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aries1988 : anniversary   8

明治维新的记忆

固然,在中国也会有对乡土历史的倾向,但这种“历史记忆地方化”的现象之所以在日本特别明显,当然也是因为在日本延续数百年的幕藩体制带有某种“联邦制”的特性,人们高度认同的是“本藩”而不是整个日本,战后的地方自治制度可说是它的历史延续。这样,历史记忆势必立足于当地,用以支撑和强化地方认同,呈现出纷繁复杂的面貌,正如美国南方对内战的纪念至今带有悲情。由于目光聚焦在地方,这些展览中即便提到明治维新对日本的意义,大体也是“我们曾在推动日本变革中起到巨大作用”这样一种视角。毫无疑问,这样的取向中不会提到明治维新对日本境外的影响——但这确实曾实实在在地影响了亚洲很多国家。不仅是戊戌变法,孙中山当年在日本避难时也曾说:“明治维新是中国革命的第一步,中国革命是明治维新的第二步。”《剑桥东南亚史》也曾提到,明治维新曾“鼓舞了大批东南亚的政治活动家,尤其是越南和菲律宾的政治活动家”。
region  meiji  anniversary  travel  japan  history  photo  leader 
december 2018 by aries1988
How Martin Luther has shaped Germany for half a millennium

Start with aesthetics. For Luther this was, like everything else, a serious matter. He believed that Christians were guaranteed salvation through Jesus but had a duty to live in such a way as to deserve it.

Ostentation was thus a disgraceful distraction from the asceticism required to examine one’s own conscience. The traces of this severity live on in Germany’s early 20th-century Bauhaus architecture, and even in the furniture styles at IKEA (from Lutheran Sweden).

The Swiss Protestants John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli viewed music as sensual temptation and frowned on it. But to Luther music was a divinely inspired weapon against the devil. He wanted believers to sing together—in German, in church and at home, and with instruments accompanying them. Today Germany has 130 publicly financed orchestras, more than any other country. And concerts are still attended like sermons, sombrely and seriously.

Germany, the world’s 17th-most populous country, has the second-largest book market after America’s. After he translated the Bible into German, Luther wanted everyone, male or female, rich or poor, to read it. At first Protestants became more literate than Catholics; ultimately all Germans became bookish.

To Luther, Christians were already saved, so wealth was suspect. Instead of amassing it, Christians should work for their community, not themselves. Work (Beruf) thus became a calling (Berufung). Not profit but redistribution was the goal. According to Gerhard Wegner, a professor of theology, this “Lutheran socialism” finds secular expression in the welfare states of Scandinavia and Germany.
deutschland  deutsch  leader  religion  reform  anniversary  protestant  comparison  music  legacy  culture  society  mentality 
november 2017 by aries1988
What About the Bombing of Nagasaki? - The New Yorker
Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and Kokura were the first four targets chosen, with Niigata as a runner-up.

Given the plane’s mechanical problems, the crew were close to the point at which they would have to turn back or risk ditching. To have any hope of making it to a friendly airbase they would likely have had to drop the Fat Man into the ocean. “Less than two hours of fuel left,” one of the pilots wrote in his mission diary. “Wonder if the Pacific will be cold?”

After Hiroshima, now that the bomb was no longer a secret, the Army Air Forces had drafted propaganda leaflets to inform the people of Nagasaki about the possible coming shock—as much an act of psychological warfare as a humanitarian warning. But internal coördination with the bombing crews was so poor that the leaflets were delivered late. They fluttered down over the city the day after the Fat Man went off.

The day after Nagasaki, Truman issued his first affirmative command regarding the bomb: no more strikes without his express authorization. He never issued the order to drop the bombs, but he did issue the order to stop dropping them. Even if Hiroshima remains preëminent in our historical memory—the first nuclear weapon used in anger—Nagasaki may be of greater consequence in the long run, something more than the second attack. Perhaps it will be the last.
reportage  weapon  disaster  1945  nuclear  history  anniversary 
may 2016 by aries1988
Japan’s 3/11
When the time came for Japan to stop in remembrance, there was not one moment of silence but two: The first, at 2:46 P.M., when the biggest quake in the nation’s history struck one year ago. And then the second: In tiny towns up and down the coast, they paused again, exactly thirty-three minutes later, to mark the moment when the tsunami arrived.

In Sendai, the city launched fireworks—twenty thousand of them—one for each person who died.

Officially, the earthquake and wall of water that ran across Japan’s northeast coast killed nearly sixteen thousand people. Another three thousand three hundred are still classified as “unaccounted for.” To this day, members of the police and coast guard are still engaged in a kind of pantomime, combing the rivers and shorelines for bodies that nobody but the families imagine can be found.

the psychological effects are vast and obvious —an “anguished uncertainty” in the words of physicist and historian Spencer Weart. The combined effects of stigma, dislocation, and fear of the unknown are “a recipe for social isolation, anxiety, depression, psychosomatic medical problems, reckless behavior, even suicide.”
http://www.instapaper.com/read/261573977
report  japan  disaster  anniversary  nuclear 
august 2012 by aries1988

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