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aries1988 : climate   7

Exploring Lake Baikal | JSTOR Daily
The nature of the lake itself lends it to great diversity. For one thing the lake is at least 25 million years old. It is also extremely deep, and unlike many deep lakes, all depths contain plenty of dissolved oxygen. Under such conditions, organisms have the entire lake in which to speciate. Species can differentiate at opposite ends of the lake, or in the same location but at different depths. Several river systems drain into Baikal, so additional organisms have the opportunity to colonize the lake. Some of these species remain as they are, adding to the diversity, while others evolve in the lake into even more unique creatures.
lake  baikal  russia  mongolia  nature  climate  animal  ecosystem 
april 2019 by aries1988
季风亚洲 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
季风亚洲(Monsoon Asia)是受季风影响的亚洲地区。其界线西起塔尔沙漠东缘,向东经喜玛拉雅山脉、青藏高原东缘、大兴安岭一线。此线以东的地区在夏天受海洋暖湿空气影响,获得降水。冬季受蒙古高气压影响变得干燥。这是也解释了为什么在同纬度的中东地区、非洲和中美洲一片荒芜,但东亚地区却草木繁茂。季风亚洲鲜有冬季强降水纪录,如2004年十二月台湾豪雨、2013年十二月海南岛暴雨等。

由于季风不稳定,季风的时间与含水多寡对本地区的农业生产至关重要。由于季风具有雨热同期的特点,该地区水热条件配合良好,因此水稻可在该地区大面积种植,且种植北界接近黑龙江,是世界上水稻可种植纬度最高的地区。[1]
agriculture  climate  china  asia 
july 2018 by aries1988
The climate scientist who predicted Hurricane Katrina explains why future storms will be worse - Quartz
An obvious point is that slowly rising sea levels increase the probability of storm-induced surges even when the statistics of the storms, such as top wind speed, themselves remain stable. Storm surges are physically the same thing as tsunamis but driven by wind and atmospheric pressure rather than the shaking seafloor, and they typically arrive near the peak of the storm’s fury.

Hurricanes are giant heat engines driven by the thermodynamic disequilibrium between the tropical oceans and atmosphere. This disequilibrium drives a strong flow of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere and is a direct consequence of the greenhouse effect: the tropical atmosphere is so opaque to infrared radiation that the sea surface cannot cool very much by directly radiating heat to space. Instead, it cools mostly by the evaporation of water, the same mechanism by which our sweaty bodies cool on a hot day.
climate  weather  prediction  future 
august 2015 by aries1988
A Climate-Modeling Strategy That Won’t Hurt the Climate - NYTimes.com
Such machines will need to be more than 100 times faster than today’s most powerful supercomputers, and ironically, such an effort to better understand the threat of climate change could actually contribute to global warming. If such a computer were built using today’s technologies, a so-called exascale computer would consume electricity equivalent to 200,000 homes and might cost $20 million or more annually to operate.
Computer engineers now believe that sometime between 2020 and 2023 is a likely arrival date for the next generation of supercomputers.

“Scientific calculations like weather and climate modeling are generally, inherently inexact,” Dr. Palem said. “We’ve shown that using inexact computation techniques need not degrade the quality of the weather-climate simulation.”

To more accurately predict the long-term impact of climate change will require shrinking the cell size to just a single kilometer. Such a model would require more than 200 million cells and roughly three weeks to compute one simulation of climate change over a century.
supercomputer  climate  simulation  debate 
may 2015 by aries1988
Is a Climate Disaster Inevitable?
The physicist Enrico Fermi first formulated this question, now called the Fermi paradox, in 1950. But in the intervening decades, humanity has recognized that our own climb up the ladder of technological sophistication comes with a heavy price. From climate change to resource depletion, our evolution into a globe-spanning industrial culture is forcing us through the narrow bottleneck of a sustainability crisis. In the wake of this realization, new and sobering answers to Fermi’s question now seem possible.
science  scifi  future  civ  earth  space  climate 
january 2015 by aries1988
Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands : Nature : Nature Publishing Group
Here we use a climate model to show that, for cities across North America, geographic variations in daytime ΔT are largely explained by variations in the efficiency with which urban and rural areas convect heat to the lower atmosphere. If urban areas are aerodynamically smoother than surrounding rural areas, urban heat dissipation is relatively less efficient and urban warming occurs (and vice versa).
phd  city  climate 
july 2014 by aries1988

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