recentpopularlog in

aries1988 : comparison   350

« earlier  
Twitter
. and I have been thinking about Beijing's warped sense of scale. All our friends who visit get confus…
theory  beijing  pedestrian  comfort  city  urban  metro  transport  comparison  map  digital 
19 days ago by aries1988
郑力轩:战争的昭和、暧昧的平成,曙光初露的令和|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
历经了战前超民族主义的狂热与破灭之后,战后昭和则是透过许多日本独特制度,展开了受到世界瞩目的高速发展,奠定了日本认同。在昭和时期“日本第一”的呼声下,日本成为兼顾成长与平等、品质与效率、传统与现代的代名词。到了平成时期,这些具日本特色的制度遇到种种危机,然而是否要引入国外制度,特别是美国的制度,又让日本在复杂的自尊与疑虑间持续纠结。

平成年间日本,就是处在这样的暧昧情境下,既没有墨守成规,但也很难说大刀阔斧的改变,而是在不同方向的拉扯中缓步向前。

昭和时期日本政治社会经济体制是以追赶欧美发展为核心,而有以下几个特征:在经济上,以大企业为中心的日本式资本主义,不仅促进了高速成长,也因其独特的运作型态受到全球广泛的注目;在政治上则是以1955年自由民主党结成时形成的55年体制,由民选议员、官僚与企业组组成的铁三角稳定控制日本政局,形成了民主国家中罕见的一党长期执政;在家庭上则形成所谓近代家族,也就是具有明确性别分工的核心家庭。

在雇用上采取长期雇用、不轻易裁员的制度。员工(通常限定在男性)在学校毕业后集体进入企业,到55岁前享受安定雇用的保障。其次,在企业治理上,日本企业主要由终身在同一公司工作的经理人所控制,许多董事会(取缔役会) 成为经理人升迁的一部份,而非欧美式股东利益的代表。也因此,日本企业的决策往往出现以“从业员福祉”而非“股东利润”为核心的运作型态。

在经济上,1985年的广场协定加上国内宽松的金融,导致许多日本企业放弃了之前众所称道的长期视野,转向操作财务技术以获取短期利润,带来严重的土地与股市泡沫。在社会上,对女性职涯的高度压抑,随着女性教育程度提高而形成严重扞格,带来少子化的现象。昭和时代的落幕,正是伴随着诸多过往体制积弊的爆发;而平成时代的序幕,正是由昭和时代所累积诸多问题的爆发所揭开。

2009年,民主党以“彻底改革”的诉求获得压倒性胜利上台,带来平成时期第二次政党轮替,但在内外失调以及311大地震处理的失败,在2012年底选举惨败,政党走向瓦解收场。

总体而言,相较于昭和时期日本主流社会以“追赶发展”为职志,平成时代的日本不仅必须面对各种昭和体制所遗留的问题,就社会发展方向,而言也呈现出更复杂、更多样的风貌。这个追赶完成以及面对未知后所产生的多元取向,是平成暧昧性的根源,也是日本社会将持续面临的问题。
analysis  history  japan  epoch  politics  economy  society  policy  comparison 
26 days ago by aries1988
文明的竞逐盛衰:没有什么是板上钉钉

在写作方式上,澳大利亚学者布莱内(Geoffrey Blainey)的《世界简史:从非洲到月球》明显受到戴蒙德影响。不过布莱内面临的是一个几乎不可能完成的任务:用二十八万字篇幅,将从猿人直立到互联网时代四百万年的历史讲清楚,且不加一个脚注。

人类生活方式的改变,需要更精确的记录和计算方法。公元前3400年左右,书写和阅读技术最早在两河流域产生,虽然从现代人的眼光看来,当时的文字更像是陶土上的简陋绘画。两河流域间散落的十几个城邦各自创造了不同的计数系统,相互竞争淘汰,最后剩下十进制和六十进制两种。很明显,取得最终胜利的是十进制,但六十进制也靠着每小时60分钟的方式保存了下来。

公元前1500年左右的中国,在政治组织、金属制品、书写方式,乃至于农业和天文学方面都远远落在了两河流域的后面,唯一值得夸耀的是制陶和炼铜技术。但一千年后两河文明逐渐走向衰落,中国人成为了全球最具创造力的民族:“在冶金学方面,他们是王者;在水利灌溉技术上,他们推陈出新;在数学和天文学方面,他们上下求索;他们用纺织机织出了可制作精美服饰的丝绸。”

布莱内提供了一个惊人的数字:欧洲三分之一的陆地是半岛或岛屿,但非洲只有百分之二的地区是这样的地貌。非洲由于缺乏海湾和港口,船只无法顺畅出入内陆,湿热的热带雨林滋生传染病,也严重阻碍了文明的发展。

布莱内指出:“中国人不走运的地方在于,他们在很多技术方面都长期领先于世界,但在那项后来被证明是打开未来之门的关键技术上,他们总是忽冷忽热,时而别出心裁,时而又懒于钻研。”中国发明了指南针,绘制了当时最精确的地图,但却缺乏发现新世界的热情,遂将海洋霸权拱手相让欧洲人。

更重要的是,中国的发明多是孤立的,源于一两个人的聪明才智,后继乏人,如同黑暗夜空里一两颗孤独的明星。欧洲更擅长团队合作,天才往往成群而来,发明往往呈井喷之势:“发明既是个人之间的竞争,也是团队合作的结果。制造和改进蒸汽引擎、铁路、电报、钢铁生产和纺织机器的努力,发生在许多国家成百上千个锐意进取的工作车间里。”很多重大的变革,来自现在早已被遗忘的人们的贡献。
civ  comparison  technology  book 
12 weeks ago by aries1988
葛兆光:十八世纪中国的盛世危机

徐中约《中国近代史》曾经把大清帝国“国运逆转,由盛到衰”,归咎于“行政无能”、“腐败普遍”和“财政窘迫”,这当然有一定道理。但我想和大家讨论的是另外三点:第一,帝国庞大疆域和复杂族群,造成控制成本过大;第二,思想文化与意识形态无法面向世界,越来越凝固和僵化;第三,归根结底,是皇权或国家权力过于集中,封杀了变革的可能性。

在二十世纪上半叶之后,“训政”与“党国”成为主流的时代,更是变本加厉。那么,在皇权笼罩一切的专制政治制度底下,说得好,唯有“得君行道”的路径和“作帝王师”的理想,说不好就只能“著书都为稻粱谋”。知识分子怎么能轻易挣脱专制皇权、政治制度对文化思想的钳制?而在专制皇权、政治制度的控制之下,自由思想空间越来越窄仄,我们又怎么能相信凭着这种传统,中国能给世界带来惠及全球的价值,发展出保证现代科学、技术和经济自由发展的制度?

当四库全书的编纂,鼓励了学者们把精力和智慧都用在古典的注释和发挥上的时候,可是,欧洲的实用知识却在发展和整合。

在中国,皇帝就是政治权力、神圣象征和文化真理三合一的,以前史华兹(Benjamin Schwartz)就说中国是“普遍王权”(Universal Kingship),皇权或者国家的权力太大,始终是“普天之下莫非王土”。

在我们有关历史的印象中,华盛顿好像比乾隆皇帝晚得多,好像华盛顿是现代的事情,乾隆皇帝好遥好远,其实,他们是同时代人,他们两人同样在1799年,也就是漫长的十八世纪最后一年去世,不是华盛顿近乾隆远,只是从制度上看,确实一个太古代,一个很现代。
qing  talk  opinion  comparison  west  question  king  politics  government  19C  china  book 
february 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
#今日法语 Haut la main,字面意思为“手抬高”,引申为“轻而易举”,原指骑士骑马时抬高手拉紧缰绳从而牵制和控制马儿。有趣的是,英语里表达同样引申义的短语hands down,“手放下”,字面意思刚好相反,但也是来自于马…
comparison  fun  english  français  expression 
january 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
We know China is ageing rapidly, but this from our emerging cities report shows how pace differs significantly betw…
region  aging  numbers  comparison  city  future  china 
january 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
Cereal
加工程度:★★★★
營養價值:★☆☆☆
口  感:★★★☆

Granola
加工程度:★★☆☆
營養價值:★★★☆
口  感:★★★★

Muesli
加工程度:★☆☆☆
營養價值:★★★★
口  感:★★☆☆…
breakfast  nutrition  comparison  food  moi 
january 2019 by aries1988
战争重塑中国(南北战争三百年)书评

这仍然未能回答东西方为何选择不同的道路,在我看来,这个问题的答案必须回到不同政治文化传统中去寻找:如果说在欧洲,在罗马帝国的废墟上能有效应对战争挑战的是封建军事传统,那么在中国北方,战争所激活的却是一个强国家传统,最终再次证明只有政治力量能有效整合各种资源转化为战斗力。
west  war  state  history  origin  comparison  question  book  review 
january 2019 by aries1988
周六荐书|奥斯曼帝国六百年:土耳其帝国的兴衰

在整个奥斯曼帝国内部肆虐的还有另外一些具有破坏性的不稳定因素,这些因素在封建制的基督教欧洲存在已久:在苏莱曼的时代还不存在、后来却不停发展壮大的世袭体系,成为一个重要的不稳定因素,世袭封地的所有者数量也在迅速增长。
comparison  christendom  ottoman  turkey  history  book 
november 2018 by aries1988
The end of the First World War - History Extra
As we approach the centenary of the armistice, Gary Sheffield explores the final moments of the conflict that devastated the world for four and a half years
ww1  comparison  deutschland  uk  france  war  why 
november 2018 by aries1988
岛上无事发生(下)
最好金杯换酒

大陆最终的优势在于它的纵深和复杂——即便是那种泥沙俱下的复杂也是生命力之所在。尤其是在北京,这里的人们更加多元,历史底蕴依然厚重,有更多更有趣的文化活动,也并非所有的事物都会被折算成金钱。忘了在哪儿看到有人说,北京像是纽约,一个人必须非主流才能入流(You have to be out to be in),而在上海,这个人必须入流才能入流(You have to be in to be in)。此处的上海也可换作香港。
beijing  shanghai  comparison  identity  environment 
november 2018 by aries1988
近百款茶包高质量良心测评,买前看这一篇就够了 - 知乎
大吉岭:JING | DAMMANN | TAYLORS | Dilmah-t | Dilmah | Ahmad Tea | Bunting Tea | FIRST斐思有机茶 | TWININGS

锡兰红茶:DAMMANN | Dilmah-t | Dilmah | Ahmad Tea | TWININGS

茶里原味红茶 | 立顿黄牌精选红茶 | Ahmad Tea NO.1红茶 | TWININGS 乌瓦高地
buy  tea  comparison 
october 2018 by aries1988
政体 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
共和国  法国 指国家代表机关和国家元首由选举产生。现今世界上有154个共和国,像法兰西共和国、葡萄牙共和国、希腊共和国等。
民国  中华民国 本质与共和国无异,只是英语republic的旧时译法,如中华民国、大韩民国。
人民共和国  中华人民共和国 为共和国的变种,多数是自称社会主义国家,如中华人民共和国、老挝人民民主共和国、朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的国号。
社会主义共和国  越南 多数是社会主义国家如斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国、越南社会主义共和国的国号。
government  concept  definition  comparison  republic 
october 2018 by aries1988
Hidden Stories of Chinese Migration and Culture Found in Giant Genetic Study
Comb through the DNA of Chinese people and you’ll find a trace of this culinary story, according to the largest-scale genetic study of Chinese people to date, published Thursday in Cell. The authors reported that a mutation of FADS2, a gene involved in metabolizing fatty acids, is more common in northern than southern populations, indicating a diet richer in animal content. It is one of an assortment of findings resulting from a sweeping analysis of genetic information from 141,431 participants.

Minority ethnic groups showed more genetic divergence than the Han, particularly Uyghurs and Kazakhs in Xinjiang and Mongols in Inner Mongolia.
gene  genetics  chinese  region  comparison  research 
october 2018 by aries1988
为什么宋朝是一个幸福指数很高的时代?
在宫崎市定看来,所谓文艺复兴就是人类第一次表现出历史的自觉,具有重要意义。他说:“从古代到中世纪的变迁,是一个缓慢的自然过程,……进入中世纪以后,也几乎没有人会觉得自己生活在一个与古代不同的时代,他们感觉到的生活只是一如既往,与过去并没有什么不同。对中世纪长期的停滞不前感到厌恶,并认识到古代社会与中世纪社会的差异,就是文艺复兴式的觉醒。”

宫崎考察西方的文艺复兴,认为文艺复兴的主要表现在哲学的复古思想、文体的变革、印刷术的发达、科技的进步以及艺术的发达。
我们可以见到宋代独特的印刷术的发达,科技上火药和罗盘针的广泛应用,以及文体上的变革。始于晚唐韩愈的古文运动一直延续到宋体现一种文学上的复古,同时又出现了以戏剧脚本出现的白话文学,一直影响到后来的元杂剧和明清小说。

最能体现文艺复兴并且对中国文化影响最为深远的是儒教的自觉和复兴。
宋代的学者认识到古代和中世纪的移变,而且由于古代和现在的中间经过了中世纪一段很长的历史,他们大多不把儒家经书的内容视作可以适用现实社会的“礼”(制度)。他们试图去思考经书的真正意思,试图去复兴真实的部分。这即是一种否定中世纪、复归古代的文艺复兴思想。

内藤湖南强调从文化史的角度理解古代中国,认为“中世的外部异民族势力压迫中国,外来文化流行,到唐末和五代,外族势力达到鼎盛。宋代以后中国的固有文化复活,并取得新进展。

由于宋代生产部门的细化,人们的劳动价值可以从更多的途径实现,获取货币变得容易。如果攒了点小钱,人们也不会死藏着,可以借贷给商人获取利息,可以经营房屋租赁,也可以进行相应金额的土地投资。不光是有钱人,穷人也会适当地花些钱享受美食。在这样的情形下,人们更容易对生活产生喜悦,对日常琐事产生爱意。
song  middle-age  china  renaissance  comparison  europe  book 
october 2018 by aries1988
中国人的公平观:表面追求大公无私 私下热爱厚黑学
这种历史上轮番争夺帝位的事件在日本的思维模式中却很难,因为A 的对立面不是非A ,而是B ,因此A 只能做自己的事,不能去想B 的事,A 也不能去占有属于B 的东西,这或许是日本天皇可以保留,实行君主制的逻辑根源。
theory  book  chinese  culture  thinking  comparison  concept  private  collective  justice  ethic 
september 2018 by aries1988
访谈|彭慕然:中国为什么这么大?

《东方历史评论》:在您的著作中,我注意到您很强调两个因素,一个是环境因素,另一个是制度因素,您怎样看待环境与制度之间的关系呢?对于以道格拉斯·诺斯为代表的制度经济学派的观点(当然也包括赵鼎新教授对您的批判)您怎么看呢?

彭慕然:诺斯提出的“制度经济学”概念非常的重要,但是它过于狭隘,甚至于有些过于僵化。我认为,这种僵化(包括你提及过的赵的观点)在于毫无道理地认为,在各种情况下,相同类型的制度都是最理想的。从可以在现实世界抽象出理论模型的经济学角度看 ,你当然可以认为,一系列的制度运作可以应对各种情况,但是现实情况并不是这样。《大分流》尤其想要说明的是,在一定情况下,一系列的制度运作可以发挥作用,但是在其他情况下,这样的制度则不行。

中国在长期的统治中意识到,要比较充分地维持北方边境的成本非常高,仅凭华北的财力物力,根本无力承担。维持边境所需的军队规模、首都的规模都远远超出了华北所能产出的农业剩余(agricultural surplus)

如果你在18世纪初或18世纪50年代问那些汉人士大夫,新疆、蒙古、东北甚至像云南的部分山区,都能说是你所处世界的一部分吗?他们会说:当然不是

我认为新清史的缺点在于,他们能够解释为何清朝可以在1683年至1759年将版图扩大了两倍,但却无法解释那些区域在清朝走向衰落以后,为何依然是中国的一部分。要理解这个问题,你需要了解汉人精英阶层为何会认为,那些地方是国家的一部分。这种观点并不是自然而然就出现的。
qing  book  nation  mentality  china  comparison  economy  england  debate  research  theory 
september 2018 by aries1988
长租公寓拉涨了北京房租,上海会是下一个吗?
作者:chenqin 自如、蛋壳等长租公寓,在北京的房租上升里扮演了一个什么角色?大部分观点认为,他们是房租上涨的罪魁祸首;也有一小部分观点认为,房租上涨只是市场行为。本文针对这个问题进行一些简单研究。 首先感谢 @城市数据团…
beijing  shanghai  appartement  comparison  data 
september 2018 by aries1988
Advantages of Structured Grids Over Unstructured Grids
The elements generated are typically either triangles or quadrilaterals in 2D and volumes are generally tetrahedral or hexahedral in 3D.

In a structured mesh, a repeated pattern is followed where every node is uniquely defined according to a specified algorithm; while in an unstructured grid all nodes are typically arbitrarily defined automatically and no regular pattern is followed. In a structured grid, a node or vertex is surrounded by an equal number of nodes or vertices across space while there is no such requirement in unstructured grids.

Traditionally, structured meshes were the norm but currently unstructured meshes have become commonplace due to their advantages in faster grid generation, ability to handle complex geometry and not much need of grid generation experience.
opinion  comparison  mesh  cfd 
september 2018 by aries1988
Letter of Recommendation Clock Radios
Abandon your phone’s alarm and wake up with the rest of the living world.

It’s almost too obvious to point out, but the radio, by contrast, is different at every moment, forever. So on any given morning, a clock radio may give you any variety of human voices, or Beethoven’s Sixth, or “Baba O’Riley.” Sometimes you wake up to a marvelous serendipity, like a plane song on the morning of a flight. How many people have woken up to “I Got You Babe” and just cracked up? (If I ran an oldies station, we would play that song at the same time every morning.) But the radio won’t jolt you — if you want a mellow break with slumber, you set your radio to a public news or classical station; if you dig guitar solos, you set it to classic rock. We take radio’s blend of predictability and surprise as a given, though such formatting was invented by programmers in the ’60s because they recognized that this formula gives us cognitive, even visceral pleasure.

A phone alarm is pinched and paltry — it merely says, “Hey, it’s that time. ... ” Whereas radio, coming from somewhere else through the freaking air, is a portal to the living world, and an invitation to rejoin it. After all, some of your fellow citizens — bakers, truckers, nurses — are up already and hearing that same sound at the same time as you while they go about their business. Maybe they’re even talking about what’s on or singing along to a shared favorite. I believe that when we hear the radio, we intuit this social activity on some level, and that it’s compelling and subliminally motivating, if not slightly shaming — sometimes it takes a village to raise a child. That is, to raise a grown child. From bed.
morning  clock  radio  tool  comparison  moi  everyday 
august 2018 by aries1988
刘瑜:纵向的文明比较更有意义
所有文化都是流变的,尤其是在经济快速发展的全球化时代。西方的过去和现在有巨大差异,中国的过去和现在也有很大差异。当我们谈论“中西差异”的时候,我们是在谈论什么时候的西方?什么时候的中国?抱着一种固化的观点看待地区性文明,很可能妨碍我们理解这个世界的走向。
comparison  metier  research  politologue  china  west 
august 2018 by aries1988
作为一个中产阶级,我对国家有哪些不满意
我的文章,很多上面的人都能看到,有的在内部刊物发表,有的被相关领导批示过,也有政府部门联系过我,还有智库针对我的文章发表过评论。所以这一篇,我也希望能被看到。这一篇讲下,作为一个看好国家前途的中产阶…
opinion  city  middle-class  comparison  usa  china  lifestyle 
august 2018 by aries1988
荷花和莲花有什么区别吗?还是都指的同一种花? - 知乎

莲:花柄和叶柄都高出水面,花瓣通常为粉红或白色。产莲子和藕(莲藕)。又称「荷花」。各种成语和古文中出现的基本都是它。Nelumbonaceae(莲科)Nelumbo(莲属)Nelumbo nucifera,曾划入睡莲科。睡莲:叶片浮于水面,叶片有一道深裂口。花也常浮于水面,昼开夜合(所以得名「睡莲」),花瓣常有红、紫红、白、黄等色。莫奈画的是睡莲。Nymphaeaceae(睡莲科)Nymphaea(睡莲属)。

我建议口头上用「荷花」指莲,用「睡莲」指睡莲,这样很明确。
botany  comparison  explained  baodi  moi 
august 2018 by aries1988
When Americans Say ‘Democracy,’ We Really Mean Something Else
We tend to see democracy as truly democratic only when it grants equal participation regardless of a person’s sex, race or religion. Even if it does, we consider strict majoritarian rule as not really democratic if it abuses or sidelines minorities. American founders talked a lot about resisting “the tyranny of the majority” for a reason. We also think of freedoms — of speech, of the press, of religion, and so on — as essential elements of democracy.
But those things are not democracy, per se. They are components of liberalism. (The term here refers to the political philosophy, rather than “liberal” in the sense of center-left party politics.)
definition  democracy  comparison  today  liberalism 
july 2018 by aries1988
陳至潔:鳥籠中的微信,與「插翅難飛」的中國境外網民|一週精選|互聯網政治|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

由于集众多生活功能于一身,微信成为最具“黏性”的社交网络应用程序:传播研究显示,微信用户每日花费82分钟在浏览与操作微信上,而Facebook用户每日平均使用长度为50分钟。
weixin  numbers  social-network  china  expat  comparison 
june 2018 by aries1988
How I use Day One — and an aside about the differences between Bear and Day One – The Sweet Setup
Bear is great at being a giant scrapbook of useful (and useless!) thoughts and ideas. I throw anything and everything into Bear and use Bear to house all sorts of information and data to search and use at a later time. I keep all my notes tagged with a general topic (like “finance” or “home/renovations”) to keep things organized and easy to find. And I generally jump into Bear four or five times a day to keep my notes organized.

1. If the note is a task or event, it gets sent to Things or Fantastical.
2. If the note is an idea I want to pursue for my personal blog or for The Sweet Setup, I send the idea from Bear to Ulysses.
3. If the note is a personal memory or something I want to speak about to my future self, I send the note to Day One.
4. If the note doesn’t fit into any of the above categories, it’s left in Bear and sits there for future reference.

Day One, in my little world, is my little world — a largely information-free area that has sentimental value and that is ripe with personal conversations. Day One is, and has always been, the app that best embodies me. I don’t think I see a day where Day One is not part of my larger data workflow.
workflow  pkm  iOS  apple  notes  diary  self  future  tool  comparison 
june 2018 by aries1988
Géographie de l'Île-de-France — Wikipédia
La petite couronne comprend 123 communes, 4 566 621 habitants en 2015, soit 37,8 % de la population de la région4, et a une superficie de 657 km2.
paris  population  numbers  shanghai  comparison 
may 2018 by aries1988
Delacroix: last of the Old Masters or first of the new?

Romanticism was a cultural movement that began in Britain and Germany in the late 18th century and soon spread to the rest of Europe. It prioritised inspiration and individual experience over the rational values of the Enlightenment.

Delacroix uses visible brushstrokes to convey dynamism: it’s as though he has frozen a single frame and the slaughter could resume at any second. Like “Chios”, “The Death of Sardanapalus” provokes conflicting emotions in the viewer. Do we recoil in disgust or marvel at the vividness?

While she bears her chest, she is not eroticised. Her combination of robust, earthly features and celestial radiance places her somewhere between a woman-of-the-people and a goddess. Delacroix modelled her form on the Venus de Milo, which was discovered in 1820 and arrived at the Louvre the following year.

The “Women of Algiers”, more restrained than his earlier paintings, is a sumptuous depiction of a harem.

Delacroix has been described as “the last Old Master”, his paintings a culmination of four centuries of European art.

Looking at this quickness of the brushstrokes in this painting, it’s clear how Delacroix, although he painted from memory rather than en plain air, laid the ground for the Impressionists.
painting  painter  story  art  XVIIII  leader  français  louvre  comparison 
may 2018 by aries1988
历史的乱炖
历史太大,内容太多,一时不知从何讲起,就先来一碗乱炖,作为开篇吧。 一、人类的文明起点 言中国史,必以汉唐为骄傲,说西洋史,必云希腊罗马如何如何,所谓“光荣属于希腊,伟大属于罗马”。 说大汉,必云匈奴,言盛唐,岂能避开突厥?希腊再光荣,能不提马其顿?罗马再牛逼,也免不了北方蛮族的侵袭。

雅斯贝尔斯(1949年出版的《历史的起源与目标》)指出:公元前500年左右特别关键,因为人类精神的基础在那时奠定了,而且是同时、独立地在中国、印度、波斯、巴勒斯坦和希腊开始奠定(公元前800至公元前200年之间),这是人类文明精神的重大突破时期,因此叫做轴心时代,人类文明的轴心时代。

凯撒的侄子屋大维

罗马人不但控制生育,而且还杀婴,再加上连年的战争,人口不断递减,只能接受蛮族的大量迁入,令人口组成发生改变,进而影响了整个政治和社会结构。

博望侯张骞所开辟的,李希霍芬所命名的SILK ROAD。

伤寒,是伤寒,不是伤感。

彭慕兰就牛在了反其道而行之,他的发问是英格兰为什么没有成为江南?事实上,18世纪的英格兰无论在人口增长、劳动生产率、土地单位面积产量、生态压力、能源供应方面,面临比中国更大的压力。

英国的煤特好,水灵灵的,而山西的煤特别干。那又如何呢?估计很多朋友不理解,英国的煤很水,有啥好的,山西的煤都是干货,岂不美哉,烧起来多旺啊!是的,英国的煤很水,所在在开采时就需要不断抽水,这就促使了蒸汽机的发明。而山西的煤很干燥,常常会发生煤层自燃,这就需要通风技术来解决。

原来,就是中国煤炭的位置没放好,而且都是干货,这能怪谁呢?要怪就怪亿万年前,那些植物,你们为什么要埋在山西、还要干埋呢?青山处处埋忠骨,何不江南变煤炭。是啊,江南很不走运,经济就内卷化了,停滞不前了。
china  europe  comparison  narrative  history  humor  coal  england  modernization 
may 2018 by aries1988
高薪互联网对决CFD
CFD教授级高工自己写的了CFD代码(具备高水平的计算机编程水平),推得了算法(张量、离散求解、甚至自己提出模型)。这是基本素养,是CFD教授级高工和CFD工程师的区别。
CFD教授级高工,可以从你的云图看出你的网格数量,从流场看出是否调用高阶格式,从几何外形看出哪里需要网格加密。

重申,CFD不同于实验学科,这一行,充满了学术传奇和商业传奇:
开源CFD软件架构师Weller只是本科生,从不写文章,创立CFD软件OpenFOAM
Wilcox逝世之前一直都是讲师,生前提出kOmega模型
Gosman在帝国理工时期,提出各种Gosman模型,后创立CFD软件STAR-CD
Hirt提出VOF模型,单篇被引10000+,创立CFD软件Flow-3D
Peric放弃帝国理工大学教授职位创立公司,即为CD-adapco的前身
Spalding提出CFD模型无数,学术不倒,同时创立CFD软件PHOENICS
他们都是纯粹的CFD教授级高工,是神。或有教职,或创立公司,或商业咨询,或身兼数职。

CFD应届生去公司要高薪,要走【一事一议】。发挥经验优势,越老越值钱。
谈薪水,靠的自己的技能。赚多少钱,取决于你能拿多少东西上台面。但这里,问一下自己,你的CFD技能是否能做到一事一议?算例发散了怎么办?是否会植入新的大气流动模型?如何增加一个地面的造火源项?
拿多少工资,取决于你创造的效益。

在某一天,各大公司将不再看重花花绿绿的云图,而是真正的需要CFD做产品设计的时候。
他们终将填充一批强有力的CFD教授级高级工程师。
那个时候,将需要一个CFD理论功底扎实,行业经验丰富的人,以领导者开创者的身份,负责万亿体量产品的设计变革。
career  cfd  moi  future  today  history  comparison  internet  2018  industry  bat 
april 2018 by aries1988
Springtime in Paris Brings Macron a Deluge of Challenges

In May 1968, France enjoyed a 5 percent economic growth rate, and its population was young. It had fewer students — most of them sons and daughters of the bourgeoisie — and more industrial workers. Trade unions were strong. The biggest union, the C.G.T., was closely linked to the Communist Party, which garnered about 20 percent of the vote. Far-left groups were led by charismatic figures. May ’68 was not only the French version of the rebellious mood throughout Europe and America; it was a revolt of 20-year-old baby boomers against the grip and conservatism of the Gaullist establishment, shaped by World War II and France’s Algerian war.

In 1968, Mr. Macron had not yet been born, but he does know what convergence des luttes means. Literally a convergence of struggles, this slogan epitomized the unity of bourgeois students and the proletariat that made 1968 unique.
comparison  1968  manif  france  macro  français 
april 2018 by aries1988
Evolution of the English Alphabet (Matt Baker @usefulcharts)
RT : Ok, for those who would prefer the title to read "Latin Alphabet", here you go...
alphabet  history  infographics  comparison  west  writing  system 
april 2018 by aries1988
The Interpreter: How to tell if your president is a "strongman"
The country is run by a vast bureaucracy, divided among powerful institutions. Any individual official fits within a system of hierarchies and factions. The whole thing operates on norms that are authoritarian but at least consistent.
Mr. Xi is changing this system. He’s centralizing more authority for himself than a modern Chinese leader is supposed to have. He’s defying norms, like presidential term limits. He’s purging some officials who belong to opposing political factions. He’s borrowing some pages from the strongman playbook.
But! Mr. Xi is doing all of this within the existing political system. The Chinese state is still deeply institutionalized. He’s not changing that. He is of the system.
Personalist leaders tend to smash the system. Hugo Chavez of Venezuela treated much of the government as something to conquer or destroy. So did Mr. Putin.
china  2018  today  politics  comparison  russia  leader 
march 2018 by aries1988
Front or Back? /l/ – /ɫ/ and /n/ – /ŋ/
In English there are two pairs of consonants that present something of a problem for quite a few people - and what doesn't help is that very often, native speakers also don't pay a lot of attention to the difference in their own speech... First, let's consider the difference between the two L-sounds of English;…
english  explained  comparison  pronunciation 
march 2018 by aries1988
Who Killed More: Hitler, Stalin, or Mao? | by Ian Johnson | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books

Their most prominent spokesperson is Sun Jingxian, a mathematician at Shandong University and Jiangsu Normal University. He attributes changes in China’s population during this period as due to faulty statistics, changes in how households were registered, and a series of other obfuscatory factors. His conclusion: famine killed only 3.66 million people. This contradicts almost every other serious effort at accounting for the effects of Mao’s changes.

According to Chang, Mao was responsible for 70 million deaths in peacetime—more than any other twentieth-century leader.

The peacetime adjective is significant because it gets Hitler out of the picture. But is starting a war of aggression less of a crime than launching economic policies that cause a famine?

How, finally, does Mao’s record compare to those of Hitler or Stalin? Snyder estimates that Hitler was responsible for between 11 million and 12 million noncombatant deaths, while Stalin was responsible for at least 6 million, and as many as 9 million if foreseeable deaths caused by deportation, starvation, and incarceration in concentration camps are included.

If one includes the combatant deaths, and the deaths due to war-related famine and disease, the numbers shoot up astronomically. The Soviet Union suffered upward of 8 million combatant deaths and many more due to famine and disease—perhaps about 20 million.

As for Hitler, should his deaths include the hundreds of thousands who died in the aerial bombardments of Germans cities? After all, it was his decision to strip German cities of anti-aircraft batteries to replace lost artillery following the debacle at Stalingrad.

Mao didn’t order people to their deaths in the same way that Hitler did, so it’s fair to say that Mao’s famine deaths were not genocide—in contrast, arguably, to Stalin’s Holodomor in the Ukraine, the terror-famine described by journalist and historian Anne Applebaum in Red Famine (2017). One can argue that by closing down discussion in 1959, Mao sealed the fate of tens of millions, but almost every legal system in the world recognizes the difference between murder in the first degree and manslaughter or negligence. Shouldn’t the same standards apply to dictators?

By contrast, Mao himself and his successors have always realized that he was both China’s Lenin and its Stalin.

In Xi’s way of looking at China, the country had roughly thirty years of Maoism and thirty years of Deng Xiaoping’s economic liberalization and rapid growth. Xi has warned that neither era can negate the other; they are inseparable.
comparison  dictator  leader  china  soviet  nazi  history  today  death  disaster  famine  numbers  research  narrative  mao  debate  ethic 
february 2018 by aries1988
The red and green specialists: why human colour vision is so odd | Aeon Ideas
Most mammals rely on scent rather than sight. Look at a dog’s eyes, for example: they’re usually on the sides of its face, not close together and forward-facing like ours. Having eyes on the side is good for creating a broad field of vision, but b...
comparison  human  eye  color  perception  biology  insect  evolution  research  theory 
february 2018 by aries1988
The Scandinavians ‘hitchhiked’ their way to the boons of empire | Aeon Ideas

Imperialists came in many different varieties in the 19th century. Scandinavia and the US (outside of North America) point us to a more sophisticated understanding of empire. Some imperialists administered territory and opened markets. Others provided capital to build railways and link the global economy. Still others produced migratory labour or hauled commodities. Administering territory was the most prestigious job. But it was not the only way to be an imperialist. Profit and power could also be won by hitchhiking.
colonialism  scandinavia  history  today  capital  world  order  comparison  theory 
february 2018 by aries1988
Sub-grid Scale (SGS) Stress Models in Large Eddy Simulation
The simulation of turbulent flow has been a considerable challenge for many decades. There are three main approaches to compute turbulence: 1) the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach, in which all turbulence scales are modeled; 2) the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) approach, in which all scales are resolved; 3) the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, in which large scales are computed, while the small scales are modeled. I really like the following picture comparing DNS, LES and RANS.
numeric  cfd  LES  comparison  explained 
january 2018 by aries1988
Twitter
RT : Literally every French person listening to this week and realizing is featured: 😍 'Becomi…
comedy  humor  adventure  american  usa  français  france  comparison  podcast 
january 2018 by aries1988
法语里的bon怎么发音? - 知乎
虽然中文里的“后鼻”发音位置也在“软腭”,不过从发生语音学来看有两大不同点:

1、普通话一般为两步(口元音或者轻度鼻化元音,然后再是鼻(塞)音),法语是一步到位(直接重鼻化元音)。中文国际音标:[sʊŋ]/[soŋ],法语[ɔ̃]。

2、音标其实也不一样,法语张口度大很多。
français  comparison  english  chinese  pronunciation 
january 2018 by aries1988
国际音标 [ɹ] 与 [ʒ] 的发音有何区别? - 知乎
[ɹ] 用于记写龈至龈后的近音。
[ʒ] 用于记写浊龈后擦音。
二者的关键差别在于前者表示近音,后者表擦音。或者说,[ɹ] 是比 [z ~ ʒ] 更「软」的音——舌头离上颚远了,于是没有了气流噪音。
chinese  comparison  english  pronunciation 
december 2017 by aries1988
Chinese Pronunciation - I with J, Q, X
The following are the IPA symbols for this section’s pinyin consonant sounds:

Mandarin: ji [tɕ] English: "j" [dʒ]
Mandarin: q [tɕʰ] English: "ch" [tʃ]
Mandarin: x [ɕ] English: "sh" [ʃ]
chinese  explained  comparison  learn  pronunciation 
december 2017 by aries1988
刘仲敬:大清是如何输给日本的
从宏观角度来看,我们可以说当时世界存在的不只一种世界体系,欧洲的世界体系在签订了威斯特伐利亚条约,解构了教皇和皇帝在基督教世界最高权力以后,渐渐的创造了民族国家实体概念,由民族国家实体比较平稳地组成一个没有确定权威的国际关系网络,取代了教皇和皇帝领导的基督教文明共同体这个有最高权力体系的概念。然后这个体系随着时间推移,逐渐扩散到全世界。

与此同时,中国或者说是大清承袭了中国自古以来的天下国家或者说宇宙国家的体系,同时又加上了满蒙部族联盟这个统治核心的特点。天下国家的根本特点是它没有确定的行为主体,也没有确定的边界和主权的。

首善之区就是京师,离皇恩最近,所以它的道德水平是最高的,甚至皇帝作为天下的领袖,他的道德是最高的,他主要凭他的道德感召力量而不是凭他的赤裸裸的武力来迫使各地屈服。内环到外环的道德程度和管控能力都要相应的削弱,最后的“化外之地”蛮夷肯定是像没有长大的小孩一样,是完全不听话、捣乱的。

如果你承认英国跟清国是平行的国家,那么你肯定是大逆不道的,因为普天之下莫非王土,英国这些人虽然是不懂中文而且是蛮夷,毫无疑问也是皇上的臣民,你说它是跟皇上独立的国家,那你就是大逆不道。割地赔款反倒不是,因为割地赔款是一种犒赏性的行动,是教育小孩子懂得教化的一种贿赂性的做法,而且在天下国家体系当中没有入侵这件事情,因为没有在皇权之外存在着同等的权力,只有叛乱这回事,

所以撤换林则徐非但不是丧权辱国的行动,反而是皇帝遵守儒家教化和宪法原则的结果,因为英国人上X访是到皇帝面前鸣冤告状,因为林总督没有公正的对待他们,所以皇上在弄清是非曲直之前,一定要各打五十大板,首先要把主管官员撤掉,就好像说是某个地方有访X民到中央告状,中央处理问题一定是要回避,处理这个问题的官员先让他停职审X查,要不然有他在那里从中作梗的话,访X民绝对不可能得到公正待遇。道光皇帝当时就是这样的思维。

清廷人有双面性,他在面对内地的时候仍然要坚持他的德教原则和文治的原则,也就是说不能使用武力,或者说是不能过度的使用武力,只能维持一个极小规模的政府和军X队

一个共X产X党的政X权,你应该是不承认民主国家的原则,就像苏联一样,它和整个无产阶级世界处在战争状态,只有在共X产主义实现以后才能够按照共X产主义兄弟原则处理内部关系,对外的关系应该是一种永恒的无限制的战争,像列宁说的那样,是根本不受任何法律和规则约束的战争。事实上这个做不到。你要和占据绝对优势的西方国家打交道的话,你想完全拒绝接受西方的游戏规则和国际惯例的话,你将会陷入极其被动甚至有亡国之祸的情况下,所以你必须部分接受。

英国人要代表西方教会清国怎样在西方的游戏规则中作为一个普通国家生存而玩这种游戏

内地的保守派包括满族亲贵来允许它进行有限改革,因此它加入国际体系是半心半意的,这个强大的集团是隐性的,没有出现李鸿章这样杰出的首领,实际上他们的权X势要比李鸿章这方面要强大得多。而英国这一方面过高的估计了李鸿章这一系在清廷内部体制内的影响力,觉得他们的课业是很快就会成功的,因此在外交上往往是比较袒护清政府的。

清廷内部有强烈的声音说疏远的外藩我们本来就不在乎,但朝鲜不是,朝鲜是关系密切的内藩,我们如果再也维护不了大清的权威的话,那实在是说不过去

凡尔登大战死了几十万人,但是意义还没有攻占冬宫来得重要,攻占冬宫那次战役中间,其实列宁和克伦斯基双方的损失都是非常少的,但是严重的影响了历史路径

甲午战争这件事情,它的意义不在于它当时死了几个人,也不在于当时赔了点钱,其实从长期来看,这点钱其实也是无所谓的,关键在于它把日本推上了它渴望已久的地位,而清政府方面却根本没有意识到自己丧失了什么东西,它丧失的是机会。如果你丧失的是具体的钱和人,你知道你死了多少人,亏了多少钱,但是你丧失了机会的时候,如果你知识结构不完整的话,很可能你意识不到。而对于人或者对于国家来说,无形的机会才是最宝贵的,你丧失机会造成的损失远比你丧失钱或者丧失具体物品来得重要。

这条没有出路的道路从根本上讲就是清室无法割舍他自身维持的那个国际体系的结果,这一点不单单是清室自己的昏聩,应该说维持这种体系,在清廷内部应该是一个占据主流地位的舆论,清政府如果根据李鸿章的思路进行改革的话,反倒是非常不得人心、不得军心的。
japan  china  history  war  qing  19C  theory  civ  politics  state  comparison 
december 2017 by aries1988
China’s mixed messages to working women

Nearly half of Chinese women enrol in tertiary education, compared with less than 40 per cent of men, according to the World Bank. While there is a gender gap in the workforce (63 per cent of women work versus 78 per cent of men) that difference is smaller than that in the US (56 per cent of women versus 76 per cent of men).

“We need companies on our side so we are not forcing our message down people’s throats,” said Virginia Tan, the co-founder of China’s first Lean In community. She left her job as a corporate lawyer two years ago to run Lean In China full time. “For us, it is a focus on personal professional development, innovation and investing in female talent, which are all in line with China’s national agenda.”
female  workplace  china  numbers  comparison  usa 
december 2017 by aries1988
The challenge of Xi Jinping’s Leninist autocracy

Will this combination of Leninist politics with market economics go on working as China develops? The answer must be: we do not know. A positive response could be that this system not only fits with Chinese traditions, but the bureaucrats are also exceptionally capable. The system has worked spectacularly so far. Yet there are also negative responses. One is that the party is always above the law. That makes power ultimately lawless. Another is that the corruption Mr Xi has been attacking is inherent in a systems lacking checks from below. Another is that, in the long run, this reality will sap economic dynamism. Yet another is that as the economy and the level of education advances, the desire for a say in politics will become overwhelming. In the long run, the rule of one man over the party and that of one party over China will not stand.

Second and far more important, the west (fragile as it is today) has to recognise — and learn from — the fact that management of its economy and politics has been unsatisfactory for years, if not decades. The west let its financial system run aground in a huge financial crisis. It has persistently under-invested in its future. In important cases, notably the US, it has allowed a yawning gulf to emerge between economic winners and the losers. Not least, it has let lies and hatred consume its politics.

It must create more inclusive and dynamic economies, revitalise its politics and re-establish anew the fragile balance between the national and the global, the democratic and the technocratic that is essential to the health of sophisticated democracies. Autocracy is the age-old human norm. It must not have the last word.
world  china  politics  economy  challenge  government  comparison 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Martin Luther has shaped Germany for half a millennium

Start with aesthetics. For Luther this was, like everything else, a serious matter. He believed that Christians were guaranteed salvation through Jesus but had a duty to live in such a way as to deserve it.

Ostentation was thus a disgraceful distraction from the asceticism required to examine one’s own conscience. The traces of this severity live on in Germany’s early 20th-century Bauhaus architecture, and even in the furniture styles at IKEA (from Lutheran Sweden).

The Swiss Protestants John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli viewed music as sensual temptation and frowned on it. But to Luther music was a divinely inspired weapon against the devil. He wanted believers to sing together—in German, in church and at home, and with instruments accompanying them. Today Germany has 130 publicly financed orchestras, more than any other country. And concerts are still attended like sermons, sombrely and seriously.

Germany, the world’s 17th-most populous country, has the second-largest book market after America’s. After he translated the Bible into German, Luther wanted everyone, male or female, rich or poor, to read it. At first Protestants became more literate than Catholics; ultimately all Germans became bookish.

To Luther, Christians were already saved, so wealth was suspect. Instead of amassing it, Christians should work for their community, not themselves. Work (Beruf) thus became a calling (Berufung). Not profit but redistribution was the goal. According to Gerhard Wegner, a professor of theology, this “Lutheran socialism” finds secular expression in the welfare states of Scandinavia and Germany.
deutschland  deutsch  leader  religion  reform  anniversary  protestant  comparison  music  legacy  culture  society  mentality 
november 2017 by aries1988
The Islamic World Doesn't Need a Reformation - The Atlantic

There is simply is no “Muslim Pope,” or a central organization like the Catholic hierarchy, whose suffocating authority needs to be broken. Quite the contrary, the Muslim world—at least the Sunni Muslim world, which constitutes its overwhelming majority—has no central authority at all, especially since the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924 by Republican Turkey. The ensuing chaos in itself seems be a part of “the problem.”

The contemporary Muslim world needs not a Martin Luther but a John Locke, whose arguments for freedom of conscience and religious toleration planted the seeds of liberalism. In particular, the more religion-friendly British Enlightenment, rather than the French one, can serve as a constructive model.

Islam, as a legalist religion, has more commonalities with Judaism than with Christianity.

in a reality where the state is already deeply involved in religion, its steps toward moderation and liberalization should be welcome. It’s also worth remembering that the success of the Enlightenment in Europe was partly thanks to the era of “Enlightened despots,” the monarchs who preserved their power even as they realized crucial legal, social, and educational reforms.
from:rss  religion  islam  opinion  enlightenment  future  comparison  christianity  history  politics 
november 2017 by aries1988
殊途不同归——加泰罗尼亚与苏格兰的独立之路 - FT中文网
加泰罗尼亚是西班牙最为富有、最高度工业化的区域,堪称全国的经济马达。它坐拥全国20%的GDP,16%的人口;如果成为一个独立国家,经济体量约在丹麦和芬兰之间。它吸引流向西班牙的1/3的投资,也生产西班牙1/3的出口商品。重要行业包括金属工程、食物处理、医药化学等,并拜巴塞罗那所赐,有兴隆的旅游业。高迪、毕加索等天才,让巴塞罗那成为许多人心中的艺术之都。巴塞罗那更是地中海最大的港口,以及世界第四大游轮目的地。世界闻名的两所商学院ESADE和IESE也坐落于此。
相比之下,苏格兰只占英国GDP的7.5%,以及8.3%的人口。爱丁堡固然是经济重镇,却不能令国都伦敦失色。从经济角度来说,加泰罗尼亚的独立对于西班牙而言,更是不能承受之重。

加泰罗尼亚和苏格兰都在18世纪初,与和更大的政治体形成统一国家,然而统一的方式颇有不同。

苏格兰议会通过签署《1707联合法案》,相对和平地与英格兰建立联合王国。

加泰罗尼亚则在腓力五世的西班牙王位继承战争中,于1714年因军事征服而被兼并。自此,加泰罗尼亚的民族主义者就为自由而抗争,并于1932年取得一定自治成果。然而,自1939年弗朗哥成立独裁政权以来,加泰罗尼亚民族主义受到强烈镇压,当地制度、语言等被大规模抹杀。
comparison  espagna  scotland  independence  politics  referendum  numbers 
november 2017 by aries1988
La « nouvelle ère » Xi, un défi pour le modèle occidental
Enfin, seul maître à bord, Xi promet à son 1,4 milliard de compatriotes un « développement en deux étapes » : d’ici à 2035, la Chine aura achevé sa modernisation, notamment en termes d’innovation et, en 2049, année du centenaire de la fondation de la République populaire, elle aura atteint le statut de leader planétaire, défendue par une armée « de premier rang mondial ».

Il lui manque toujours la reconnaissance d’un prix Nobel, les scandales de fraude sont encore trop nombreux et l’argent ne peut pas tout. Mais la taille compte. Avec 730 millions de personnes connectées, un usage du téléphone mobile plus avancé que celui des pays occidentaux et infiniment moins de barrières éthiques, la Chine aborde la bataille de l’intelligence artificielle avec de gros atouts.

Si « l’ère » est nouvelle, cependant, le modèle de la concentration des pouvoirs dans les mains d’un seul homme et de son parti, lui, est familier. Cela s’appelle une dictature. Son succès serait, pour le coup, une authentique innovation.
chronique  china  2017  future  politics  innovation  technology  comparison  ai 
october 2017 by aries1988
The AI That Has Nothing to Learn From Humans - The Atlantic
From all accounts, one gets the sense that an alien civilization has dropped a cryptic guidebook in our midst: a manual that’s brilliant—or at least, the parts of it we can understand.

You can see Go as a massive tree made of thousands of branches representing possible moves and countermoves. Over generations, Go players have identified certain clusters of branches that seem to work really well. And now that AlphaGo’s come along, it’s finding even better options. Still, huge swaths of the tree might yet be unexplored. As Lockhart put it, “It could be possible that a perfect God plays [AlphaGo] and crushes it. Or maybe not. Maybe it’s already there. We don't know.”

“Generally the way humans learn Go is that we have a story,” he points out. “That’s the way we communicate. It’s a very human thing.”

After all, people can identify and discuss shapes and patterns. Or we can argue with each other about the reasons a killer move won the game. Take a basic example: When teaching beginners, a Go instructor might point out an odd-looking formation of stones resembling a lion’s mouth or a tortoiseshell (among other patterns) and discuss how best to play in these situations. In theory, AlphaGo could have something akin to that knowledge: A portion of its neural network might hypothetically be “sounding an alarm,” so to speak, whenever that lion’s-mouth pattern appears on the board. But even if that were the case, AlphaGo isn’t equipped to turn this sort of knowledge into any kind of a shareable story. So far, that task is one that still falls to people.
ai  human  comparison  game  go  2017 
october 2017 by aries1988
Branded in Memory
The bite, which is the logo's most iconic feature, was included for scale, so the apple wouldn't be mistaken for a cherry.

Starbucks' current logo, introduced in 2011, is a streamlined version of the two-tailed siren. It no longer features the "Starbucks Coffee" text and is pure green, as opposed to green and black. Despite this simplification, only 6 percent of people drew a near perfect Starbucks logo from memory.

The question at the heart of this experiment is "How accurately can we recall logos we see on a daily basis?" The results show that most people are very good at recalling brand colors – around 80 percent selected the correct palettes for their drawings, while shapes and elements in logos are harder to recall.

There was, however, a difference by age. On average, younger people drew more accurate logos than older people. This was true across almost all brands, but was most noticeable for 7-Eleven, Burger King, and Adidas. Walmart was least affected by age, showing no difference between younger and older groups.

Confidence scaled with accuracy, so while people in general overestimated how well they did, those who did best had the best awareness of their ability.
logo  design  advertising  fun  comparison  data  memory  poll  infographics  analysis 
october 2017 by aries1988
The West should stop worrying about China’s AI revolution
China has some big advantages in AI. It has a wealth of talented engineers and scientists, for one. It also is rich in the data necessary to train AI systems. With fewer obstacles to data collection and use, China is amassing huge databases that don’t exist in other countries. The results can be seen in the growth of facial-recognition systems based on machine learning: they now identify workers at offices and customers in stores, and they authenticate users of mobile apps.

The location of the institute is well chosen. From the office windows, you can see the campuses of both Peking University and Tsinghua University, two of China’s top academic institutions. Sinovation provides machine-learning tools and data sets to train Chinese engineers, and it offers expertise for companies hoping to make use of AI. The institute has about 30 full-time employees so far, but the plan is to employ more than 100 by next year, and to train hundreds of AI experts each year through internships and boot camps. Right now, roughly 80 percent of the institute’s funding and projects are aimed at commercializing AI, while the rest is focused on more far-out technology research and startup incubation.

The goal isn’t to invent the next AlphaGo, though; it’s to upgrade thousands of companies across China using AI.

“The titans of industry [in China] have seen fortunes made and fortunes lost all within their lifetime,” he says. “When you see the tech trends shift, you had better move quickly, or someone else will beat you.”
ai  china  list  entrepreneurial  company  internet  innovation  today  comparison  opinion  reportage  shenzhen 
october 2017 by aries1988
Interview with Emmanuel Macron: 'We Need to Develop Political Heroism' - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International

Nothing here should become habitual, because routine lends one a deceptive feeling of security. You begin not noticing certain things and lose your focus on what's important. Uncertainty and change keep you attentive.

It is a place laden with history. The emperors spent time here, Napoleon I and Napoleon III. In the Fourth Republic, it was the palace of a president without powers. Only in the Fifth Republic did Charles de Gaulle move back in.

Germany is different from France. You are more Protestant, which results in a significant difference. Through the church, through Catholicism, French society was structured vertically, from top to bottom. I am convinced that it has remained so until today.

France is a country of regicidal monarchists. It is a paradox: The French want to elect a king, but they would like to be able to overthrow him whenever they want.

I am a strong believer that modern political life must rediscover a sense for symbolism. We need to develop a kind of political heroism. I don't mean that I want to play the hero. But we need to be amenable once again to creating grand narratives. If you like, post-modernism was the worst thing that could have happened to our democracy. The idea that you have to deconstruct and destroy all grand narratives is not a good one. Since then, trust has evaporated in everything and everyone.

I am putting an end to the cronyism between politics and the media. For a president, constantly speaking to journalists, constantly being surrounded by journalists, has nothing to do with closeness to the people. A president should keep the media at arm's length.
interview  français  deutschland  newspaper  2017  macron  democracy  europe  politics  france  state  president  opinion  comparison  protestant  society  hierarchy  narrative  post  modernity  trust  media  idea  reform  heroism 
october 2017 by aries1988
« earlier      
per page:    204080120160

Copy this bookmark:





to read