latino  men  study  data 
10 weeks ago by Quercki
Study slams Oakland police department for racial bias | PBS NewsHour
WOMAN: So, this when I just broke down the entire stops into both race and gender.

JACKIE JUDD: Researchers at nearby Stanford University spent two years analyzing vast amounts of data, field reports from 28,000 stops officers made on the streets and roads during a 13-month period, and body-cam video from 2,000 of those encounters. They expected to find about 7,800 stops of African-Americans. In fact, there were more than double, almost 17,000 stops.

What surprised everyone involved even more was the huge gap in handcuffing.

REBECCA HETEY: Even when we took out stops that resulted in arrests, we found that one in four black men, for example, were handcuffed, compared to one in 15 white men.

JACKIE JUDD: Analysis of the body-cam video also found disparities. Lead researcher Jennifer Eberhardt says, while no racial slurs were uttered, certain words were used far more frequently when an officer questioned an African-American.

JENNIFER EBERHARDT, Stanford University: We started by just looking at linguistic patterns in that footage. And we found, for black stops, words that are associated with probation, parole, arrest, jail time, those kinds of things…

JACKIE JUDD: So, there was an assumption that the black person who had been stopped had a criminal record?

JENNIFER EBERHARDT: There was a possibility of that. In our discussions with community members, there was a lot of concern that there are ways in which they’re stopped where there’s a suspicion of criminality.

So, implicit bias can influence us unintentionally.

JACKIE JUDD: Eberhardt is a national expert on implicit, or unconscious, bias, and she trains Oakland officers to understand what that means.
Oakand  police  study  racism  bias  Stanford  data 
june 2016 by Quercki
If I Was A Poor Black Kid - Yahoo! News
I’d become expert at Google Scholar.   I’d visit study sites like SparkNotes and CliffsNotes to help me understand books.  I’d watch relevant teachings on Academic Earth, TED and the Khan Academy.  (I say relevant because some of these lectures may not be related to my work or too advanced for my age. But there are plenty of videos on these sites that are suitable to my studies and would help me stand out.)  I would also, when possible, get my books for free at Project Gutenberg and learn how to do research at the CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia to help me with my studies.
I would use homework tools like Backpack, and Diigo to help me store and share my work with other classmates.  I would use Skype to study with other students who also want to do well in my school.  I would take advantage of study websites like Evernote, Study Rails, Flashcard Machine, Quizlet, and free online calculators. Is this easy?  No it’s not.  It’s hard.  It takes a special kind of kid to succeed.  And to succeed even with these tools is much harder for a black kid from West Philadelphia than a white kid from the suburbs.  But it’s not impossible.  The tools are there.  The technology is there.  And the opportunities there.
education  study 
december 2011 by Quercki

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