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讲稿|许宏:考古学视角下的“中国”诞生史
我们一直以来就存在着历史文献学和考古学两大话语系统,这两大话语系统最初是边界明显的:一边是历史文献上的伏羲、女娲、三皇五帝、夏商周王朝;一边是考古学上的前仰韶、仰韶、龙山、二里头、二里岗时代。这两大话语系统的合流是在殷墟。为什么是在殷墟?有一个绝对不可逾越的条件就是,当时有可以证明自己族属和王朝归属的文字材料出现,这才可以把这两大话语系统整合

从历史学阐释来讲,大家可能注意到了,我们正在逐渐放弃奴隶社会、封建社会的这样一些概念。比如像封建社会这样的概念,完全是误译和误用,完全不符合中国的历史实际。如果说中国有过封建时代的话,那么它应该指的是秦汉帝国之前西周王朝“封邦建国”的那个时代,它是一种政治的分权化,而不是后来大一统的、郡县制的、中央集权的东西。中国可能出现过奴隶,但是没有什么证据能证明当时存在过一个叫奴隶制的时代。在中国国家博物馆“古代中国陈列”中,开宗明义就说我们已经放弃了这套话语系统,但是在该馆对面的“复兴之路”那个展览上,半封建半殖民地社会这样的说法还有,这实际上也是社会进步比较大的一个表现。

大体上在距今四千年前后,有一个大的断裂,从那儿开始,像二里头、二里岗、殷墟文化就是所谓的夏商文化,这样大的中原文明出现了。我现在是二里头考古队的队长,二里头这个遗址既不是最大的,也不是最早的,但它是整个东亚大陆人类群团从多元走向一体,从满天星斗变成月明星稀的这么一个节点,而青铜在其中起到了极大的作用。

黄帝是土生土长的中国人吗?这也是个问题。黄帝号称轩辕氏,最拿手的是“以师兵为营卫”,善用兵车,而车完全是外来的。在青铜时代及之前,在五百年前的大航海时代之前,西北地区才是中国改革开放的前沿阵地,等于说陕北的重要性就在于它是连接欧亚大陆内陆和中原地区的一个纽带和桥梁,这样一看就明白了。

吉德炜教授从器物的组合来推想当时人们思维的复杂化,推想当时的制作是需要有一定的组织与管理,从而可能会导致思维的复杂化,甚至这种合作会导致语言的复杂化。而这种思维和语言方面的复杂化,使得整个东部的中国人在最初的时候是走在前列的,然后大家逐鹿中原,到最后才导致一个更高的文明实体出现。

说到中国的饮食习惯,南北方的主食完全不同、生活习俗完全不同,但是后来由于文字和整个政治架构的因素,被融合在了一起,这其中也有不少问题有待于探究。

德国著名汉学家雷德侯教授的《万物》一书,就是从模件和它的规模化生产,引申出中国人的行为方式甚至思维方式,像汉字的偏旁部首,也就那么几个,却让中国人出神入化地造出了那么丰富的汉字。

在这里,我们还发现了中国最早的中轴线布局的、四合院式的宫殿建筑群。大家知道,中轴线对中国人太重要了,坐北朝南、封闭式结构、土木建筑、中轴对称……这样一些建筑原则甚至是礼制、政治原则,一直为后代中国所承继。这些东西,从建中立极到中庸,甚至河南话的“中不中?中!”,这就是“中”文化,是原典文化。
用什么方式来显现类似于巴特农神庙那种带有纪念碑性质的东西呢?由于中国的土木建筑堆不高,我们就向纵深发展,“庭院深深深几许”,注重多进院落,大家说单进的四合院就是小门小户,三进的和五进的恐怕就得是贵族和王爷一级的居所了。

在二里头和此后的二里岗时期,就是郑州商城的那个时期,二里头和郑州商城以外,绝对不允许也不可能有任何一个地方能够或敢于铸造青铜礼器,这就是“国之大事,在祀与戎”。祭祀,就是青铜礼器这套东西;戎,就是绝对的打击能力。这也是“两手抓,两手都要硬”,这些就代表了当时“先进文化的发展方向”。这些东西使得二里头发达起来了,现在看来,这“立国之本”在古代和现代都是一样的。以前是祭祀,现在是开会,都是提高凝聚力。所以就是这样一套与礼制相关的东西已经开始出来了,大家看在此前是相对平等的社会,还没有这些东西。

整个黄河上、中、下游,包括三星堆都受到二里头的影响,三星堆青铜文明高度发达,已经到了殷墟时期,跟二里头比还是相对很晚的。在各地出土的跟二里头很相近的东西,模仿品,说明二里头的扩散应该不是强力的军事推进,而是各地的酋长、首长或者是人民选择性地接受二里头元素的产物,就是以它为高、为大、为上,导致文明向外扩散。

长程地看,前国家时代和国家文明还是泾渭分明的。这种向心、开放的聚落形态是属于原始民主制的,这样的模式跟这种封闭性、独占性、秩序性的聚落形态形成鲜明对比。不少著名学者在他们的书里都说,“不让看”是中国古代政治文明的一个重要特征,账本不让看、地图不让看、紫禁城不让看,它是封闭性的、独占性的,它很难形成广场上纪念碑式的东西,这些都是一脉相承的。大家看从二里头开始,整个大四合院的建筑、多进院落宫室建筑群一直到明清紫禁城,这是一脉相承发展下来的。
如果现在观察中国中西部农村,跟两千年以前,就是战国到汉代铁犁铧发明之后的农民生活,几乎是一样的,但我们不能说中国没有进步,还是要看都邑,看金字塔的塔尖。

我们如果放开眼界,就会发现以青铜冶铸为代表的一些外来的因素有东渐的趋势,很明显,这种交流和传递是一波一波的。我的下一本小书就想以“东亚青铜潮”为主题,以前甲骨文时代的千年变局为主线,从全球文明史的视角,来写这个宏阔的态势,探究中国是怎么诞生的。有种叫塞伊玛-图尔宾诺的文化现象在中亚地区最初出现年代比较早,可能对西北的齐家文化,甚至二里头文化产生过重要的影响,所以说那个时候我们不是封闭的,我们的青铜文明的发生大量吸收了外来的文化因素。

文字是否一定要通过几千年的积累才能成型?契丹文字和日本文字可以在很快的时间,吸收外来的刺激和影响后产生

比如说兵马俑,古代中国人的解剖学常识是非常差的,兵马俑那样的非常逼真的东西是纯本土的吗?甚至我们现在也有同仁在研究,像秦汉帝国这样大的帝国统治方式是不是我们自己的发明。要知道,在它二三百年之前,波斯帝国已经形成了,非常有意思。所以从这个意义上讲,只懂考古,已经搞不好考古了,只懂中国,已经搞不清中国了。是不是这样的道理?诸位年轻人外语非常好,一定要开阔眼界,在全球文明史的层面来看我们中华文明的形成。今后一定要从这样大的视野来做整合研究。
world  history  advice  archaeology  china  origin  opinion  asia  historiography 
march 2019 by aries1988
郝景芳:2019,给普通人6个建议
因此,等我们的孩子毕了业,面临的就会是这样的就业局面:高收入工作要求超级专业(例如法律、医生),或者超级有创造力(例如研发、设计、娱乐)。若不能做到极度专业,或者极度具有创造力,他们就缺少在未来就业市场的竞争力。

一是经济学基本原理:稀缺性原理。越稀缺、且被人需要的东西,价格越贵。这是经济颠扑不破的出发点。

在当前经济里,最稀缺的就是才能。全世界范围内,能源和大宗商品价格涨涨跌跌,但高技能人才的薪资却一直不变地上涨。很多人不明白为什么石油能跌到40美金,而高管的年薪能达到数百万美金。

我们都知道,一般人都需要满足了基础饱暖和安全感,才会想要追求更高层的精神目标。而我们很少思考的是:一般人在满足低层需求之后,都会自然产生更高的精神目标。
如果从小就吃饱穿暖,那么人生目标就提升到追求成就、名声这些尊重需求了。
如果从小就有了成功地位,那么人生目标就提升为自我实现需求了。
而与此同时,能够帮助人们自我实现的经济,也会有越来越大的市场空间。个性化顾问和咨询会成为越来越主流的需求,因为每个人、每个团队的自我实现都不一样。
教育亦如此。成就个体的教育是下个时代所需。

解决问题思维,和,探究本质思维,就是知识经济最重要的核心素养了。

那对于我们普通人,有什么建议呢?
· 第一条建议,就是内心笃定一点。
· 第二条建议,就是理解人的基本需求。
· 第三条建议,就是持续投资于知识技能提升。
· 第四条建议,就是给孩子探究和发挥创意的教育。
· 第五条建议,就是不要鄙薄孩子任何发展方向。
· 第六条建议,就是重视理解事物的本质。
tianjin  author  scifi  self  success  2019  china  advice  parenting  future  education  workforce 
january 2019 by aries1988
I’m Charles Schnake and This Is How I Mesh | Another Fine Mesh
I think that a big problem I see being wrestled with right now is the scalability of CFD, and by that I don’t just mean the ability of the solvers to run efficiently on many nodes/cores. How can we (engineering software vendors) enable CFD engineers to run more simulations, evaluate more designs, and gain more insight faster?

I’m a relatively laidback person who prefers a comfortable casual atmosphere, so I really enjoy a hole-in-the-wall joint serving up street & comfort foods. That said, if we’re talking bucket-list type establishments I would choose a three Michelin star establishment like Alinea (Chicago), Jiro (Tokyo), or Meadowood (Napa). The formality of it all would probably make me a little uncomfortable at first, but I imagine that the quality of the food & service would eradicate that in short order and leave me with an unforgettable experience.
peer  cfd  advice  restaurant 
december 2018 by aries1988
I’m Sebastian Desand and This Is How I Mesh | Another Fine Mesh
What is some of the best CFD advice you’ve ever received?

Keep it simple and use the computational power available. The more you model, the more sources of error and uncertainty.
Never forget to ask “so-what” after concluding something. The value is very often in the implications.
cfd  temoignage  advice  entrepreneurial  sweden  cloud 
november 2018 by aries1988
Yuval Noah Harari on Why Technology Favors Tyranny - The Atlantic

- In 2018 the common person feels increasingly irrelevant.
By 2050, a useless class might emerge, the result not only of a shortage of jobs or a lack of relevant education but also of insufficient mental stamina to continue learning new skills.

- whatever liberal democracy’s philosophical appeal, it has gained strength in no small part thanks to a practical advantage: The decentralized approach to decision making that is characteristic of liberalism—in both politics and economics.
In the late 20th century, democracies usually outperformed dictatorships, because they were far better at processing information.
Democracy distributes the power to process information and make decisions among many people and institutions, whereas dictatorship concentrates information and power in one place.
- If you disregard all privacy concerns and concentrate all the information relating to a billion people in one database, you’ll wind up with much better algorithms than if you respect individual privacy and have in your database only partial information on a million people.

- What will happen to this view of life as we rely on AI to make ever more decisions for us?
once we begin to count on AI to decide what to study, where to work, and whom to date or even marry, human life will cease to be a drama of decision making, and our conception of life will need to change. Democratic elections and free markets might cease to make sense. So might most religions and works of art.
If we are not careful, we will end up with downgraded humans misusing upgraded computers to wreak havoc on themselves and on the world.

- For starters, we need to place a much higher priority on understanding how the human mind works—particularly how our own wisdom and compassion can be cultivated.
- More practically, and more immediately, if we want to prevent the concentration of all wealth and power in the hands of a small elite, we must regulate the ownership of data.
advice  future  crisis  ai  society  politics  people  life  work  mentality  human  democracy  dictatorship  competition  liberalism 
september 2018 by aries1988
Ausländer | Unravel Magazine
The word Ausländer is German for ‘foreigner’ or ‘outsider’, and encapsulates this column’s focus: Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Here, we share our stories on language learning—some experiential, others informed by the formal study of language acquisition—and share our SLA tips and tricks, learning strategies, teaching methods and pedagogical philosophies. So, whether you’re looking to learn how to learn a language, or simply looking to supercharge your already-successful process, you’ve come to the right place.
learn  language  resource  advice 
august 2018 by aries1988
这是今年最犀利的演讲:国家命运与个人命运
我认为,马克思在一百多年前的一些关于资本主义发展的具体结论有些时空的局限性,但马克思主义的基本原理是正确的,那就是生产力决定生产关系、经济基础决定上层建筑。美国经济结构的变化决定社会结构变化,也一定决定着美国政治利益、国家核心利益的变化。

从这个意义上讲,即便特朗普两年或者六年后下台,美国也不会因为更换总统而在战略上改变对中国的基本立场。这是我的一个基本看法。

经济全球化时代国家间竞争的本质是什么?二十几年前我就提出是制度竞争,即看谁的制度安排更有利于经济增长和发展。因此,改革那些阻碍创新的制度安排,创建更加包容、可以自主经营、自主选择和自主流动的现代市场经济体系是至关重要的。

欧洲人出口的是古老的贵族文明积淀下来的审美,几乎所有的奢侈品都来自欧洲。审美是一种历史积淀,前提是一个国家历史、文化的连续性。

这个话题其实是很沉重的,在此我只想谈谈自己的体会。对个人而言,审美是一种品质和修养。一个审美能力低下的民族不仅素养、品格不高,道德水准也会有问题。

一个人做好自己每一个人生阶段中应该做好的事情,把自己喜欢做的事情尽可能地做到极致甚至像清教徒那样对待自己喜欢的职业并愿意为此努力一生,你就是一个具有使命感的人。所谓工匠精神,本质上与这种对职业的敬畏和使命感的理解与坚守密不可分。
talk  china  usa  economy  today  opinion  youth  self  patriotism  advice  2018  trump 
july 2018 by aries1988
Naval on Twitter
“How to Get Rich (without getting lucky):”
success  wealth  howto  advice  tips  business  career  money 
june 2018 by aries1988
文冤阁大学士:另类的《大学文科新生指南》

朱绩崧是复旦大学英文系教师,常以“文冤阁大学士”为名在网络间对英语学习及本科教育提出臧否建议。最近,他撰写了一份《大学文科新生指南》,虽然语气不乏嘲讽的地方,但的确以过来人的经历对文科生的本科阶段提出了中肯建议。

精致利己主义的根本原则:三种事不做。

一、不能增长知识、开阔眼界的事。
二、不能锻炼体魄、益寿延年的事。
三、不能合法赚钱的事。
university  youth  chinese  learn  career  list  guide  advice  howto  survive  success 
november 2017 by aries1988
如何避免成为一个油腻的中年猥琐男
就算到了二零二九年人类不能永生,四五十岁也不能算是生命的尽头。积攒唠叨从前的力气,再创业,再创造,再恋爱,我们还能攻城略地、杀伐战取。大到创造一个世界上没有的产品和服务,小到写一首直给人心的诗、养一盆菖蒲、做一本书、陪一只猫,做我们少年时没来得及做的事,耐心做下去。
middle-life  crisis  howto  advice  list 
october 2017 by aries1988
Millennials, This Is Why You Haven't Been Promoted

The solution is to outline exactly what you’re going to do. This requires preparation. Even if it’s a small task, think of it as a presentation. Schedule one meeting with your managers, present how you’re going to tackle this specific project/assignment, and get their approval on every bullet. Follow up explicitly confirming that you’ll do xyz. Then here’s the key part: don’t check in again until it’s done the way you agreed.

Surround yourself with and learn from inspiring people.
career  advice  millennials  moi  question 
september 2017 by aries1988
To be happier, focus on what’s within your control

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change,
Courage to change the things I can,
And wisdom to know the difference.

once you begin paying attention, the dichotomy of control has countless applications to everyday life, and all of them have to do with one crucial move: shifting your goals from external outcomes to internal achievements.

That’s why your goal should be internal: if you adopt the Stoic way, you would conscientiously put together the best résumé that you can, and then mentally prepare to accept whatever outcome with equanimity, knowing that sometimes the universe will favour you, and other times it will not. What do you gain by being anxious over something you don’t control? Or angry at a result that was not your doing? You are simply adding a self-inflicted injury to the situation, compromising your happiness and serenity.
life  choice  howto  happiness  philosophy  advice  psychology  religion  prayer  stoic 
june 2017 by aries1988
Is Fat Killing You, or Is Sugar?

Women in the nineteenth century stuffed themselves into near-suffocating corsets to achieve an hourglass figure with an unnaturally tiny waist. Weight-loss regimens included consuming soap, chalk, pickles, digitalis, camphor tea, grapefruit (which was thought to contain fat-dissolving enzymes), potassium acetate (a diuretic), and ipecac (which induces vomiting). People tried sweating their fat away in rubber suits, or squeezing it away in a pressurized reducing machine.

The importance of calories—if energy gained exceeds output, the excess becomes fat—remains one of the few unchallengeable facts in the field of dietary science. Still, further research has shown that calories eaten are only part of what determines weight. Our metabolism reflects an interplay of things like genes, hormones, and the bacteria that populate the gut, so how much energy we absorb from what we eat varies from person to person.

The immediate postwar years also brought the first sustained scientific assault on dietary fat. Ancel Keys, a physiologist at the University of Minnesota, who had spent the war developing nutritionally optimal Army rations and studying the effects of starvation, became interested in the high rates of heart attack among a seemingly well-fed sector of the population—American businessmen. He soon became convinced that the saturated fats found in meat and dairy products were the cause, and thus began the war on fat that galvanized my parents. Keys became, with his wife, Margaret, an advocate for the Mediterranean diet of unsaturated fats. Their books promoting the diet were best-sellers, and Keys, who spent his latter years in Italy, lived to the age of a hundred. (Margaret lived to ninety-seven.)

Taubes believes that a wide range of seemingly unrelated diseases—diabetes, heart disease, cancer, stroke, and Alzheimer’s, which account for five of the top ten causes of death in the U.S.—are in fact linked, and that dietary sugar is the cause of them all, as well as of other disorders that associate with these illnesses, among them polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), rheumatoid arthritis, gout, varicose veins, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease.

there is no conclusive evidence that excess dietary sugar per se causes diabetes.

To imagine that, just because cancer cells like glucose, elevated levels of it might prompt healthy cells to become cancerous is to take a vast, unsubstantiated leap.

What this means for most of us is that common sense should prevail. Eat and exercise in moderation; maintain a diet consisting of balanced amounts of protein, fat, and carbohydrates; make sure you get plenty of fruit and vegetables. And enjoy an occasional slice of chocolate cake.
nutrition  debate  food  health  sugar  fat  diet  research  everday  moi  body  advice  book 
march 2017 by aries1988
Can Women Bring Down Trump? 
Italian women have some advice for American women based on their experience with Berlusconi.
italia  female  advice  american  2016  politics  sexism 
november 2016 by aries1988
10 Months, 45 National Parks, 11 Rules - NYTimes.com
I knew I would learn from every moment and every mile, but only if I paid attention to what was happening around me. So I adopted a series of daily practices — I called them my roadtripology rules — to force myself to be as deliberate as possible about the trip.

I rarely felt the temptation to accelerate. I made peace with my pace, accepting that I would get there when I got there.

When I permit myself to follow that blue line, I sometimes lose track of where I am and forget the bigger picture. I was not going to let that happen on this trip.

It was one of the most memorable detours of my entire trip, but the blue line of a digital map would have ignored it.
story  usa  nature  park  camping  howto  driving  tips  car  advice  discovery  travel 
july 2016 by aries1988
English for Swedes
cheap vs. sheep (also: cheat sheet, chit-chat)
Yale vs. jail
line but linear (/layn/ but /li-ne-ar/, not /layn-ar/)
variable and variance have the stress on the first syllable.
analysis has the stress on the second syllable.
magazine and all other words with a z, which is generally not pronounced as an s.

in Swedish the verbs are not conjugated.

Avoid assigning actions to inanimate objects:
This thesis investigates algorithms. → In this thesis, I investigate algorithms.

In Swedish, no difference is made between opening and closing quotes. However, in most other languages a different glyph is used for the two. In English the opening quotes are inverted.
scandinavia  english  language  writing  advice  latex  comparison 
august 2015 by aries1988
How to Pick Your Life Partner - Part 2 - Wait But Why
Marriage isn’t the honeymoon in Thailand—it’s day four of vacation #56 that you take together. Marriage is not celebrating the closing of the deal on the first house—it’s having dinner in that house for the 4,386th time. And it’s certainly not Valentine’s Day. Marriage is Forgettable Wednesday. Together.

This isn’t to say people shouldn’t work on self-improvement, but when it comes to a life partnership, the healthy attitude is, “Every person comes with a set of flaws, these are my partner’s, and they’re part of the package I knowingly chose to spend my life with.”

In a time when humans in most parts of the world can enjoy freedom and carve their own path in life, it usually doesn’t sit that well to suddenly become half of something and compromise on a bunch of things you grew up being selfish about.

According to John Gottman, 69% of a typical couple’s fights are perpetual, based on core differences, and cannot be resolved—and a skilled couple understands this and refrains from engaging in these brawls again and again.
advice  choice  opinion  fun  humor  love  marriage 
august 2015 by aries1988
Transitioning out of academia
I have to admit I do miss aspects of the academic and research environment. I never thought I would say that, but I do. I miss the solitude; the ability to focus on a task; to really, really think about an issue; to identify a research question; to develop an hypothesis and then to test if it is true; and the opportunity to debate and discuss with like-minded peers and colleagues. It really is a unique environment.
temoignage  phd  life  career  advice  development  self  howto  moi 
june 2015 by aries1988
Where to travel, a reader bleg
If you wish to visit the United States, specialize in the eastern seaboard, Chicago, but most of all southern Utah down to the northern rim of the Grand Canyon, much better than the southern rim but book in advance.  That latter part of the country has perhaps the world’s most compelling natural beauty, plus a good look at real American culture along the way.  For all its fame, it remains oddly under-visited (thank goodness).  Toss in San Francisco for good measure, and then drive through some godforsaken parts for a few days, the worse the better.

- See more at: http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2015/05/where-to-travel-a-reader-bleg.html#sthash.yHu9Dvgd.dpuf
from:rss  advice  USA  travel 
may 2015 by aries1988
当炮友终成眷属
无论男女都会因性而爱,尤其是在美好的性爱中。在和谐愉悦的性爱中,人一定是特别放松和释放的,会呈现特别真实自己,这样放松的自己和美好的性体验都令人希望更多地重复体验。就跟你吃了好吃的菜,下一次还想吃一样。你期待更多的和这个人在一起,继续获得性上的满足,这种期待不仅带来了关系继续发展的机会,也会反过来刺激性爱的激发,让两个人因性生爱。

夏天到了,心理学家说夏天会唤起人们关于童年暑假的美好回忆,所以人会感到更快乐,更轻松,同时性欲也会增强,做爱频率大大增多。约炮有风险,赴约需谨慎,安全排第一!
love  advice  sex  couple  story  life  question 
may 2015 by aries1988
给一个小朋友 -- 槽边往事
空降到一所大城,一切从零开始,要尽量不去想那些关于“孤零零”的单词。如果开了一个头,可以一路想下去,想出花来。诺曼底登陆之前,盟军的演习乱成一团,但是指挥官们却面有喜色。因为根据传统,一次失败的彩排意味着未来成功的演出。一开头有点遭遇不是什么坏事,总比一帆风顺最后突然被一棍子放倒头破血流要强。找到几个朋友,找到一个酒保,找到一间书店,找到一所盗版碟店,找到厕所和床,那么一座城也就会亲切起来。没有人生来就非常强悍,强悍只是因为早先曾经历过绝望的深渊和黑暗的岁月。哪怕没有阳光,还有豆芽菜能长出来,我们总比豆芽菜强吧?至少一开始我们就是蝌蚪了。
life  advice  adventure  youth 
may 2015 by aries1988
How to Be a Better Spouse
One of his most concrete findings was that happier couples had a ratio of five positive interactions to every negative interaction. “That just leapt off the pages of the data analysis,” he says. It was true in very different types of relationships, including those in which the people were very independent and even distant or argumentative. These positive interactions don’t have to be grand gestures: “A smile, a head nod, even just grunting to show you’re listening to your partner—those are all positive,” Gottman says.

In any interaction, we have the opportunity to connect with our partner or to turn away. If we consistently turn away, then over time the foundation of the marriage can slowly erode, even in the absence of overt conflict.

I want to show him how much he matters, too, and that all the other stupid little stuff doesn’t.
love  couple  howto  advice 
march 2015 by aries1988
意大利总领事私人推荐:三座最美意大利中世纪小城
此外,每个国家对于不同种类意大利食品的欢迎程度也不一样。中国消费者最喜欢的意大利食品是费列罗巧克力,但你们对意大利葡萄酒似乎不太感冒,意大利葡萄酒在中国市场的认知度不及法国葡萄酒。其实意大利是全世界葡萄酒产量最高的国家,产量占到世界的1/4,有些年头法国的产量会超过我们,有些年头又是我们(的产量)最高。在美国,意大利葡萄酒占据着最高的市场份额。所以要让中国消费者对于意大利葡萄酒有个更全面的认识,我们需要做的工作还很多。

牛肉,佛罗伦萨牛肉,非常美味,鲜嫩多汁。现在中国消费者在西餐厅里吃到的进口牛肉主要来自澳洲,但佛罗伦萨牛肉口感更好,只是现在还不能进口中国,在这方面中意两国暂时还没签署协议,我们也期待有朝一日中国人民能在家门口吃到佛罗伦萨牛肉,因为中国人民对于美食的选择日趋多样化,他们也希望有机会能够换换口味。

火腿也是意大利人日常生活中不可或缺的食品。中意两国在这里有个很有意思的共同点。在汉字里,“家”的下半部分是个“豕”字,意思是猪,上面的宝盖头代表房子的屋顶。所以可以推测在古代中国,人们和猪共同生活在屋檐之下;而在古代意大利,农村地区的人们也是和猪住在一起,可见两国人民的生活方式在古代非常相近。

现在已经在有合资企业在安徽和江苏开办工厂,在当地进行生猪养殖,生产意大利火腿,虽然工艺可以基本做到一样,但生猪毕竟不是在意大利土生土长,所以和意大利进口的火腿相比,(口味)肯定还是有区别。所以有些意大利食品受地理和气候条件影响很大,进口中国的成本就很高。
italia  list  advice  local  cuisine  travel 
december 2014 by aries1988
南方周末 - 【南瓜学堂】医学生,你们准备好披上白大褂了吗?
第一,好好学习通识教育课。虽然综合性大学和医学专科院校的氛围可能略有不同,但临床医学专业第一年的课程设置还是通识教育为主,学习英语、数学、化学、物理、生物等。英语太差,你以后没法接触医学前沿;数学学不好,你难以学习统计-流行病学和循证医学,没法完成现代医学训练;化学不甚了了,你甚至没法记住那些饶舌的药物名称;物理太次,当心血管医生你却没法深入理解血流动力学,想学骨科却连基本的力学分析都困难……

第三,临床医学很重要的一面是人与人相处的艺术,医生和患者都会受到社会大环境的影响,回首自己的从医历程,似乎对于人文的理解欠缺不少,建议有空多读读涉及医学内容的人文作品。具体随各自兴趣,开始医学专业课程后,学业负担不轻,同时陷入专业思维后也许会有忽略。
doctor  advice  stage 
september 2014 by aries1988
说给文科新生听的几句酸话
下大力气学好外语,也就是英语。多背,多写,注意细节。不要在英语都没有精熟的时候,就意气风发朝法语、德语挺进。你有语言天赋,早去CIA了。莫学林琴南,少玩辞章;宜从严几道,多读社科。昨天还有个学生问我如何了解美国文化,我说读《美国宪法》啊,她就以为我发错了消息……

旅行……怎么说呢,有钱的话,去铁岭这样的大城市走走,还是很赞的。能出国更好,周边的日本啊,柬埔寨啊,湾湾啊,这种带点沧桑的地方更佳,亲眼看看外面的世界是官窑造的,还是民窑造的。

饮食与作息……怎么说呢,反正我所在的大学,食堂至今很差,多油多盐,偶尔吃完还胃疼,极不健康。街边的黑暗料理呢?呵呵。吃点好的吧,多花钱,少摄入,珍惜粮食和饮用水。早起早睡(这也几乎是不可操作的),我现在就极度怀念高中的住校生活,每天9点半熄灯,6点15起床,俱往矣。到了我这把年纪,快三十五了,看着同学死了俩,同事死了俩,不敢不把身体当回事了。大四时,和室友打《太阁立志传V》,连着两天没睡觉,实在太疯狂了。人人网啊,豆瓣啊,微博啊,BBS啊,每天最好限定自己上多少时间。

风格呢……怎么说呢,底限是不要做文艺小清新。点一杯白猫洗洁精气味都没褪尽的卡布奇诺,临街一坐,就以为自己是林徽因、徐志摩了?徐志摩的英文很差很差,你知道吗?反正梁思成和金岳霖是知道的。如果你向往奢侈品——我至今记得一位女生看到我戴的卡地亚指环时两眼喷出的精光——冷静地问问自己,是不是内心不够强大,需要这些花里胡哨的玩意儿来支撑?我痛恨内心虚弱者!
advice  university  life 
september 2013 by aries1988
Explore – How to be a minimalist, from the always-brilliant...
Get rid of the unnecessary
Create structure
Stop searching for hidden meaning
Embrace what is solid
Lose yourself in patterns
Don’t fear empty space
Stay clean
Be bold and colorful
Don’t be too expressive!
Less is more…but less is more difficult than it looks.
life  minimalist  mind  art  list  howto  advice  GTD  self 
january 2013 by aries1988
How to Keep Happiness From Fading
Psychologists call this phenomenon hedonic adaptation – the idea is that no matter how good something makes us feel (or, for the record, how bad), most of the time we drift back to where we started, emotionally-speaking.

two anti-adaptation tools were effective in sustaining gains in happiness over time: variety and appreciation.

The happiness you get from doing anything will fade if you do it the same way every day, so mix things up.

Appreciating can mean paying attention or noticing, but it is even more powerful when you take it further – when you savor something, delighting in its qualities and relishing how it makes you feel, or when you experience gratitude, a sense of being fortunate for being in your current circumstances compared to others, or compared to where you have been in the past.
life  happiness  self  howto  advice 
august 2012 by aries1988

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