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aries1988 : academia   33

何谓“欧洲文明”?

陈乐民、周弘认为,促进欧洲社会发展和进步的文明,主要是指:以求真善美的希腊思想为源头的哲学、伦理学和美学;重视社会效能的政治学、经济学、法学;凝合人生、人性、人格至善本性的基督教精神;探索宇宙,改造自然,造福人类的科学实践。

马克思在分析希腊和罗马建立殖民地根源时非常精辟的一段论述:“在古代国家,在希腊和罗马,采取周期性地建立殖民地形式的强迫移民是社会制度的一个固定环节。这两个国家的整个制度都是建立在人口的一定限度上的,超过这个限度,古代文明就有毁灭的危险。……由于生产力不够发展,公民权要由一种不可违反的一定数量对比关系来决定。那时,惟一的出路就是强迫移民。”这种贸易和殖民的过程,也是希腊人开始走向文明的过程。
LOL

西欧文明之所以有深厚、持久的历史文化传统和创造性活力,其根本原因在于:西欧进入文明社会以来,在特定历史条件下,它经历了约两千五百年的奴隶制社会,一千多年的封建制社会,近四百年的资本主义社会,这些社会形态及其历史阶段都得到比较充分的发展,而且西欧文明在各历史阶段,又善于从周边的诸多外部文明中吸纳、摄取优秀文化成果,才使自身得以发展、壮大。
FRD Norbert Elias

刘文明认为,“文明”观念在欧洲经历了一个演变过程,它源于中世纪宫廷社会的“宫廷礼仪”,经文艺复兴时期的“礼貌”,最终于18世纪中叶出现“文明”这一名词,到19世纪发展成为具有“现代”意涵的“文明”概念。在这一过程中,通过自诩为“文明”群体的“自我”与被贬低为“野蛮”群体的“他者”之间的互动,欧洲人对“文明”的认知及自我“文明”的认同得到强化,并将“文明阶梯”的空间序列时间化,以欧洲经验为基础的“文明”概念被建构起来。
2000s  book  academia  chinese  europe  civ  origin  debate  greek  emigration  antiquity 
october 2018 by aries1988
由劍橋生化博士到初創企業家,她要用AI推翻科學知識的高牆 |端傳媒 Initium Media
「我希望人工智能和網絡可以協助更多人發現和學習到最新的科學知識,正如你可以去YouTube找尋怎樣修理你的咖啡機一樣。」
entrepreneurial  ai  research  academia 
july 2018 by aries1988
Meet the pirate queen making academic papers free online
She cared less about the form than the function: she wanted a global brain. To her, paywalls began to seem like the plaques in an Alzheimer’s-riddled mind, clogging up the flow of information.
academia  stans  story  science  piracy  female  leader  russia  today  idea  world  brain  knowledge  share 
february 2018 by aries1988
来福:肆无忌惮的删帖时代,“谣言”才是抵达真相的途径?|一周精选|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
一天之内,发布消息的微信公众号遭到轮番删帖,微博热搜榜也被删去了与此事件相关的关键词。但屏蔽机制这次并没有太奏效,事件的热度接连暴涨,人们既为北京在寒冬里驱逐的外来“低端人口”鸣不平,又为京城里连城市中产的孩子都无法逃离魔掌而感到绝望(编注:该幼儿园的学费为5500元人民币/月)。

“底层”与“中产”,此刻才强烈意识到彼此是休戚与共的命运共同体。

问题在于,我们处在一个正常的社会吗?

在一个正常的社会,当家长发现了自己的孩子身上有针孔,从她的话里得知其在学校可能被陌生人脱光衣服后,一定会报警,警方会迅速介入,控制嫌疑人,启动侦查程序;之后检察院会介入,对案件进行审查起诉,再由法院进行公平裁决,无论嫌疑人有多大背景,司法程序都可以流畅运转;媒体当然也会介入全程,发布详实可信的调查报导;待到事件落幕,整个教育系统会有针对性地启动结构性改革,同时社会组织会推动未成年性教育,使其成为重要的社会议题。

文章在标题把红黄蓝幼儿园虐童事件(以下简称“红黄蓝”事件)和江歌案相提并论,但却不提为什么江歌案事件里几乎没有媒体和自媒体被删帖,而“红黄蓝”事件中,一开始发消息的媒体报导和公众号文章,几乎全都被屏蔽了。不把删帖这个因素考虑进去,单纯地将教科书里的传播学理论拿出来套用在事件上,才是真正的“失焦”。

江歌案可以被随意讨论,那是“人民内部矛盾”,你们怎么撕都无所谓;而这次的事件之所以要“全覆盖、无死角”地删帖,那是因为这已是人民与高墙间的“敌我矛盾”——我们只能这么解读,删帖的规则在“黑盒”里,无法被看到,只能从现象反推回去分析。

此类呼声,无论初心如何,实质上都模糊了问题的真正所在,也是删帖的源头之处。不讨论不受制约的权力,转而以“疑罪从无”的司法原则去谴责沸腾的民意,并以此为接近真相的方式,大概算是中国当代一大奇观。
opinion  essay  2017  beijing  scandal  children  kid  media  communication  academia 
november 2017 by aries1988
Stuck on one idea of truth or beauty? Rhizomes can help | Aeon Ideas
Why did they invent such strange philosophical concepts as rhizomes? One reason is to help us appreciate the singularity of each thing as well as each thing’s myriad connections to other things. This vision of an interconnected world of singularities, in turn, can change how we act in the world.

According to Nietzsche, the task of modern philosophy is to overturn Platonism, to stop looking for eternal blueprints of how things should be, and instead value this world of difference and becoming. Taking up this assignment, Deleuze and Guattari propose that we think in terms of ‘rhizomes’. A rhizome is a plant such as a potato, couch grass or bamboo. Rhizomes do not have seeds or trunks; rather, they shoot out stems and reproduce when a part breaks off and grows again, each one slightly different from its predecessor. A Thousand Plateaus helps us see the distinctiveness and connectivity of multiple things that compose reality. ‘A rhizome,’ they wrote, ‘ceaselessly establishes connections between semiotic chains, organisations of power, and circumstances relative to the arts, sciences, and social struggles.’ The concept of the rhizome helps us to view our lives as assemblages of words, institutions, songs, medicines, social movements, and countless other things that are related but also distinct.
concept  politics  culture  identity  academia  language  people 
may 2017 by aries1988
李笑来 - 知乎Live分享 - 我的读书经验 - 简书

大量閱讀學術論文,真的是非常鍛鍊閱讀理解能力的,請注意我的措辭啊,不是閱讀能力,而是閱讀理解能力。重點在於理解能力,這個我一會兒還會從新提起。

所以有寫作目標的人相對來看,在閱讀的時候更容易做到有目的的閱讀和主動閱讀。

從書本當中去獲得知識的時候,最重要的一點是什麼?最重要的一點是隻字不差的閱讀,然後讀不懂的地方反覆去讀,直至把那個傳遞的信息深刻的印在自己的腦子裡。應用在自己生活當中。

阅读一定要在安静的地方吗?你觀察一下大自然你就知道了,這個傲嬌的物種必然很快滅絕。如果你只能在安靜的地方讀書,那就完啦,你隨時都有可能被打斷的。
reading  tips  thinking  howto  academia 
september 2016 by aries1988
爱看历史书籍,但看完很容易忘记具体的细节,有什么好办法么? - 知乎

首先,最直接的,就是教会我们怎样有效地去了解、去欣赏一个不同的文化世界:欧洲的修道院也好,日本的庄园经济也好,或者是其他各种不同的文明。按照本系系主任老师的说法,修读过历史系的学生,以后去了国际关系呀、传媒之类的领域,也许不会直接和古代世界打交道了;但是,在对各种纷繁的问题的时候,土耳其的政变啦、某个社会现象啦,他们知道该如何着手,他们知道哪些东西自己首先要记住,然后要去看哪些材料、追索哪些问题——在这个过程中,向有关的学者请教,也会事半功倍。

稍稍,进阶一些,就是告诉我们很多神话是如何被组织起来的。我们是一个怎样的国家,我们的民族从哪里来,到哪里去,我们从小就接受了很多这样的教育。我们至少可以问:这样的历史叙事是如何被搭建起来的?哪些地方我们要保持一些谨慎和怀疑?有没有一种可能,可以搭建成一种别的样子?哪些地方,我们可以期待一些进一步的拓展?要之,对历史的爱好依然可以带给我们很多。小一些说,她让我们在信息时代变得有效率;大一些说,她也帮助我们成为一个更好的公共人。
reading  book  history  howto  academia  tips  notes  knowledge 
september 2016 by aries1988
为什么我不喜欢学术圈子-刘瑜-财新博客-新世纪的常识传播者-财新网
“名校文科博士”这个名号,大约可以说明一个人英语水平不太烂(总得把 GRE考过而且成绩靠谱吧),它还可以说明一个人比较坚强(考了这么多年的各种变态试仍然没有跨掉),以及懒得不离谱(好歹得码完各种作业以及毕业论文才让毕业),仅此而已了。
essay  academia 
august 2016 by aries1988
Python vs Fortran in Scientific Computing

Now though it’s programming time that is expensive and Python is a lot easier to learn than Fortran. Unlike Fortran, Python’s arrays are not fast. In fact they are probably a 100 times slower but the NumPy library largely reduces this. I suspect, that if it is out and out performance you want, then Fortran will win but Python with SciPy and NumPy is a very potent combination. Add to this the nearly 80,000 packages in pypi (the Python Package Index) which includes 16 sub-categories of the Scientific/Engineering category (from AI to visualization) and Python looks very promising indeed.
python  fortran  comparison  academia 
june 2016 by aries1988
历史的发展路径已经确定了吗?
以西方的兴起为例,正如伊恩•莫里斯在本书中简洁概括的,所有的解释大抵可以分为两类:一类认为西方的兴起是“长期注定”的,另一类则强调那只是“短期偶然”所导致。前者强调有某个关键因素(人种、地理、文化、政治等)在很久之前(常常追溯到古希腊)就决定了工业革命必然发生在西方;而后者则认为西欧不过是运气较好而已,而且其优势直到1750年代仍不明显,换言之,西方的兴起不仅偶然,而且领先于世界其他地区不过是最近两百多年的现象。

他的结论是:“生物学和社会学能解释全球范围内的相似之处,而地理学则能解释区域差异。从这个意义上讲,是地理学解释了西方为何主宰世界。”在他看来,是地理这一非人为因素致使中西方走上了不同道路,这是因为第一,中国“无法拥有属于自己的地中海”,因而就缺乏廉价和便捷的水运通道,导致贸易活动只能局限于相对较小的范围内;其次,地理因素使西方人比东方人更容易到达美洲。他反复强调,“明朝的中国永远也不可能创造一个西方后期大西洋经济的东方版本”,因为对中国人来说“地理是一个极为不利的因素”。
book  history  comparison  development  academia  debate  geography  fate  future  explained  question 
june 2016 by aries1988
Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone | Science | AAAS
The United States is the fifth largest downloader after Russia, and a quarter of the Sci-Hub requests for papers came from the 34 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the wealthiest nations with, supposedly, the best journal access. In fact, some of the most intense use of Sci-Hub appears to be happening on the campuses of U.S. and European universities.
data  numbers  piracy  academia 
may 2016 by aries1988
Why so much science research is flawed – and what to do about it
Some fields of research are less susceptible than others, though. In astronomy, chemistry and physics, for instance, people have a very strong tradition of sharing data, and of using common databases like big telescopes or high energy physical experiments, Ioannidis says. They are very cautious about making claims that eventually will be refuted. But in fields where such checks and balances are absent, irreproducible results are rife.
science  academia  data  debate  ethic  scientist 
april 2016 by aries1988
The 'Out The Door' rant
In his superb book Writing for social scientists (which should be renamed Writing for everyone), Howard Becker talks about the importance of being the kind of writer who can get stuff Out The Door. He suggests writers need to think more like companies who make gadgets like phones and computers. Electronic consumer goods companies have similar problems to writers, but they have shipping schedules they must stick to if they want to stay in business.

The engineers will want to delay shipping until the product matchs the vision in their heads, but the marketing people will be happy with ‘good enough’. Even if the new gadget is rough around the edges, the marketing people will still make the engineers get it Out The Door. According to Becker the logic of the marketing people is simple: if it sells, there will be money for to build the next version. The next version will be be better, but, meanwhile, this one will do (some companies are great at doing this and still turning a massive profit).

The problem with intellectual labour is, although it can be hard, the effects of the struggle are not visible. My very favourite scene in the sitcom Big Bang Theory is where two of the characters, Sheldon and Raj, are collaborating on a physics problem. The scene consists of jump cuts of the two scientists, staring at equations on a whiteboard, while the theme to the movie ‘Rocky’ plays. The scene perfectly captures the inner experience of intellectual struggle vs the outer appearance of … well, pretty much nothing.

So remember: your inner engineering department does not always have your best interests at heart. You may not like your inner marketing department, but when they do their job properly you won’t go broke. Repeat after me: Perfect is the enemy of Done. Speaking of which – I’m off to finish editing that chapter now. The marketing people are nagging at me to ship it already.
book  writing  academia  thesis  howto  psychology  instapaper_favs 
july 2015 by aries1988
The Decline of International Studies
If you want evidence-based expertise on terrorism in Pakistan, environmental degradation in China, or local politics in provincial Russia, there is someone in an American university who can provide it. It is harder to imagine a Pakistani scholar who knows Nebraska, a Chinese researcher who can speak with authority about the revival of Detroit, or a Russian professor who wields original survey data on the next U.S. presidential race.
usa  academia  geopolitics  study  world 
june 2015 by aries1988
Quels débouchés pour les doctorats ?
Pour les chercheurs David Monniaux et Guillaume Miquelard-Garnier, l’université n’a pas vocation à répondre aux besoins des entreprises. Mais s’en détourner totalement condamne les doctorants à la précarité et au chômage
academia  job  opinion  doctorat  français 
june 2015 by aries1988
Crowded Out of Ivory Tower, Adjuncts See a Life Less Lofty - NYTimes.com
From 1993 to 2011, the percentage of faculty members without tenure surged nationally from 57 percent to 70 percent, according to the American Association of University Professors, a research and advocacy group. Of those faculty members, a vast majority are adjunct professors like Mr. Hoff.

“They feel a lack of dignity, a lack of respect, a lack of visibility,” said Barbara Bowen, the president of the Professional Staff Congress at CUNY, who said her union would demand increased job security for adjuncts in coming contract negotiations.
academia  literature  usa  money 
december 2014 by aries1988
They Call Me Doctor Berry - NYTimes.com
So what can I do? I already have to run faster and jump higher just to gain that minimal level of respect that my colleagues are graciously, automatically afforded. But I can also insist that my students interact with me in a professional manner, even if it’s not something they’re accustomed to in other classes.

For me, this statistical desert is made even more stark by the fact that, at a private school in a Midwestern town like mine, students may have interacted with African-Americans only in the service industry, or in high school, with female teachers.
race  academia 
november 2014 by aries1988
土博无牛文章非牛老板申请K99的经历 - 未名空间(mitbbs.com)
进入未名形象秀 [ 回复 ] [ 回信给作者 ] [ 本篇全文 ] [ 本讨论区 ] [ 修改 ] [ 删除 ] [ 转寄 ] [ 转贴 ] [ 收藏 ] [ 举报 ] [ 1 ] 发信人: akanggg (阿康), 信区: Biology 标  题: 土博无牛文章非牛老板申请K99的经历 发信站: BBS…
academia 
november 2014 by aries1988
Sciences en marche joue de la tête et des jambes
« Au fond, on n’a pas de revendication précise, on va sur la route, on parle aux gens, on leur dit que la France n’a pas de vision stratégique sur la recherche fondamentale. En général, ils comprennent très bien », déclare Patrick Lemaire.
science  reportage  france  academia  manif  crisis  scientist 
november 2014 by aries1988
La science française face à la crise
Cet indicateur s’appuie cependant sur des critères apparus au cœur du milieu académique lui-même : le calcul d’impact des articles scientifiques. Ce dernier repose sur le fait que le travail de recherche passe par la diffusion des résultats et donc par leur publication dans des revues. En fin d’article, les auteurs mentionnent, par des citations et des références, les travaux antérieurs pertinents. Dans les années 1960, l’Américain Eugene Garfield en a tiré un index des citations permettant de savoir quelle revue est la plus citée, gage a priori d’une plus grande réputation. La technique s’est ensuite déclinée jusqu’à l’échelle du chercheur, d’autant « meilleur » qu’il est plus cité.

En juin, Dominique Faudot, présidente de la commission permanente du Conseil national des universités, lors de la séance plénière du CoNRS, avait présenté une statistique méconnue. Le nombre de docteurs français en science a baissé de 15 % depuis 2000. Et si le nombre de doctorats délivrés en France augmentent, c’est grâce aux étudiants étrangers.

Des bourses de doctorat académique-privé (conventions industrielles de formation par la recherche ou Cifre) s’ajoutent à la panoplie (on en comptait 1 350 en 2012). « Il y a clairement un encouragement aux relations entre les laboratoires publics et les entreprises. Et il faut encore progresser dans ces liens », estime Denis Randet, délégué général de l’Association nationale recherche technologie (ANRT). « Certes, on n’a pas inventé l’électricité en cherchant à perfectionner la bougie, mais tous les chercheurs ont en tête des problèmes à résoudre. Et on ne peut pas se priver des questions posées par les entreprises », complète-t-il.
today  france  academia  reportage  crisis  numbers 
november 2014 by aries1988
Don't Send Your Kid to the Ivy League
They have mastered them all, and with a serene self-assurance that leaves adults and peers alike in awe. A friend who teaches at a top university once asked her class to memorize 30 lines of the eighteenth-century poet Alexander Pope. Nearly every single kid got every single line correct. It was a thing of wonder, she said, like watching thoroughbreds circle a track.

So extreme are the admission standards now that kids who manage to get into elite colleges have, by definition, never experienced anything but success. The prospect of not being successful terrifies them, disorients them. The cost of falling short, even temporarily, becomes not merely practical, but existential. The result is a violent aversion to risk.

Wealthy families start buying their children’s way into elite colleges almost from the moment they are born: music lessons, sports equipment, foreign travel (“enrichment” programs, to use the all-too-perfect term)—most important, of course, private-school tuition or the costs of living in a place with top-tier public schools.
academia  education  society  equality  opinion  usa 
september 2014 by aries1988
雾霾笼罩下的烟雾箱_三联生活网
“一个强大污染来的时候,我们应该做什么?目前有效的应急措施主要针对燃煤和机动车。我们首先应该减少周边的煤,控制本地机动车数量。但是从长远看,还要做许多其他工作。京津冀鲁燃煤量占了全国的22%,全球的11%;生产的钢铁占了全国的25%,全球的15%。这么大一个燃烧量,我们京津冀鲁的面积才占全球陆地面积的0.3%不到。这么小的面积烧了全球11%的煤,我们不是个烟囱是什么?气象卫星遥感监测显示我们这一块总是红的,你们不用奇怪,它就是一个红的。”(注:红色表示大气污染强度特别严重的区域)

“如此高的污染物浓度,少量增加或减少对感官能见度几乎没有影响。PM2.5和能见度之间的关系存在一个阈值,100微克/立方米的PM2.5能见度就是2公里左右。PM2.5到75微克/立方米能见度5公里,35微克/立方米能见度10公里,10微克/立方米能见度30公里。只有大气PM2.5浓度下降到100微克/立方米以下,才会显示出明显的效果。”
academia  china  today  pollution 
april 2014 by aries1988

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