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aries1988 : antiquity   5

何谓“欧洲文明”?

陈乐民、周弘认为,促进欧洲社会发展和进步的文明,主要是指:以求真善美的希腊思想为源头的哲学、伦理学和美学;重视社会效能的政治学、经济学、法学;凝合人生、人性、人格至善本性的基督教精神;探索宇宙,改造自然,造福人类的科学实践。

马克思在分析希腊和罗马建立殖民地根源时非常精辟的一段论述:“在古代国家,在希腊和罗马,采取周期性地建立殖民地形式的强迫移民是社会制度的一个固定环节。这两个国家的整个制度都是建立在人口的一定限度上的,超过这个限度,古代文明就有毁灭的危险。……由于生产力不够发展,公民权要由一种不可违反的一定数量对比关系来决定。那时,惟一的出路就是强迫移民。”这种贸易和殖民的过程,也是希腊人开始走向文明的过程。
LOL

西欧文明之所以有深厚、持久的历史文化传统和创造性活力,其根本原因在于:西欧进入文明社会以来,在特定历史条件下,它经历了约两千五百年的奴隶制社会,一千多年的封建制社会,近四百年的资本主义社会,这些社会形态及其历史阶段都得到比较充分的发展,而且西欧文明在各历史阶段,又善于从周边的诸多外部文明中吸纳、摄取优秀文化成果,才使自身得以发展、壮大。
FRD Norbert Elias

刘文明认为,“文明”观念在欧洲经历了一个演变过程,它源于中世纪宫廷社会的“宫廷礼仪”,经文艺复兴时期的“礼貌”,最终于18世纪中叶出现“文明”这一名词,到19世纪发展成为具有“现代”意涵的“文明”概念。在这一过程中,通过自诩为“文明”群体的“自我”与被贬低为“野蛮”群体的“他者”之间的互动,欧洲人对“文明”的认知及自我“文明”的认同得到强化,并将“文明阶梯”的空间序列时间化,以欧洲经验为基础的“文明”概念被建构起来。
2000s  book  academia  chinese  europe  civ  origin  debate  greek  emigration  antiquity 
october 2018 by aries1988
A history of true civilisation is not one of monuments | Aeon Ideas
The 20th-century French anthropologist Marcel Mauss thought that civilisation should not be reduced to a list of technical or aesthetic achievements. Nor should it represent a particular stage of cultural development (‘civilisation’ versus ‘barbarism’, and so on). Civilisation could be found in material things, but above all it referred to a potential in human societies. In Mauss’s view, civilisation is what happens when discrete societies share morally and materially across boundaries, forming durable relationships that transcend differences.

Sacrifice is the shadow lurking behind this concept of civilisation; the sacrifice of freedoms, of life itself, for the sake of something always out of reach – an idea of world order, the mandate of heaven, blessings from those insatiable gods.

Mutual aid, social cooperation, civic activism, hospitality or simply caring for others: these are the kind of things that actually go to make civilisations.

What until now has passed for ‘civilisation’ might in fact be nothing more than a gendered appropriation – by men, etching their claims in stone – of some earlier system of knowledge that had women at its centre.
civ  opinion  definition  culture  life  monument  archaeology  antiquity 
october 2018 by aries1988
The search goes on | The Economist
The West has gained a lot from Christianity. There is still more to learn
The Christianisation of Europe, he says, was not a bunch of reactionary clerics trying to shut down a noble, free, secular ancient world, but a new idea of “a voluntary basis for human association in which people joined together through will and love rather than blood or shared material objectives”. Christianity declared that humans “have access to the deepest reality as individuals rather than merely as members of a group”.

Out of this, with a reinjection at the Reformation, came the origins of the modern world: a belief in equality of status as the proper basis for a legal system and the assertion of natural rights leading to individual liberty, as well as the notion that a society built on the assumption of moral equality should have a representative form of government.




The Evolution of the West: How Christianity Has Shaped Our Values. By Nick Spencer. SPCK; 190 pages; £9.99.
book  religion  christianity  europe  Renaissance  history  mentality  study  society  opinion  debate  middle-age  antiquity 
november 2016 by aries1988
Murderous Games: Gladiatorial Contests in Ancient Rome | History Today
Mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid showing a retiarius (net-fighter) named Kalendio fighting a secutor named Astyanax Rome was a warrior…
instapaper_favs  antiquity  spqr 
october 2016 by aries1988
Searching for Signs of Hannibal’s Route in DNA from Horse Manure - The New Yorker

The ability to test soil directly for genetic material has extended archeology beyond the quest for the usual biological suspects, such as microscopic fossils. The whole business of looking at sediments is bubbling up now—it is taking off because of advances in DNA sequencing, Pallen said. There is a realization that the environment is full of DNA . . . and you can detect it in sediments even in the absence of fossil remains.
genetics  discovery  alpe  italia  spqr  war  warrior  antiquity  animal  archaeology 
may 2016 by aries1988

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