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aries1988 : concept   38

寻租、被寻租、批判寻租,吴介民的生命母题|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

吴介民指出,所谓“寻租”(rent-seeking)现象,指的是利用资源透过政治过程获得特权,构成对他人利益的损害,从而使自己获得租金收益的行为,例如利用贿赂、腐化、走私及黑市等行为,以非法手段来追求利润,创造少数持有特权者透过不平等竞争方式,凭权力取得超额收入的机会。而“租金”指的已非土地或房地产所延伸的费用所得,而是“经济租”或“政治租”。

台湾产业在特定部门还是领先中国,特别是半导体产业的制造能力还是全球领先地位,这方面还是遥遥领先中国,“张忠谋说台积电领先中国5到10年(编者按:张忠谋去年表示,台积电将会不断进步,不管是在技术或是在效能上,都会领先对岸竞争对手至少5年,不过领先时间应该会在10年左右),他很保留、客气,他也说不能安逸。台湾中小企业制造能力还是跟著世界的产业链的顶端、跟得很紧啊,这都是我们的本钱啊。不要太没有自信、妄自菲薄。”
concept  economy  business  taiwan  china 
6 days ago by aries1988
勒高夫与“长中世纪”
勒高夫选择从“历史分期”这个大问题入手思考。中国读者对历史分期问题不会感到陌生。在作为一门现代学科的中国史学走向形成的过程中,古史分期问题一度扮演了核心角色。共和国“十七年”史学的“五朵金花”中,分期问题居首,而且与另外两朵金花(“中国封建土地所有制形式问题”与“中国资本主义萌芽问题”)密切关联。

可能与他的盛期中世纪视角有关,在《分期》中,勒高夫没有论及与他的主题密切相关的另一项传统分期“晚期中世纪”(大致1350—1500年)及其当代学术史,我们不妨在这里简略地加以补充

给予“长15世纪”这个晚期中世纪与文艺复兴的重叠时段以专门的关注:并非因为期间发生了重大的历史断裂,而是这个时段自身或许具有某些区别于之前的盛期中世纪与之后的早期现代的独特历史气质。

他生平最富学术原创性的两大论断刚好反映了这种张力。一是“时间”的发现。勒高夫认为,中世纪欧洲的最大发明是一种在经济和思想的双重意义上支配和管理时间的意识,而这种意识构成了西方现代文明的基石。二是“民间文化”。在他看来,中世纪基督教文化的主流并非以规整的拉丁语著作和高深的神学思想为代表的高级“教士文化”,而是一种诉诸口头流传、缺乏严格的教义和仪程规范、充满怪力乱神的流行文化。

尽管这个概念本身极少被当代法国学者接受和使用(包括勒高夫)。如今,“早期现代”与“古代晚期”(Late Antiquity)一同构成了英美欧洲史学界最热门的两大领域。
history  historiography  middle-age  europe  early-modern  français  concept  debate  Renaissance  west  book  buy 
9 days ago by aries1988
Order of approximation - Wikipedia
Formally, an nth-order approximation is one where the order of magnitude of the error is at most {\displaystyle x^{n+1}} , or in terms of big O notation, the error is {\displaystyle O(x^{n+1}).} [citation needed] In the case of a smooth function, the nth-order approximation is a polynomial of degree n, which is obtained by truncating the Taylor series to this degree.
concept  engineer 
26 days ago by aries1988
Opinion | Thirty Years After Tiananmen: Someone Always Remembers - The New York Times
This view is not limited to a few dissidents or foreign scholars, people out to make China look bad or who just can’t let bygones be bygones. The memory of Tiananmen is also being kept alive by people in China who believe that a government that uses force to stay in power is illegitimate.

History is also written with the smallest of gestures. Every spring I make a small trip to the Babaoshan cemetery in the western suburbs of Beijing to pay respects to two victims of the Tiananmen Square massacre
Four lines of the poem inscribed on the back of Xuehan’s tombstone explain, in a code of sorts, both the cause of his death and Xu Jue’s ritual:

Eight calla lilies
Nine yellow chrysanthemums
Six white tulips
Four red roses

Eight, nine, six, four. Year, month, day. June 4, 1989.

Two years ago, Ms. Xu died of cancer, at 77. Both years since, I’ve made the trip to the graves, thinking someone ought to put out the flowers. Each time, the 27 flowers were already there, tied in a neat bundle. Someone remembered. Someone always remembers.
1989/6/4  history  concept  minjian  people  china  censorship  family  death  memory  ritual  beijing 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
Atrocities. Norms. Bicycles. See Where We’re Going With This?
But he didn’t do it alone. An entire team culture enabled Mr. Armstrong and his fellow riders to dope themselves to peak performance. The team’s doctor, its support workers, even riders’ wives were all enlisted to support and cover up the drug regimen. Team members from that time describe doping as a joint effort, something everyone approached with the same dedication and care that they applied to the rest of their training.

The pervasive doping, on that team and others, endangered riders’ health. It ruined lives. But if you read accounts by people who were involved, the most striking thing is that doping didn’t feel bad to them at the time. It felt more like a responsibility; one more thing that the team was doing to reach their ultimate goal of victory — and that everyone needed to help with.

Everyone on Lance Armstrong’s team knew that performance-enhancing drugs were banned in cycling. But those weren’t the rules that mattered. The internal rules, the norms for how people should behave to be a good member of the team, were the ones that held sway. And those norms said: Good members of this team do whatever it takes to win, so take the drugs.

In fact, even if you do know that your group is wrong, independence is still painful. In a 2005 study, fMRI scans of people contradicting their group’s statements showed increased activity in the part of the brain that processes emotional distress and fear, even when the subjects knew they were giving the correct answer to an easy question.

Those incentives, left unchecked, will shape group norms; those norms, in turn, will demand conformity. Participation in horrifying acts can become a condition of membership in good standing.
social  norm  concept  morality  population  example  explained 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
陈纯:中国自由保守主义的没落(上)|观点|端传媒 Initium Media

不管是哪一种,在英美(和中国)谈保守主义,都绕不过英国思想家爱德蒙·伯克(Edmund Burke)。亨廷顿所总结的“伯克信条”大概有:一、人根本上是一种宗教性动物;二、社会是一个自然的、在历史中逐渐生长的有机体,权利是时间的产物;三、人是一种具有本能、情感和理性的造物,审慎、偏见、经验和习惯比理性、逻辑、抽象和形而上学能更好地引导人们,真理存在于具体的经验之中而不是普遍的命题之中;四、共同体高于个人,邪恶根源于人的本性而不是任何特定的社会制度;五、除了在一种最终的道德意义之外,人们都是不平等的,社会组织是复杂的,总是包括各种阶级、等级和群体,差异、等级制和领导阶层是任何公民社会都不可避免的特征;六、试图消除现有邪恶的努力通常会导致更大的邪恶。

以卢梭为代表的法国启蒙主义,抛开自身的经验传统追求“理性建构”,设想一种只有在“公意”中才能实现的自由——“积极自由”。这种疯狂的理想主义,不仅导致了“血腥恐怖”的法国大革命,而且还是二十世纪极权主义的根源。

中国的市场化改革从一开始,就是一种国家主义的筹划。这并不是说,国家对市场化改革的方向和具体任务,从一开始就是十分明确的,而是说市场化改革最根本的目的,从来就不是以经济发展来推动政治民主,而是延续毛时代对民众潜能的开掘,来实现国家的富强。毛时代透支了民众的“意识形态狂热”,而改革时代,需要挖掘民众的“私人欲望”。不管是计划经济还是市场经济,都是能量的再生产机制,归根到底是为国家服务的。
conservatism  chinese  today  liberalism  concept 
may 2019 by aries1988
【梁文韬书评】《满洲国》

在理论上值得讨论的议题是满洲本身是一个地域名词,还是一个国家名词。在这个问题上,作者似乎主张满洲作为一个地域名词来使用,所以在满洲的土地上自古至今出现不同的部落国家如渤海国甚至帝国如金国或后来的大清帝国。我们必须注意,反观在「支那」一词的应用上,目前排除将支那作为地域名词的恶果是令中国一词同时指涉地域及相关的大一统国家,造就了大一统主义。
manchuria  book  china  nationalism  concept 
april 2019 by aries1988
政体 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
共和国  法国 指国家代表机关和国家元首由选举产生。现今世界上有154个共和国,像法兰西共和国、葡萄牙共和国、希腊共和国等。
民国  中华民国 本质与共和国无异,只是英语republic的旧时译法,如中华民国、大韩民国。
人民共和国  中华人民共和国 为共和国的变种,多数是自称社会主义国家,如中华人民共和国、老挝人民民主共和国、朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的国号。
社会主义共和国  越南 多数是社会主义国家如斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国、越南社会主义共和国的国号。
government  concept  definition  comparison  republic 
october 2018 by aries1988
Is–ought problem
The is–ought problem, as articulated by the Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is. Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference between positive statements (about what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (about what ought to be), and that it is not obvious how one can coherently move from descriptive statements to prescriptive ones.
concept  philosophy  thinker 
september 2018 by aries1988
中国人的公平观:表面追求大公无私 私下热爱厚黑学
这种历史上轮番争夺帝位的事件在日本的思维模式中却很难,因为A 的对立面不是非A ,而是B ,因此A 只能做自己的事,不能去想B 的事,A 也不能去占有属于B 的东西,这或许是日本天皇可以保留,实行君主制的逻辑根源。
theory  book  chinese  culture  thinking  comparison  concept  private  collective  justice  ethic 
september 2018 by aries1988
公民民族主义 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
公民民族主义来自理性主义与自由主义的传统,公民民族主义与单一种族及文化倾向的民族主义(ethnic nationalism)是互不相容的,公民民族主义认为民族成员的身份认同应该是取决于每个成员的自我决定,而种族或族群民族主义则认为民族成员的身份认同取决于血缘或共同的祖先等外在条件,由此可知,公民民族主义认为民族认同是由个体内在的主观意志所决定,而种族或族群民族主义则认为个体的民族认同是由外在的客观条件(例如血缘、语言、文化)所决定。
concept  nation  culture 
july 2018 by aries1988
[张经纬]深入历史深处的人类学——评巴菲尔德《危险的边疆》 - 日记
[张经纬]深入历史深处的人类学——评巴菲尔德《危险的边疆》 “长时段”的视野 《新唐书·南蛮传》的“赞”最后总结到,“《易》曰:‘丧牛于易。’有国者知戒西北之虞,而不知患生于无备。汉亡于董卓,而兵兆于冀州;唐亡于黄巢,而祸基于桂林。《易》之意深矣!”《南蛮传...
china  frontier  concept  book  history  chinese 
july 2018 by aries1988
The False Allure of Group Selection | Edge.org

I want to point out a potentially important example of group selection that Pinker overlooks: human languages. The function of language is to build communities and groups, as I have argued in many places. If an individual lacks the ability to talk, he or she will still survive. But a group of Homo sapiens that cannot talk will not be competitive with another group that can.

Dawkins, for instance, opines in the opening pages of The Selfish Gene, "We are survival machines—robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes.... a predominant quality to be expected in a successful gene is ruthless selfishness. This gene selfishness will usually give rise to selfishness in individual behavior.... Anything that has evolved by natural selection should be selfish."
gene  debate  evolution  concept  groupe  biology  human  society  to:marginnote 
april 2018 by aries1988
Antinomy - Wikipedia

The term acquired a special significance in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), who used it to describe the equally rational but contradictory results of applying to the universe of pure thought the categories or criteria of reason that are proper to the universe of sensible perception or experience (phenomena).[2]

This was part of Kant's critical program of determining limits to science and philosophical inquiry. These contradictions are inherent in reason when it is applied to the world as it is in itself, independently of any perception of it (this has to do with the distinction between phenomena and noumena). Kant's goal in his critical philosophy was to identify what claims are and are not justified, and the antinomies are a particularly illustrative example of his larger project.
concept  philosophy 
january 2018 by aries1988
东方专制主义 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

这本著作认为东西方社会是两个完全不同的社会形态,东方社会的形成和发展与治水密不可分。大规模的水利工程的建设和管理必须建立一个遍及全国的组织。“因此,控制这一组织的人总是巧妙的准备形式最高统治权力”,君主专制便由此形成。而中国正是这一特征的集中反映。
concept  oriental  civ  politics 
january 2018 by aries1988
Fall In | Submitted For Your Perusal
When one thinks of the day as an abstract span of time, one does not go to bed with the chickens on a winter’s night: one invents wicks, chimneys, lamps, gaslights, electric lamps, so as to use all the hours belonging to the day. When one thinks of time, not as a sequence of experiences, but as a collection of hours, minutes, and seconds, the habits of adding time and saving time come into existence.

Because of the clock, Mumford continues, “Abstract time became the new medium of existence. Organic functions themselves were regulated by it: one ate, not upon feeling hungry, but when prompted by the clock: one slept, not when one was tired, but when the clock sanctioned it. A generalized time-consciousness accompanied the wider use of clocks: dissociating time from organic sequences….”
time  history  concept  life  season  productivity  howto  writing 
october 2017 by aries1988
There is no such thing as western civilisation | Kwame Anthony Appiah | World news | The Guardian
culture was the “pursuit of our total perfection by means of getting to know, on all the matters which most concern us, the best which has been thought and said in the world”.

Often, in recent years, “the west” means the north Atlantic: Europe and her former colonies in North America.

here’s the important point: it would not have occurred to Herodotus to think that these three names corresponded to three kinds of people: Europeans, Asians, and Africans. He was born at Halicarnasus – Bodrum in modern Turkey. Yet being born in Asia Minor didn’t make him an Asian; it left him a Greek. And the Celts, in the far west of Europe, were much stranger to him than the Persians or the Egyptians, about whom he knew rather a lot. Herodotus only uses the word “European” as an adjective, never as a noun. For a millennium after his day, no one else spoke of Europeans as a people, either.

The natural contrast was not between Islam and the west, but between Christendom and Dar al‑Islam, each of which regarded the other as infidels, defined by their unbelief.

Only in 1529, with the defeat of Suleiman the Magnificent’s army at Vienna, did the reconquest of eastern Europe begin. It was a slow process. It wasn’t until 1699 that the Ottomans finally lost their Hungarian possessions; Greece became independent only in the early 19th century, Bulgaria even later.

modern concept of western culture largely took its present shape during the cold war. In the chill of battle, we forged a grand narrative about Athenian democracy, the Magna Carta, Copernican revolution, and so on. Plato to Nato. Western culture was, at its core, individualistic and democratic and liberty-minded and tolerant and progressive and rational and scientific.

So how have we bridged the chasm here? How have we managed to tell ourselves that we are rightful inheritors of Plato, Aquinas, and Kant, when the stuff of our existence is more Beyoncé and Burger King?

No Muslim essence stops the inhabitants of Dar al-Islam from taking up anything from western civilisation, including Christianity or democracy. No western essence is there to stop a New Yorker of any ancestry taking up Islam.
culture  history  thinking  west  concept  islam 
september 2017 by aries1988
The Anglo-Saxon is not American or British but a French alter-ego – Emile Chabal | Aeon Essays

when the French refer to ‘the Anglo-Saxon’ or use the term as an adjective, they are usually talking about themselves. The Anglo-Saxon is a mirror on Frenchness; it is France’s alter-ego and often its most feared enemy.

It was only in the 1860s that a new meaning began to appear in the wake of Napoleon III’s abortive attempts to extend the French empire into Latin America. In learned publications such as the Revue des races latines, founded in 1857, ‘Anglo-Saxonism’ was juxtaposed with ‘Latinity’ in an attempt to place France at the heart of a global Latin world that stretched from South America and the Caribbean to Madrid and Paris.

As has been the case ever since, the French both feared and admired the Anglo-Saxon at the turn of the 19th-century – and they used it as a vehicle for discussing their own national anxieties.

At times, English speakers can even fall into the same trap as their French counterparts when they lazily describe an idea or a way of thinking as ‘Anglo-American’ or ‘Atlantic’.
français  concept  uk  american  english  culture  identity  history  origin  instapaper_favs 
september 2017 by aries1988
Stuck on one idea of truth or beauty? Rhizomes can help | Aeon Ideas
Why did they invent such strange philosophical concepts as rhizomes? One reason is to help us appreciate the singularity of each thing as well as each thing’s myriad connections to other things. This vision of an interconnected world of singularities, in turn, can change how we act in the world.

According to Nietzsche, the task of modern philosophy is to overturn Platonism, to stop looking for eternal blueprints of how things should be, and instead value this world of difference and becoming. Taking up this assignment, Deleuze and Guattari propose that we think in terms of ‘rhizomes’. A rhizome is a plant such as a potato, couch grass or bamboo. Rhizomes do not have seeds or trunks; rather, they shoot out stems and reproduce when a part breaks off and grows again, each one slightly different from its predecessor. A Thousand Plateaus helps us see the distinctiveness and connectivity of multiple things that compose reality. ‘A rhizome,’ they wrote, ‘ceaselessly establishes connections between semiotic chains, organisations of power, and circumstances relative to the arts, sciences, and social struggles.’ The concept of the rhizome helps us to view our lives as assemblages of words, institutions, songs, medicines, social movements, and countless other things that are related but also distinct.
concept  politics  culture  identity  academia  language  people 
may 2017 by aries1988
Relax, your kids will be fine | The Economist
Put another way, better-off parents can afford to relax a bit. Your kids will be fine if you hover over them less and let them frolic in the sun from time to time. You may be happier, too, if you spend the extra time indulging your own hobbies—or sleeping.
parenting  concept 
november 2016 by aries1988
How to change the face of Europe - FT.com
‘Europe today faces a problem: it lacks a clear creation myth with unifying heroes’
https://www.instapaper.com/read/721544683
europe  crisis  opinion  currency  people  nation  globalization  leader  myth  human  concept  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
I've just been asked to write a minimal example, what is that? - TeX - LaTeX Meta Stack Exchange
Most questions about code are made more answerable by the addition of a minimal working example (MWE) or short, self-contained, correct example (SSCCE).
latex  question  explained  concept 
march 2015 by aries1988
Ajoutez un peu de Poka-Yoke dans votre vie.

Suite à la popularité de mon billet sur le diagramme d'Ishikawa, j'ai pensé qu'il serait intéressant de présenter, de temps à autres, différents outils utilisés en amélioration continue.

L'un des concepts les plus pratiques et que vous utilisez probablement au quotidien, sans nécessairement le savoir, est le Poka-Yoke ou, ce qu'il convient d'appeler dans un français plus juste, un détrompeur.
japon  life  howto  concept  design  daily  japanese  course 
october 2010 by aries1988

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