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为什么刀叉没有像筷子那样在中国古代社会广泛普及?
中国人早在战国时期就发明了筷子。如此简单的两根小细棍,却高妙绝伦地应用了物理学上的杠杆原理。筷子是人类手指的延伸。手指能做的事,筷子也能做,且不怕高温,不怕寒冻,真是高明极了。
cuisine  history  asia  west 
march 2019 by aries1988
讲稿|许宏:考古学视角下的“中国”诞生史
我们一直以来就存在着历史文献学和考古学两大话语系统,这两大话语系统最初是边界明显的:一边是历史文献上的伏羲、女娲、三皇五帝、夏商周王朝;一边是考古学上的前仰韶、仰韶、龙山、二里头、二里岗时代。这两大话语系统的合流是在殷墟。为什么是在殷墟?有一个绝对不可逾越的条件就是,当时有可以证明自己族属和王朝归属的文字材料出现,这才可以把这两大话语系统整合

从历史学阐释来讲,大家可能注意到了,我们正在逐渐放弃奴隶社会、封建社会的这样一些概念。比如像封建社会这样的概念,完全是误译和误用,完全不符合中国的历史实际。如果说中国有过封建时代的话,那么它应该指的是秦汉帝国之前西周王朝“封邦建国”的那个时代,它是一种政治的分权化,而不是后来大一统的、郡县制的、中央集权的东西。中国可能出现过奴隶,但是没有什么证据能证明当时存在过一个叫奴隶制的时代。在中国国家博物馆“古代中国陈列”中,开宗明义就说我们已经放弃了这套话语系统,但是在该馆对面的“复兴之路”那个展览上,半封建半殖民地社会这样的说法还有,这实际上也是社会进步比较大的一个表现。

大体上在距今四千年前后,有一个大的断裂,从那儿开始,像二里头、二里岗、殷墟文化就是所谓的夏商文化,这样大的中原文明出现了。我现在是二里头考古队的队长,二里头这个遗址既不是最大的,也不是最早的,但它是整个东亚大陆人类群团从多元走向一体,从满天星斗变成月明星稀的这么一个节点,而青铜在其中起到了极大的作用。

黄帝是土生土长的中国人吗?这也是个问题。黄帝号称轩辕氏,最拿手的是“以师兵为营卫”,善用兵车,而车完全是外来的。在青铜时代及之前,在五百年前的大航海时代之前,西北地区才是中国改革开放的前沿阵地,等于说陕北的重要性就在于它是连接欧亚大陆内陆和中原地区的一个纽带和桥梁,这样一看就明白了。

吉德炜教授从器物的组合来推想当时人们思维的复杂化,推想当时的制作是需要有一定的组织与管理,从而可能会导致思维的复杂化,甚至这种合作会导致语言的复杂化。而这种思维和语言方面的复杂化,使得整个东部的中国人在最初的时候是走在前列的,然后大家逐鹿中原,到最后才导致一个更高的文明实体出现。

说到中国的饮食习惯,南北方的主食完全不同、生活习俗完全不同,但是后来由于文字和整个政治架构的因素,被融合在了一起,这其中也有不少问题有待于探究。

德国著名汉学家雷德侯教授的《万物》一书,就是从模件和它的规模化生产,引申出中国人的行为方式甚至思维方式,像汉字的偏旁部首,也就那么几个,却让中国人出神入化地造出了那么丰富的汉字。

在这里,我们还发现了中国最早的中轴线布局的、四合院式的宫殿建筑群。大家知道,中轴线对中国人太重要了,坐北朝南、封闭式结构、土木建筑、中轴对称……这样一些建筑原则甚至是礼制、政治原则,一直为后代中国所承继。这些东西,从建中立极到中庸,甚至河南话的“中不中?中!”,这就是“中”文化,是原典文化。
用什么方式来显现类似于巴特农神庙那种带有纪念碑性质的东西呢?由于中国的土木建筑堆不高,我们就向纵深发展,“庭院深深深几许”,注重多进院落,大家说单进的四合院就是小门小户,三进的和五进的恐怕就得是贵族和王爷一级的居所了。

在二里头和此后的二里岗时期,就是郑州商城的那个时期,二里头和郑州商城以外,绝对不允许也不可能有任何一个地方能够或敢于铸造青铜礼器,这就是“国之大事,在祀与戎”。祭祀,就是青铜礼器这套东西;戎,就是绝对的打击能力。这也是“两手抓,两手都要硬”,这些就代表了当时“先进文化的发展方向”。这些东西使得二里头发达起来了,现在看来,这“立国之本”在古代和现代都是一样的。以前是祭祀,现在是开会,都是提高凝聚力。所以就是这样一套与礼制相关的东西已经开始出来了,大家看在此前是相对平等的社会,还没有这些东西。

整个黄河上、中、下游,包括三星堆都受到二里头的影响,三星堆青铜文明高度发达,已经到了殷墟时期,跟二里头比还是相对很晚的。在各地出土的跟二里头很相近的东西,模仿品,说明二里头的扩散应该不是强力的军事推进,而是各地的酋长、首长或者是人民选择性地接受二里头元素的产物,就是以它为高、为大、为上,导致文明向外扩散。

长程地看,前国家时代和国家文明还是泾渭分明的。这种向心、开放的聚落形态是属于原始民主制的,这样的模式跟这种封闭性、独占性、秩序性的聚落形态形成鲜明对比。不少著名学者在他们的书里都说,“不让看”是中国古代政治文明的一个重要特征,账本不让看、地图不让看、紫禁城不让看,它是封闭性的、独占性的,它很难形成广场上纪念碑式的东西,这些都是一脉相承的。大家看从二里头开始,整个大四合院的建筑、多进院落宫室建筑群一直到明清紫禁城,这是一脉相承发展下来的。
如果现在观察中国中西部农村,跟两千年以前,就是战国到汉代铁犁铧发明之后的农民生活,几乎是一样的,但我们不能说中国没有进步,还是要看都邑,看金字塔的塔尖。

我们如果放开眼界,就会发现以青铜冶铸为代表的一些外来的因素有东渐的趋势,很明显,这种交流和传递是一波一波的。我的下一本小书就想以“东亚青铜潮”为主题,以前甲骨文时代的千年变局为主线,从全球文明史的视角,来写这个宏阔的态势,探究中国是怎么诞生的。有种叫塞伊玛-图尔宾诺的文化现象在中亚地区最初出现年代比较早,可能对西北的齐家文化,甚至二里头文化产生过重要的影响,所以说那个时候我们不是封闭的,我们的青铜文明的发生大量吸收了外来的文化因素。

文字是否一定要通过几千年的积累才能成型?契丹文字和日本文字可以在很快的时间,吸收外来的刺激和影响后产生

比如说兵马俑,古代中国人的解剖学常识是非常差的,兵马俑那样的非常逼真的东西是纯本土的吗?甚至我们现在也有同仁在研究,像秦汉帝国这样大的帝国统治方式是不是我们自己的发明。要知道,在它二三百年之前,波斯帝国已经形成了,非常有意思。所以从这个意义上讲,只懂考古,已经搞不好考古了,只懂中国,已经搞不清中国了。是不是这样的道理?诸位年轻人外语非常好,一定要开阔眼界,在全球文明史的层面来看我们中华文明的形成。今后一定要从这样大的视野来做整合研究。
world  history  advice  archaeology  china  origin  opinion  asia  historiography 
march 2019 by aries1988
郑永年:亚洲的困局_爱思想

第二个阶段即二战之后的“主动”的思想殖民阶段。在这阶段,通过亚洲各国的反殖民运动,物质意义上的殖民地消失了,但思想上的殖民地主义根深蒂固,不仅无意识地存在下来,而且变本加厉。在“被动殖民”阶段还存在着各种形式的抵抗,但在“主动殖民”阶段,不仅毫无抵抗的迹象,更有自我“摧残”现象的发生。

教育系统的独立性也是有限的。更多的国家则是主动接受了西方的教育系统。
这种情况的存在不仅仅在于西方教育系统在客观上较亚洲先进(无论是自然科学还是社会科学),更在于亚洲国家没有自己的信心和能力,把自己的发展经验提升成为以亚洲为经验基础的社会科学。尽管亚洲国家的学者也提出了“东方主义”的命题,并且也一度盛行,但无论是“东方主义”还是后来的“后殖民主义”“后现代主义”等理论都是解构型的,而非建设型的。

尽管印度到目前为止,仍然被西方视为最大的民主,但随着其发展,印度和西方的冲突也只是时间问题,而非可能性问题。如同中国,一个庞大的印度也很难“伪装”自己。
colonialism  intelligentsia  education  west  asia  history 
january 2019 by aries1988
宮崎市定:亚洲对欧洲近代化的贡献 | 海交史
独裁君主制原本起源于古代西亚,由于该制度对于大一统国家来说最为简便易行,所以罗马共和国在与西亚接触之后,也逐渐倾向于建立独裁制。随着穆斯林侵入伊比利亚半岛,当地也引入了西亚的独裁君主制。此后,西班牙对居住于半岛地区的穆斯林进行了驱逐,并在此建立了国家。西班牙不仅在文化方面,而且在政体上也吸纳了许多伊斯兰元素。于是在西欧的一角,就出现了西班牙这个实行独裁专制的君主国。

独裁君主制之所以被引入法国,很大程度上是由于波旁王朝的两代君主都从西班牙迎娶王后。路易十三及其子路易十四的王后都是西班牙王室成员的女儿,而路易十三的遗孀、曾辅佐路易十四的安妮太后,对法国宫廷的影响尤为深远。安妮之子路易十四长大后成为“太阳王”,并发出了“朕即国家”的豪言壮语,可以说绝非偶然。

这种认为人格的存在可以独立于宗教的主张,在作为现实问题被提出之前,必须面对极大的困难。对于那些长期以来不断与西亚的穆斯林进行斗争的欧洲基督徒来说,宗教上存在着鲜明的敌我关系,人与人之间非友即敌,除此之外再无第三种立场。在那个以宗教作为思想根基的时代,人们无法想象脱离宗教而又有文化教养的人类的存在。当一切皆处于非友即敌的对立状态时,想要抽象出对立双方的共通人性,实在是难上加难。

这种不依赖宗教的文明社会的存在,对于欧洲主张排斥宗教的论者来说是非常有力的武器。他们称,摆脱了宗教束缚的社会构成是有可能存在的,这一点已经在东亚得到了证实,那么将其实现于欧洲又有何不可?就这样,中国社会以被美化的理想化形象传入了欧洲。以往,传教士在中国出于传教之便,会否定儒教的宗教性,而这种否定儒教宗教性的中国观传到欧洲之后,却产生了意料之外的结果—它为欧洲的无神论者和革命思想家壮了声势。

然而,这种观念的传播并没有介绍儒教本身,而是介绍非敌非友的第三种世界。这种观念的传播本身,从更为根本的程度上动摇了欧洲的思想根基。人们原本很难从相互对立的敌我关系中抽象出共通的人性,但当第三者出现后,人们终于能够由此产生对整个人类社会的新的意识自觉。毫不夸张地说,在欧洲与西亚的敌对关系中,东亚长期以来一直扮演着无言的调停者的角色。
asia  europe  confucianism  china  history  world  politics 
december 2018 by aries1988
张经纬:《四夷居中国》意在构建完整的东亚大陆人类史
“东亚大陆的人类史”(本书原稿书名为“四夷居中国——东亚大陆的人类史”。)是个有趣的题目,顾名思义,这个题目基本浓缩了本书写作的主要意图。 在很大程度上,“东亚大陆”等价于历史上的“中国”,但就所指…
trailer  book  asia  human  history 
july 2018 by aries1988
季风亚洲 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
季风亚洲(Monsoon Asia)是受季风影响的亚洲地区。其界线西起塔尔沙漠东缘,向东经喜玛拉雅山脉、青藏高原东缘、大兴安岭一线。此线以东的地区在夏天受海洋暖湿空气影响,获得降水。冬季受蒙古高气压影响变得干燥。这是也解释了为什么在同纬度的中东地区、非洲和中美洲一片荒芜,但东亚地区却草木繁茂。季风亚洲鲜有冬季强降水纪录,如2004年十二月台湾豪雨、2013年十二月海南岛暴雨等。

由于季风不稳定,季风的时间与含水多寡对本地区的农业生产至关重要。由于季风具有雨热同期的特点,该地区水热条件配合良好,因此水稻可在该地区大面积种植,且种植北界接近黑龙江,是世界上水稻可种植纬度最高的地区。[1]
agriculture  climate  china  asia 
july 2018 by aries1988
西亚国家希望将澳大利亚逐出亚足联,澳大利亚的存在是否挤压了国足和西亚进入世界杯的机会? - 知乎

亚洲一共4.5个参加世界杯的名额。日韩在亚洲的地位基本稳如泰山了,基本高于其他亚洲球队至少一个档次;如今澳大利亚的实力并不输于日韩,加入之后基本也占用一个名额。如此一来,包括西亚国家在内的其余亚洲国家,也只能抢最后那一个半名额了(半个名额有一半可能还完全没戏)。所以,肯定很多国家感到不爽,觉得澳大利亚抢了自己的机会。

作者:赵乾
链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/27902248/answer/38706602
来源:知乎
著作权归作者所有。商业转载请联系作者获得授权,非商业转载请注明出处。
fun  explained  asia  australia  football  2018  worldcup 
june 2018 by aries1988
中国现在能不能做到类似大东亚共荣圈的「大中华共荣」? - 知乎
我们要与对人民的权利戕害的一切势力作战。我们要不断地重复,在我们的国家,过去有哪些人,他们狂妄的行动,曾经造成过哪些本来没有必要造成的苦难。我们要不断地重复,为上述行为的一切辩护,甚至是拒绝采取立场的冷漠,都是这些罪恶继续的土壤。如果我们不能做些什么作出清算,我们也要对它们的不正当性一遍又一遍地声明,才能消灭它们继续产生的一切基础。
china  asia  thinking  essay  future  history  manifesto 
february 2018 by aries1988
《世界历史上的蒙古征服》:大航海时代前的全球化 - 见素抱朴JSBP - 简书

《世界历史上的蒙古征服》的英文原版《Mongol Conquests In World History》在2012年已经出版。本书作者梅天穆现在担任美国北乔治亚大学文学院教授、副院长。研究方向是草原帝国的历史。近十年来,笔耕不辍,著述丰富。

《世界历史上的蒙古征服》的英文原版《Mongol Conquests In World History》在2012年已经出版。本书作者梅天穆现在担任美国北乔治亚大学文学院教授、副院长。研究方向是草原帝国的历史。近十年来,笔耕不辍,著述丰富。

成吉思汗是游牧民族出身,没有受中原重农抑商的影响,反而鼓励贸易

第三章是介绍了四大汗国灭亡后,他们的政治遗产继承者。北亚的俄罗斯,小亚细亚的土耳其,中亚的帖木儿、乌兹别克,哈萨克,东亚的明清。他们之后还与蒙古人有恩恩怨怨。其中,准噶尔被清朝屠戮灭亡宣告最后的游牧民族帝国退出历史舞台,法国大革命前夕克里米亚被俄罗斯帝国吞并,最后一个成吉思汗直系统治的国家在地球消失。
mongolia  history  asia  middle-asia  book 
january 2018 by aries1988
你肯定没看过日本人写的亚洲史
拒不思考历史的民族、社会和个人是不幸的,丧失往昔的人是不幸的。世人应当认识和尊重过去以便建设符合情理的未来。——法国历史学家雅克•勒高夫
提起当今的西亚、中东我们会有什么印象?连绵的动乱?保守的宗教?取之不竭的石油?不论用什么词语形容, 西亚中东已经在处于火药桶的中心、世界文明的边缘。

中国在宋朝进入近世,唐朝的时候周边的蛮族特别是突厥和回纥相继拥有自己的文字,出现了文化觉醒,后来的契丹人、女真人对自己的文化与中华文化的优劣长短有比较取舍,不像中世时期,以汉姓汉化为荣。
book  japanese  asia  middle-asia  civ  history 
december 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter
(1) It’s over. We failed. North Korea is a nuclear power now.
2017  korea  asia  crisis  usa  war  nuclear  military  success 
november 2017 by aries1988
Fermented food may be good for your gut, but does it taste good?

Anything that has undergone a form of chemical breakdown by bacteria, yeast or other microbes — from blue cheese to sourdough bread — is fermented.

To ferment, a food needs to be put in an airless environment (a sealed jar filled with liquid, for example) in which microbes are encouraged to feed off its natural sugars. The result is an acid that both kills off harmful bacteria and transforms the original food. Put cabbage in brine and the result is soft, tart sauerkraut. Ferment soy beans, as they do at Flat Three, and the result tastes a bit like a raisin.

Booth, who dedicated a chapter of his book, The Meaning of Rice, to the mould koji, calls the Japanese the kings of fermented foods. Miso soup is my go-to hangover cure, he says. I am totally convinced of the benefits of naturally fermented foods and I do think it is one of the reasons why the traditional Japanese diet is so good for you.
trend  food  restaurant  uk  asia  japanese  korean  innovation  health  body  microbe  fermentation 
november 2017 by aries1988
Cyberpunk Cities Fetishize Asian Culture But Have No Asians - Motherboard
The neon kanji billboards. Neander Wallace's yukata, and Joi's cheongsam. The busy Chinatown. The interactive wall of anime apps. K's rice-filled bento box. The dual Japanese-English text on everything. All signs that point to a vibrant, multicultural city, but somehow devoid of non-white characters.

"Since the late 1970s, a key idea in Western science fiction has been that Japan represents the future. Japan's 'weird' culture is a figure for an incomprehensible tomorrow," wrote Annalee Newitz about our fetishization of Japan's idiosyncrasies.
scifi  asia  ethnic  american  culture  movie  opinion 
october 2017 by aries1988
A Sri Lankan Museum on Staten Island
A high-school student showcases relics from her family’s country in the basement of their restaurant.
asia  identity  american  teenager  immigrant  story  museum 
august 2017 by aries1988
Southeast Asia enters the danger zone
what is good about Southeast Asia — including kindness to strangers, humour, inclusiveness and flexibility — but rather that he sees these very qualities being eclipsed by a mixture of old-fashioned tyranny and baneful new influences from abroad.

inequality — and the selfishness of the business-political elites that have benefited disproportionately from economic growth both before and after Asia’s financial crisis.

America, in Brexit Britain and in oligarchical Hong Kong, so the 40 per cent of Indonesians clustered around a poverty

the 40 per cent of Indonesians clustered around a poverty earnings line of $2 a day are easy prey for demagogues. It is true that prosperity has also swollen the ranks of Asia’s middle class, but this aspiring and increasingly educated bourgeoisie is governed by the same set of authoritarian leaders and their coterie of tycoons. “This is not a sustainable paradox,” the author writes. It sounds like a recipe for revolution.

As for religion, the increasing influence of extremist Sunni interpretations of Islam over the past 30 years is startlingly visible in the dress codes and religiosity of the Muslims who make up 40 per cent of the region’s population
asia  banyan  geopolitics  today  book  opinion  economy  politics  religion  numbers  crisis  inequality 
july 2017 by aries1988
How to Deal With North Korea

The myth holds that Korea and the Kim dynasty are one and the same. It is built almost entirely on the promise of standing up to a powerful and menacing foreign enemy. The more looming the threat—and Trump excels at looming—the better the narrative works for Kim Jong Un. Nukes are needed to repel this threat. They are the linchpin of North Korea’s defensive strategy, the single weapon standing between barbarian hordes and the glorious destiny of the Korean people—all of them, North and South. Kim is the great leader, heir to divinely inspired ancestors who descended from Mount Paektu with mystical, magical powers of leadership, vision, diplomatic savvy, and military genius. Like his father, Kim Jong Il, and grandfather Kim Il Sung before him, Kim is the anointed defender of all Koreans, who are the purest of all races. Even South Korea, the Republic of Korea, should be thankful for Kim because, if not for him, the United States would have invaded long ago.

And with only a few of its worst weapons, North Korea could, probably within hours, kill millions. This means an American first strike would likely trigger one of the worst mass killings in human history.

If mass civilian killings were not a factor—if the war were a military contest alone—South Korea by itself could defeat its northern cousin. It would be a lopsided fight. South Korea’s economy is the world’s 11th-largest, and in recent decades the country has competed with Saudi Arabia for the distinction of being the No. 1 arms buyer. And behind South Korea stands the formidable might of the U.S. military.

They are believed to have tunnels stretching under the DMZ and into South Korea. Special forces could be inserted almost anywhere in South Korea by tunnel, aircraft, boat, or the North Korean navy’s fleet of miniature submarines.

They could wreak havoc on American and South Korean air operations and defenses, and might be able to smuggle a nuclear device to detonate under Seoul itself.

Kim Jong Un, with his bad haircut and his legion of note-taking, big-hat-wearing, kowtowing generals, would be gone. South Korea’s fear of invasion from the North, gone. The menace of the state’s using chemical and biological weapons, gone. The nuclear threat, gone.

Kim may end up trapped in the circular logic of his strategy. He seeks to avoid destruction by building a weapon that, if used, assures his destruction.

Since I have been living here for so long, I am not scared anymore, said Gwon Hyuck-chae, an elderly barber in Munsan, about five miles from the DMZ. Even if there was a war now, it would not give us enough time to flee. We would all just die in an instant.
korea  2017  diplomacy  asia  usa  war  politics 
july 2017 by aries1988
India’s long road to prosperity
if incomes per head could grow at 7 per cent a year, India would achieve high-income status, at the level of Portugal, within a quarter of a century. Only three economies have achieved something close to this in the past: Taiwan, South Korea and China.
india  future  economy  book  comparison  asia  china 
june 2017 by aries1988
The New Koreans by Michael Breen — danger and dynamism
Intriguingly, as with China, the local name of the country is not the same as that used by outsiders. “Korea” derives from the Goryeo dynasty heard of by Marco Polo; Koreans themselves call the country Hanguk or Chosun depending on whether they are from the south or the north.

He is in awe of the achievements of a country that turned itself from one of the world’s poorest into one of the richest in half a century, and has reached 100 per cent literacy from a mere 20 per cent in 1945. The author comes across as a friendly uncle who sits you down in an armchair with a cup of tea — or perhaps a beer — and tells you all the interesting things he knows about the admirable if sometimes frustrating Korea of today.
korea  book  asia  politics  explained  history 
may 2017 by aries1988
Asie du Sud Est : la diplomatie du bambou
Rivalités en Asie du Sud Est et en mer de Chine : concentration de puissances nucléaires, résistances aux pressions extérieures - notamment celles des grandes puissances, prospérité de Singapour, essor du Vietnam, autonomie et coopérations diverses, anniversaire de l'ASEAN... Quels enjeu[...]
diplomacy  podcast  numbers  china  asia  banyan 
may 2017 by aries1988
Destined for war? China, America and the Thucydides trap
“For the better part of two millennia, the norm for China, from its own perspective, was a natural dominion over everything under heaven,” writes French. In practice, this meant “a vast and familiar swath of geography that consisted of nearby Central Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia”.
book  china  asia  usa 
april 2017 by aries1988
"La Méditerranée asiatique", de François Gipouloux
François Gipouloux est original en ce qu'il inscrit l'Asie de ce début du XXIe siècle dans des temporalités croisées entre micro-histoire et Histoire.
book  asia  français  history 
february 2017 by aries1988
The curious adventures of Con and Frodo

Stickers first appeared in East Asia in 2011, developed by KakaoTalk in South Korea, and Line, a Japanese messaging app, which is owned by a subsidiary of Naver, a South Korean internet giant. When a tsunami struck Japan in 2011, Naver’s staff there huddled at the office and created Line in six weeks to communicate with each other across a network with much-reduced bandwidths.

Emoji in South Korea and Japan tend towards over-dramatisation, irony and self-mockery. They appeal not just to the young but also to middle-aged office workers looking to smooth awkward or delicate situations with bosses, colleagues and family members.

Not all stickers mean something. The pleasure in scouring sticker stores and sending new ones to friends lies partly in hunting for the zaniest sets out there and chuckling over them together.
fun  language  digital  messaging  communication  humor  asia  world  emoji 
december 2016 by aries1988
There is now a sixth taste – and it explains why we love carbs

It has long been thought that our tongues register a small number of primary tastes: salty, sweet, sour and bitter. Umami – the savoury taste often associated with monosodium glutamate – was added to this list seven years ago, but there’s been no change since then.

They called the taste ‘starchy’, says Lim. Asians would say it was rice-like, while Caucasians described it as bread-like or pasta-like. It’s like eating flour.

Other potential tastes being investigated are the flavour of carbonated drinks, the metallic taste you get from blood, and amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Receptors have been found for kokumi, a full-bodied flavour that has been described as hearty and is thought to make foods feel richer and more satisfying, and there is some evidence that we can taste the fatty acids that make up fats.

But before any new flavours can be enshrined as primary tastes, they must meet a strict list of criteria. Tastes need to be recognisable, have their own set of tongue receptors, and trigger some kind of useful physiological response.
taste  food  research  asia 
september 2016 by aries1988
刘仲敬:东亚在世界史中的角色-墙外楼
而“中国”这个概念之所以产生,就是欧洲国际体系进入东亚的产物。大清为了跟欧洲国家打交道,签订条约,它必须对自己有一个称呼。就是由于大清和欧洲列强之间不断进行交涉的结果,不断签署条约的结果,才产生了后来我们现在看到的“中国”概念

欧洲最初产生的威斯特伐利亚体系散播到整个世界,包括亚洲。在这个过程中,亚洲原有的政治结构需要重组,这就是我们所说的“中国”产生的原因。因为以前,在欧洲人来到东方以前,我们其实没有“中国”这个东西。以前所谓的“中国”,就是中央的城池,就是首都,或者是中原,就是指的中部的、首都周围的土地,它是一个模糊的地理名词,并不是现在所谓的民族国家的那个“国”。

中国的前身毕竟是大清,而大清是王朝结构,它没有民族国家和民族国家之间那种明确的边界。大清和琉球、韩国之类的关系是宗藩性质的关系,它们不必要像民族国家和民族国家那样划定明确的边界。因此大清在跟西方打交道的时候,就有一个很明显的现象就是,西方国家和西方国家之间有明确的边界,而大清和它的周边没有明确边界,必须不断的重划边界。

孔子时代的诸侯结构和秦始皇时代的帝国结构,并不是现在这个中国的产生者。现在这个中国是西方国际体系输入以后,强迫大清留下来的那些各族群、各种各样的居民,按照西方民族国家观念重新组合的产物。我们要注意,这个重新组合是按照西方的原理重新组合的,而不是按照孔子的原理或者秦始皇的原理重新组合的。这就是两者不能直接划等号的原因。

,西方现在的民族国家结构是帝国解体的产物。

欧洲现代的主要问题是德国和两次世界大战,但是德国为什么是世界大战的策源地呢?就是因为德国是神圣罗马帝国的直接继承人,而神圣罗马帝国瓦解以后,德国找不到自己的位置。法国和英国可以直截了当地说它自己是民族国家,因为它们没有帝国的负担;而德国却搞不清楚,它到底是应该像神圣罗马帝国继承人一样,理直气壮的申索它对全欧洲的最高统治权呢,还是应该把自己降一格,变成跟英国和法国一模一样的民族国家?如果走前一条道路的话,必然会引起德国和全欧洲的战争;如果走后一条路的话,德国又是损失最大的,因为英法这些国家本来就不是帝国,而德国是帝国,德国放弃帝国,不仅是放弃了皇帝的虚荣,而且要把荷兰、瑞士、洛林这些边缘地区的土地都放弃出去,理论上和实际上都损失惨重。

如果中国要建立民族国家的话,那么很多缺乏认同感的原先的前藩属地带,就可以像是对待韩国一样,让它自己去独立,今后建立平等的民族国家的新型关系。但是如果真的是这样的话,那么现在的台湾问题就不存在了。台湾问题存在,就是因为现在的中国仍然不肯放弃的缘故。但是不肯放弃,又没有充分的实力来坚持,那结果就是一场灾难。
history  china  geopolitics  europe  comparison  today  future  conflict  world  order  opinion  germany  asia 
august 2016 by aries1988
Quick bites: breaking bread in Uzbekistan
Uzbeks still consider Samarkand non — with its dark crust and bagel-like consistency — to be the best, and discs of it travel long-distance today to the Uzbek diaspora living around the world, carried in the luggage of visiting relatives.

Head chef Robert Panak will use a traditional tandoor oven to get results close to the original. We use a strong flour and Moul-Bie blanche T55 [baguette flour] in order to achieve a crisp ring with a fluffy texture on the inside. We also cut the dough while still in the mixer to add extra air, in the traditional Uzbek way.

You’ll find that in Uzbekistan, non accompanies every meal, and different cities and provinces have their own variations. At the Chorsu Bazaar in the capital, Tashkent, babushki (old women) sell their non from vintage prams. Compared with Samarkand non, Tashkent non is lighter and softer; In Khiva, 600 miles away, it is crispier and thinner.

To make non, the nonvoy (baker) rolls the dough flat and stamps it with a chekish (a special tool with long metal teeth). The dough is then brushed with an oil, egg or milk wash and sprinkled with sesame or onion seeds before being slapped on the curved walls of a red-hot clay tandoor oven.

Ancient traditions still surround non: it is never placed face down or cut with a knife (it is only torn by hand). At weddings, the bride and groom both take a bite of non and then finish it the next day as a married couple. If a man goes away, for army service or to study, his family will get him to take a bite of non and then hang the bread on the wall until his return. It’s the same for the many Uzbeks who travel to Russia for work today. They know that when they return, the non they took a bite from will be waiting for them.
food  stans  travel  tradition  moi  asia  silkroad  history  restaurant  bread  home  recette 
august 2016 by aries1988
War and peace in Asia — FT.com
he was also keen to reassure his audience that China’s rise would not lead to conflict with the outside world — “We all need to work together to avoid the Thucydides trap — destructive tensions between an emerging power and established powers,” he insisted.

Xi’s reference to “Thucydides’ trap” showed that he (or his staff) had been following the American debate about the rise of China. Graham Allison, a Harvard professor, had coined the phrase with reference to the ancient Greek historian’s observation that the war between Athens and Sparta in the fifth century BC was caused by Sparta's fears of a rising Athens. He has calculated that in 12 of 16 cases since 1500, the rivalry between a great power and a rising power had ended in war.

In the Middle East, a state-system largely constructed by Britain and France in the early 20th century — and which was then maintained by American power after 1945 — is now crumbling, amid violence and political anarchy.

The red thread connecting these seemingly regional crises is the west’s growing inability to function as a pole of stability and power, imposing order on a chaotic world.

The fundamental reason for the shift in economic power to Asia is simple: weight of numbers. By 2025 some two-thirds of the world’s population will live in Asia. By contrast the US will account for about 5 per cent of the world’s population and the European Union about 7 per cent.

Hans Rosling of Sweden’s Karolinska Institute puts it nicely when he describes the world’s pin code as “1114” — meaning that of the planet’s 7bn people, roughly 1bn live in Europe, 1bn live in the Americas, 1bn in Africa and 4bn in Asia. By 2050, the world’s population is likely to be 9bn, and the pin code will change to 1125, with both Africa and Asia adding a billion people.

stalwarts of the US foreign policy establishment, such as Madeleine Albright and Tom Donilon, make it clear that the maintenance of open global markets and the US alliance system remain the twin pillars of American foreign policy — as since 1945.
today  geopolitics  world  china  usa  europe  opinion  conflict  future  asia  economy  military 
august 2016 by aries1988
Why Singapore’s kids are so good at maths

Aiming to move away from simple rote-learning and to focus instead on teaching children how to problem solve, the textbooks the group produced were influenced by educational psychologists such as the American Jerome Bruner, who posited that people learn in three stages: by using real objects, then pictures, and then through symbols. That theory contributed to Singapore’s strong emphasis on modelling mathematical problems with visual aids; using coloured blocks to represent fractions or ratios, for example.

A switch from an ability-based model of individualised learning, to a model [which says that] all children are capable of anything, depending on how it is presented to them and the effort which they put into learning it.

unlike Singapore’s office buildings, which are so deeply chilled by air conditioning that workers regularly wrap themselves in sweaters, the classrooms are open to the tropical humidity. Ceiling fans stir the air and the chatter of other children sometimes drifts through the open windows.

Meritocracy is an element of the glue that binds Singapore together. Alongside the promise of shared prosperity and security, the idea that the brightest can rise to the top is a component of the political bargain that the city-state has struck with its citizens, under which some political freedoms are restricted in exchange for significant material benefits.

Singaporeans frequently use the Hokkien Chinese word kiasu to describe themselves. The term translates as being afraid to lose out
investigation  interview  singapore  asia  education  children  learn  methodology  comparison  uk  crisis  world  future  creativity  debate  society  history  reportage 
july 2016 by aries1988
The sea women of Jeju
From more than 14,000 in the 1970s, the number of haenyeo has dwindled to fewer than 4,500 today.

The vast majority are aged over 50, with the oldest in their nineties. But, despite their age, they continue to perform feats beyond most women in their twenties — diving to depths of up to 20m, holding their breath for as long as two minutes at a time.

“If I weren’t diving, I’d just be growing potatoes,” she says. “I dived right through pregnancy, up to the ninth month.” This was normal practice, according to historians of Jeju, who record cases of haenyeo giving birth on boats during a day’s diving, and even strapping their young children to the mast while they worked.

Their financial independence is remarkable in a country where elderly poverty is a huge problem. Forty-nine per cent of South Koreans over 65 live on less than half the median income — the highest proportion in the international Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a group of advanced economies. That has contributed to a nearly fivefold increase in the elderly suicide rate since 1990 to a level that is by far the highest of any developed country.
korea  asia  comparison  oecd  work  ocean  food  money  youth  aging  tradition  village  female  elders 
september 2015 by aries1988
【吃的文化史】日式咖哩飯的誕生(上) | 故事
引進的野菜中,對於日式咖哩誕生最重要的三種是:洋蔥、胡蘿蔔和馬鈴薯。

除了三種配菜之外,日式咖哩還有一項很重要的特徵在於配菜:福神漬,也就是吃飯的醬菜。日本人吃飯一定要配醬菜,為了使咖哩飯吃起來像是一餐飯,日本人也加了這種熟悉的配菜。
food  asia  india  japan  uk  colonialism  history  story 
september 2015 by aries1988
Letter of Recommendation: Uzbek
Because I happened to speak decent Turkish, a cousin of Uzbek, and because I spent a week in Uzbekistan when I was 22, and because life is nothing if not a sequence of odd choices vaguely considered, for two years I sat in a room with two other students and produced some extremely literal translations.

I’m settled now, no longer nomadic. But Uzbek is my little insurance policy, a crumpled bill rolled into a stocking, against some unforeseen contingency. Who knows when I might find myself on a plane Tashkent-bound, surveying the Qizilqum Desert? Salom, I’ll turn to my seatmate and say. Siz bilan tanishganimdan xursandman.
asia  story  language  turkey  learn  travel 
august 2015 by aries1988
The centenary delusion | The Economist
Today has no equivalent of the rival system of alliances that led so swiftly to escalation in July 1914, as countries marched towards the edge of the cliff like “The Sleepwalkers” (the title of another fine book about the period, by Christopher Clark).
war  asia  future  ww1  analysis  comparison  china  japan 
may 2015 by aries1988
A dragon’s eye view: hot-air ballooning in Bhutan - FT.com

From the outside, it resembles two Bhutanese farmhouses connected by a low barn. Inside, however, floor-to-ceiling windows offer sublime views of the cloud-wreathed valley below. The wood and stone is local, but the wood-burning stoves that heat each room come from Switzerland, the fancy bathtubs from the UK, and the fabrics from Australia — all shipped to Kolkata and trucked overland, along with the $100,000 balloon, which was made in Bristol, southwest England.

Save for a single rifle shooter, Bhutan has sent only archers to the Olympics, but has never won a medal because Olympic targets are only half that distance.

Doorways have raised thresholds to stop the stiff-limbed dead from entering.

Its many festivals and masked dances are still staged primarily for locals, and have not morphed into commercial shows for foreigners. Buddhism still dominates Bhutan’s way of life, and its people still seem driven more by their legendary pursuit of happiness than money.

As befits a country known as Druk Yul, or Land of the Thunder Dragon, the balloon is emblazoned with huge golden dragons, and the occasional blasts of flame from its gas cylinders resemble nothing so much as a dragon’s fiery breath.
asia  travel  air  himalayas  tradition  tourism 
may 2015 by aries1988
从伦敦到成都:一对90后情侣的49天自驾日记
杨雨昇和尹丹的实际旅行线路:英国——法国——比利时——荷兰——德国——波兰——立陶宛——拉脱维亚——爱沙尼亚——俄罗斯——哈萨克斯坦——吉尔吉斯斯坦——中国(喀什)…
driving  asia  travel 
december 2014 by aries1988
Wheat People vs. Rice People
In America, we say that the squeaky wheel gets the grease. In Japan, people say that the nail that stands up gets hammered down.

For example, Americans are more likely to ignore the context, and Asians to attend to it.
In May, the journal Science published a study, led by a young University of Virginia psychologist, Thomas Talhelm, that ascribed these different orientations to the social worlds created by wheat farming and rice farming. Rice is a finicky crop. Because rice paddies need standing water, they require complex irrigation systems that have to be built and drained each year. One farmer’s water use affects his neighbor’s yield. A community of rice farmers needs to work together in tightly integrated ways.

Not wheat farmers. Wheat needs only rainfall, not irrigation. To plant and harvest it takes half as much work as rice does, and substantially less coordination and cooperation. And historically, Europeans have been wheat farmers and Asians have grown rice.

The authors of the study in Science argue that over thousands of years, rice- and wheat-growing societies developed distinctive cultures: “You do not need to farm rice yourself to inherit rice culture.”

As we enter a season in which the values of do-it-yourself individualism are likely to dominate our Congress, it is worth remembering that this way of thinking might just be the product of the way our forefathers grew their food and not a fundamental truth about the way that all humans flourish.
fun  agriculture  character  society  food  determinism  geography  asia  europe  comparison  china 
december 2014 by aries1988
Everyday People in Everyday Asia
“There are many different narratives that come out of Asia, but I’d say two of the big ones are stories of economic gain — people becoming rich, or people getting evicted because of new wealth — or this exoticism, where people say, ‘Oh, look at this really strange and colorful festival they have,’ ” Mr. Jansen-Lonnquist said.

“Even on well-worn paths, we miss things. We overlook,” he said. “I think it’s important to revisit what we assume we know about. In Everyday Asia we can admit that we don’t know everything about Asia and are working through this process of discovery as well.”
photo  showcase  project  world  asia 
october 2014 by aries1988
Why does Singapore have such a low birth rate?
How is it the most productive, functional country Singapore has one of the lowest birth rate in the world? Is this robot future in which only the better off have children? Why is it richer the world is the less people can afford children?
explained  population  education  asia 
december 2013 by aries1988
The Notorious MSG's Unlikely Formula For Success
Without fermentation, we would live in a sad world without beer, cheese, miso, kimchi, and hundreds of other delicious things humans have enjoyed for centuries.

The flavor Chang and Felder are chasing in creating these new fermented products is umami — the savory fifth taste detectable by the human tongue along with salty, sweet, sour, and bitter. When bacteria and fungi break down the glucose in foods that are fermenting, they release waste products. And the waste valued in Momofuku’s lab above all others is glutamic acid, the amino acid that creates the taste of umami on our tongues.

Babies loved MSG just like adults, which is not a surprise. Human breast milk contains 19 milligrams of free glutamic acid per 100 grams — cow’s milk has 1 milligram. We’re programmed to crave umami from the womb.

The first slide contains a chart of the five known tastes discernible by the human tongue: Bitter is caused by acetic acid, salty is sodium chloride, and sweet is sucrose, not sugar. And there is monosodium glutamate, responsible for umami. This is a reminder — most certainly a calculated one — that almost everything we eat has a scientific name just as artificial-sounding as monosodium glutamate.
food  science  usa  history  asia  cuisine 
august 2013 by aries1988
Buddhism v Islam in Asia: Fears of a new religious strife | The Economist
Radical monks, led by a notorious chauvinist, Wirathu, from a monastery in the northern city of Mandalay, have abandoned any claims to Buddhism as a universal doctrine of compassion and non-violence. For them Buddhism equates with a narrow nationalism. They argue, quite simply, that unless the majority-Buddhist population fights back, Muslims, with alarmingly high birth rates, will overrun the country. On July 22nd he claimed that a small explosion in a car near where he was preaching was the work of Islamic extremists. It all taps into old resentments against the big influx of Indians, many of them Muslim, who came into the country on the coat-tails of British colonialists during the 19th and early 20th centuries. They ran much of the country’s finance and commerce, and were hated for it by the indigenous Burmans. Race riots against Indians and Muslims in the 1930s in Yangon (then Rangoon, the capital) and elsewhere were whipped up then, as now, by a chauvinist Buddhist press.

They propose that Buddhist women must seek permission from local officials to marry a man of another faith; meanwhile, the husband-to-be should convert to Buddhism. Under Myanmar’s former military rule, such ideas had little chance of becoming law, but with the onset of democracy all that has changed.

They may have been inspired by an imprisoned radical cleric, Abu Bakar Basyir, who in April called for a jihad against Myanmar’s Buddhist population.
from:kindle  religion  asia  future  islam  conflict 
july 2013 by aries1988
东亚人头发粗胸部小与古代基因变异有关 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
人们有时假设东亚人曾在一个寒冷的环境里进化,因为他们的窄鼻孔可以保存热量、多余的眼皮脂肪可以防止眼部热量流失。但是博德团队估计,相关EDAR基因的变体大概在3.5万年前出现在中国的中部地区,而那时这一地区相对温暖、潮湿。更多的汗腺对当时生活在那里依靠狩猎和采集为生的人是有好处的。

但是,西雅图华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的遗传学家乔舒亚·阿基(Joshua Akey)说,他认为这种基因在东亚的传播更可能是由于性选择。粗毛发和小胸是肉眼可见的性信号,如果男性偏好这种特质,随着携带此特征的女性孕育更多孩子,这种特质就可以迅速变得更普遍。阿基博士说,决定显性特征的基因,如欧洲人中的蓝眼、金发,有着很强的选择信号。与汗腺相比,EDAR基因可见的吸引异性的影响很可能在自然选择上发挥了更大作用。

大概有93%的中国汉族人携带这种变异,大概有70%的日本人和泰国人、60%到90%的美洲印第安人携带这种变异。而美洲印第安人是东亚人的后裔。

每一个种族都有一系列不同的所选区域,这反映了一个事实:人类离开非洲以后散布各地,面临了不同的挑战,因而导致每一个大陆上基因适应环境的情况并不一样。大概其中140个受自然选择影响的位置在欧洲人身上,140个在东亚人身上,132个在非洲人身上,作者们在另外一篇于周四发表在《细胞》杂志上的文章里写道。
biology  human  evolution  asia  sex 
february 2013 by aries1988
Electricity in Myanmar: Area of darkness | The Economist
Why a satellite of at night tells more about the economy than official statistics
macro  data  economy  asia  satellite 
october 2012 by aries1988
韩国延长导弹射程 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
根据修订之后的方针,韩国可以部署射程达800公里的导弹,这一射程足以覆盖朝鲜全境,但却不会对中国或是日本造成威胁,前提是导弹的有效载荷不超过500公斤。此外,韩国还可以在较短程弹道导弹上安装重量不超过两吨的弹头。
googlereader  asia  korea  military 
october 2012 by aries1988
乌兰巴托,正午阳光下一个历史的影子 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
1990年以来,这个城市一定经历了可怕的膨胀。它容纳了蒙古一半的人口,道路未经扩建,就不加节制地引进汽车。蒙古沿用苏俄的右行道路,车也来自苏联。1990年代之后,日本车大受欢迎,问题是,方向盘不加改装,仍在右边。马路上靠右并行着两种规则的车,司机有时在左,有时在右,乘客也常常弄错上车的方向。对我的疑问,蒙古人自己并不觉得这有什么,手一挥,把这并入游牧民族的自由天性。可是,长久以来,他们却遵从草原的古老契约:上马一定要从左边。我想,也许是城市对他们来说,是一个太年轻的事物。
googlereader  asia  society 
september 2012 by aries1988
中美日缺少互信加剧钓鱼岛冲突
缺乏信任,首先是因为缺乏了解。中日两国是地理距离较近,但心里距离极其遥远的邻国。中日之间不仅没有“共享观点”,甚至连“共享知识”都没有做到。上个世纪20年代,国民党元老戴季陶就曾在《日本论》中一针见血地指出,“中国这个题目,日本人也不晓得放在解剖台上,解剖了几千百次,装在试验管里化验了几千百次。我们中国人却只是一味的排斥反对,再不肯做研究工夫,几乎连日本字都不愿意看,日本话都不愿意听,日本人都不愿意见,这真叫做‘思想上的闭关自守’,‘知识上的义和团’了。” http://www.instapaper.com/read/325210832
instapaper_favs  asia  usa  china  future  conflict 
september 2012 by aries1988
周公重诚意,日相服高义-吴澧-财新博客-新世纪的常识传播者-财新网
日红两国,如今经济上的联系很紧密。但在政治上,日本在相当一段时间内,仍然会很谨慎地平衡对红和对美关系。其实中国和日本有着文化渊源的共通性,对日外交,中国人应该有一些美国人不具备的优势。蒋公和毛公的故事告诉我们,给日本来点软实力,让日本政界要人感到大国之“义”,不失为睦邻之义。你看,即使小泉那样唱着美国流行歌曲的“新生代”,他其实也有义气的一面。
googlereader  diplomacy  paragon  asia 
august 2012 by aries1988
【外交学者】越南眼中的中国
越南和中国会成为朋友吗?越南和印度在南海搞合作将是检验越中友谊的最好试金石。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/215358825
china  diplomacy  asia 
august 2012 by aries1988
Fish Story - By Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt | Foreign Policy
The risk of conflict in the South China Sea is real. But not for the reasons you might think.
asia  fish  food  future  conflict 
june 2012 by aries1988
起自中国拟直达新加坡 中国东南亚高铁线路今年动工
中国铁道部部长刘志军昨天表明,铁道部将在今年加快在老挝和缅甸进行的铁路合作项目前期工作,争取尽早开工。分析人士认为,有关工程的展开将带动中国与亚细安区域经济整合,并为中国的战略安全提供保障。
china  asia  train  future 
january 2011 by aries1988

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