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aries1988 : chemistry   12

在化工脱贫的路上,响水人经历过爆炸、泄漏和“大逃亡”|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
2006年,江苏省陆续出重拳治理环境问题,3年内关闭近6000家企业。当大批化工企业在这场运动式的“关厂潮”中垂死挣扎时,江苏北部向他们敞开了怀抱。

横穿江苏而过的长江,分割了苏南(包括南京、无锡、常州、苏州和镇江五个市)和苏北(徐州、连云港、宿迁、淮安、盐城),亦画下残酷的经济分割线。在紧邻上海的苏州和省会南京的带动下,苏南在经济发展中将苏北远远甩在身后。

1990年,苏北GDP只有苏南的一半左右,2007年这一差距更是扩大到三分之一。彼时江苏省级贫困县有16个,均出在苏北,盐城市更是占据了三个名额,分别是滨海、阜宁和响水。

化工业,成为这些贫困县奋身一跃的跳板。

时任江苏省常州市发展和改革委员会重大项目稽察办公室主任俞建初去到苏北时,亦为当地招商局负责人的言行感到惊讶,“我们地方环境容量大,环保指标用不了,直通大海,可以自然分解,环保上不收费用。”

人们怀念以前的陈家港和灌河。“我们这里最出名的有‘大鱼拜龙王’的现象。”采访中,韩松和吴莹都讲述了儿时看到鲸鱼的经历。

灌河被称为“苏北黄浦江”,东接黄海,是苏北唯一没有建闸的天然潮汐河道。资料显示,灌河历史上就是鲸鱼经常出没的地方,每年春季,常有“大鱼”(鲸鱼)由大海游入灌河。韩松记得小时候自己常和小伙伴去灌河洗澡,河流清澈见底。

“化工厂开过来之后,就慢慢看不见这个现象了,河水都冒着油污,不再能去游泳。”韩松说。
reportage  tragedy  accident  chemistry  industry  jiangsu  pollution  2019 
april 2019 by aries1988
BBC World Service - Business Daily, Elements: Cadmium
This toxic metal is slowly being phased out of our lives. But as presenter Justin Rowlatt discovers, while nickel-cadmium batteries may have disappeared from our gadgets, they still help to keep planes up in the air.

Chemistry professor Andrea Sella tells the story of this colourful yet poisonous element, while metals consultant Dominic Boyle says even if we stop using it all together, the stuff is still piling up.

Justin visits the offices of SES Batteries in the Indian military town of Ambala to find out why the country's army still uses nickel-cadmium batteries. And Jennifer Holdaway of the Social Science Research Council explains how cadmium found its way into China's rice supplies.
business  element  batteries  chemistry  china  poison  mineral 
may 2016 by aries1988
How chemical weapons from the first world war never went away | New Scientist
None of these backlogs, however, compares to that of China, where Japan stockpiled large quantities during its occupation from 1937 to 1945. China’s reports to the OPCW say that Japanese mustard, phosgene and arsenic agents have been found in more than 90 locations, buried or dumped in rivers and lakes. They have killed and injured countless people, and injury rates are rising as China’s building boom unearths more. More than 2000 chemical shells were found last year.

Even that pales beside two huge pits at Haerbaling, where the Chinese buried an estimated 330,000 abandoned Japanese chemical weapons after the war. This year, Japan finished building two detonation chambers there. Full-time demolition starts next year, and the OPCW wants it cleared by 2022. But according to a joint Japanese and Chinese report to the OPCW in July, at current rates of destruction it will take 40 years.
war  history  chemistry 
october 2015 by aries1988
All about sodium cyanide, the extremely toxic chemical found in vast quantities at the Tianjin explosion site
Most of the world’s gold is not found in nugget form but as very fine gold powders in rocks. In fact, our cultural demand for gold forces us to mine in rocks that can be as low as 0.005% gold. This means we need industrial extraction to separate and purify gold from all the other materials.

After mining and milling, the crude rock mixture is turned into a fine powder and added to a solution of sodium cyanide. The gold forms strong bonds with cyanide molecules and can then be separated from the rest of the minerals because it is then soluble in water. It then reacts with zinc and turns back into a solid. Finally is smelted to isolate the gold and cast into bars.

Inhaling or swallowing sodium cyanide blocks oxygen transport causing serious medical problems and ultimately death.

But the nature of cyanides means we can detect them easily and monitor the process of cleaning up. The clean-up should proceed as quickly as possible. The other heartening factor is that after the short-term—albeit very seriously deadly—effects, there should be no slow-onset ramifications, as you would get with a carcinogen or something harder to deal with.
explained  chemistry  tianjin 
august 2015 by aries1988
What Caused The Warehouse Explosions In Tianjin, China?
Chinese officials have not said what caused the explosions Wednesday in Tianjin, China. NPR's Robert Siegel talks with chemical risk expert David Leggett about the chemicals known to be at the site.
explained  expert  risk  chemistry 
august 2015 by aries1988
干过化学的告诉你,当你身上的酒精熊熊燃烧的时候,怎么冷静的灭火!文/李殿武
恩,这一切都是因为一个妹子,吃烧烤引发的悲剧: 昨天开始,本人被一个视频刷屏了,今天终于打开视频看了一下,看到截图的时候。最大的感受:化学没学好,不仅仅是分数的问题,更涉及到某些时候保命的问题(比如火灾,食品安全问题,化妆品选购问题)。先放这个视频,当然了,虽然不重口味,但是心理承受能力差的人还是别看了…
chemistry  fire  howto  life 
september 2014 by aries1988
A Cycle of Contamination — and Cancer — That Won’t End - NYTimes.com
As in Toms River, so many things about last week’s debacle in Handan were infuriating, starting with the chemical involved: aniline. That was the compound that launched the synthetic chemical industry in 1856, when a precocious 18-year-old named William Henry Perkin, experimenting in his parents’ London attic, inadvertently discovered that aniline, dissolved in sulfuric acid and mixed with potassium dichromate, made a superb purple dye.

Soon London, Basel, Switzerland, and the Ruhr Valley in Germany were littered with aniline factories, many of which would morph into familiar corporate giants like CIBA, Geigy, Agfa and the German behemoth BASF, the industry leader. In Basel and London, it was said, you could tell which dyes were being made by the color of the nearby canals and rivers, where the factories dumped their waste. Factory bosses would send workers on clandestine midnight runs to the Middle Bridge in Basel to dump barrels of waste into the fast-moving Rhine.

The reality of 21st-century globalism, however, is that none of us can pretend that by pushing the chemical industry out of our communities we have stopped enabling its dangerous practices. The industry jobs that started in Basel, and then migrated to Cincinnati and Toms River, are now in Shanxi Province and other coal-rich areas of China. BASF alone now owns or invests in 45 Chinese ventures. Meanwhile, hundreds of smaller companies like the Tianji Coal Chemical Industry Group, whose Changzhi factory was the source of last week’s leak, are busy turning coal into aniline and a host of other chemical products.
globalization  life  history  chemistry  industry  environment  health 
january 2013 by aries1988
[凝]到凝固的牛奶深处去看看
牛奶变酸奶的神奇之处在于,变身过程中水分没有流失,液体却变成了固形物。究竟发生了什么,得钻到酸奶里看看。
yoghurt  milk  chemistry 
april 2011 by aries1988

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