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aries1988 : conflict   55

专访许颖婷:“我係香港人”,纪念六四反对“送中”,但其实我比以前更温和了

许:我现在有一两个我觉得头脑还蛮清晰的中国朋友,那时候文章写出来后,她们都会支持鼓励我。我们有时候也会一起讨论中国的政情,可是我始终不能很完整地跟她们讨论香港的情况,因为她们说到底也是在中共控制的教育下成长,信息和观点会有不同。
我觉得中国内部的人也开始对外界接触变多,其中一部分人的思想比起其他人更加进步及理性,也因为如此,中国内地也出现批评中共的思潮,像是我们有时会在网络上会看到一些人摄录的剖白影片,他们很多都以“最后一次说真话”的态度去向外界揭露中共的丑恶。但是这些言论通常都会被政府迅速拿下,所以中国人距离思想开放仍然还有很长的路。

端:因为有些大陆学生在谈到新疆时会有羞愧感,这也从另一个侧面显示出国家认同的强度。

这个条例如果通过的话,无论你是香港人还是外国人,在香港境内都已经成为可以被引渡的对象。我们最担心的,是如果中国成为引渡目的地的问题。中国的法治排名是82,香港是16,他们的定罪率是99.9%,我们怎么能信任中国的司法,让香港人去受审呢?
而且这个条例一旦通过,中国会有更大权力把政治犯、商人或者记者带到中国,那我们的自由基本上就没了。不管是集会、言论还是媒体自由都是如此,因为我们自己会开始自我审查,怕被抓而不敢说话。

我看到最近一项民调显示,如果条例通过,一半香港人会考虑移民,我觉得可能这就是他们(北京)想要达到的目的,因为在香港受过自由教育的人会离开,而他们会注入来自大陆的人,那香港就要“灰飞烟灭”了。
hongkong  independence  democracy  china  opinion  freedom  expression  youth  conflict  autocracy  authoritarian  ccp  leader  manif  interview  explained  stereotype  identity 
27 days ago by aries1988
Gauls, gilets jaunes and the fight for French identity

# the roman national
The British used to read Our Island Story — the hoary best-seller whose chronicling of stirring events and great men and women from Albion to Queen Victoria introduced generations of schoolchildren to history. (David Cameron once claimed it was his favourite childhood reading.) Across the Channel, books like the so-called Petit Lavisse did much the same thing, recounting the whole great sweep of what the French term the roman national from the days of the Gaulish general Vercingetorix to the French Revolution and its aftermath.
Historians once found it natural to tell stories that were designed to imbue their countrymen with pride.
“Whatever your ancestors’ nationality, young Frenchmen and women, at the moment you become French, your ancestors are the Gauls and Vercingetorix.”

In 1987 historian Suzanne Citron published an important essay on “the national myth” in which she deconstructed the assumptions behind the traditional narratives then commonly taught in schools.
The purpose was to show how France’s past could not be understood except within a larger context — global, we might call it today — in which ideas and people and goods flowed across borders and shaped one another.

Alain Finkielkraut, self-appointed guardian of the old story, and himself recently on the receiving end of anti-Semitic abuse from gilets jaunes, denounced the authors as “gravediggers of the great French heritage”.

Gaul being — in a favourite nationalist phrase — the “eldest daughter” of Rome

Countries prosper, so the message runs, when they welcome strangers (like the Armenian refugees who gave France Charles Aznavour) and they suffer from the consequences of their own narrow-mindedness.

Now it is not the book’s gleeful dismantling of the récit national that is under attack, but rather its purported underplaying of a long history of inequality and its consequences.
there are real problems with reading globalisation back into the past, not least because trade in general, and foreign trade in particular, was simply far less important as a part of economic life in earlier times than it is today
a more militant, provincial and insurgent history of burdens and privileges.
separate communal and local activism from outright xenophobia

The limitations of the nationalist narrative have been exposed. But what is the alternative? To abandon narrative altogether, in favour of the episodic and the vignette?
is it best replaced by a multitude into which we can dip at will? The idea of a past that is shared may then slowly slip entirely from view.
historiography  debate  narrative  world  nationalism  français  france  history  2019  book  society  conflict  manif  macron  globalization  opinion 
12 weeks ago by aries1988
When Asia Ruled the World
Nonfiction The Pudong skyline, Shanghai. Credit Lauryn Ishak for The New York Times Amazon Local Booksellers Barnes and Noble When you purchase an independently…
contrarian  west  empire  conflict  world  war  success  europe  fail  qing  ottoman  book  opinion  history  prediction  theory 
april 2019 by aries1988
The Parable of the Hanukkah Scolds (With a Lesson for Non-Jews, Too)
Gift giving is thought to be a holdover from Roman winter festivals. Santa Claus is a Greek saint who got garbled into something very different by medieval Dutch and English folk culture. The reindeer are from Finland. Jesus and his early followers would probably find the traditional Christmas ham to be just as shocking and un-Christian as the elves in the North Pole.

It’s one of the most persistent myths about how identity works: that there is some true core version — of Hanukkah, of Jewishness, of Americanness — constantly at risk of foreign contamination. But there is no pure core. It’s foreign contamination all the way through.

But just because identity is made up -- a more formal phrase is "socially constructed" -- doesn't make it meaningless.
jewish  identity  usa  conflict  opinion  christmas  children  tradition 
january 2019 by aries1988
Two Roads for the New French Right | by Mark Lilla | The New York Review of Books

Unlike her hotheaded grandfather and aunt, Marion is always calm and collected, sounds sincere, and is intellectually inclined.

In countries as diverse as France, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Germany, and Italy, efforts are underway to develop a coherent ideology that would mobilize Europeans angry about immigration, economic dislocation, the European Union, and social liberalization, and then use that ideology to govern.

a new legal status, dubbed a pacte civil de solidarité (civil solidarity pact, or PACS), for long-term couples who required legal protections regarding inheritance and other end-of-life issues but did not want to get married.

While it’s true that fewer and fewer French people baptize their children and attend mass, nearly two thirds still identify as Catholic, and roughly 40 percent of those declare themselves to be practicing, whatever that means. More importantly, as a Pew study found last year, those French who do identify as Catholic—especially those who attend Mass regularly—are significantly more right-wing in their political views than those who do not.

The National Front is nearly as secular and even less ideologically coherent, having served more as a refuge for history’s detritus—Vichy collaborators, resentful pieds noirs driven out of Algeria, Joan of Arc romantics, Jew- and Muslim-haters, skinheads—than as a party with a positive program for France’s future. A mayor once close to it now aptly calls it the Dien Bien Phu right.

They share two convictions: that a robust conservatism is the only coherent alternative to what they call the neoliberal cosmopolitanism of our time, and that resources for such a conservatism can be found on both sides of the traditional left–right divide. More surprising still, they are all fans of Bernie Sanders.

Three months later her Institute of Social, Economic, and Political Sciences (ISSEP) opened in Lyon, with the aim, Marion said, of displacing the culture that dominates our nomadic, globalized, deracinated liberal system. It is basically a business school but will supposedly offer great books courses in philosophy, literature, history, and rhetoric, as well as practical ones on management and political and cultural combat.
reportage  politics  interview  france  conservatism  culture  ideology  conflict  globalization  crisis  morality  family  value  debate  instapaper_favs 
december 2018 by aries1988
How to Control Your Citizens: Opportunity. Nationalism. Fear. - The New York Times
“Today you have the largest bureaucracy in history, with a capacity to intrude in anything,” said William C. Kirby, a professor of China studies at Harvard. “It isn’t just ideology. There are now enormous numbers of interest groups that don’t like competition.”

For guidance, Mr. Ni often looks to Jack Ma, the executive chairman of Alibaba, who is China’s richest man and a cultlike figure among many businessmen. Mr. Ni is currently enrolled in a business school program that Mr. Ma established to cultivate China’s next generation of entrepreneurs.

Over the years, Mr. Ma has spoken publicly about the push-pull relationship between private companies and the government, though there is one piece of his advice for entrepreneurs that Mr. Ni seems to have especially taken to heart: “Fall in love. But don’t marry.”

part of it was something deeper: a desire to help the country catch up with the West and to reconnect with her Chinese roots.

Exposed to liberal democracy, Ms. Hua’s generation was supposed to be the one that demanded it at home. Middle-class Chinese students poured into universities in the United States and Europe — then seen as the most promising path to wealth and prestige — and some Western analysts predicted that they would return to China as a force for political change.

Like many other middle-class parents, Ms. Hua worries about repression and rampant materialism in Chinese society. Yet many of these parents say they want their children to see themselves as Chinese above all else — to understand China’s roots as an agrarian society and to have a sense of pride in the perseverance of the Chinese people through decades of poverty and strife.

Even as some analysts argue that China’s success has more to do with the resilience of its people than the Communist Party and its policies, leaders have been adept at shaping a politicized nationalism that reinforces the primacy of the party — and defends the authoritarian model as the best bulwark against chaos.

“Chinese nationalism binds the people with the state, not to each other,” said Minxin Pei, a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College.
entrepreneurial  china  jiangsu  portrait  rich  conflict  state  parents  children  education  identity  chinese 
november 2018 by aries1988
Naomi Osaka, a New Governor and Me

When we moved back to California two years later, I entered fourth grade and suddenly, I was the Asian kid. Ching chong chang chong ching! boys chanted on the playground, tugging at the corners of their eyes. Classmates scrunched their noses at the onigiri — rice balls wrapped in dried seaweed — that my mother packed in my lunch bag. When our teacher mentioned Japan during a social studies lesson, every head in the class swiveled to stare at me.

Here we are known as hafu, which comes from the English word half, and our existence challenges the strain in Japanese society that conflates national identity with pure-blooded ethnicity.

Ms. Osaka delivered the best possible reply: I’m just me.

When I have been reserved or less assertive than people think a situation calls for, they have attributed it to my Japanese side.

when colleagues have mistaken me for another Asian employee in the newsroom, I realize some people still instinctively want to pigeonhole me as one, but not both.
japan  japanese  identity  gaijin  anecdote  society  self  conflict 
october 2018 by aries1988
当“无神论”的儒家遭遇“一神教”的基督教:中西文化之间的普世价值与多元主义

一神论的出现在宗教上导致过排他性,专断性。但是,一神论在人类认识发展史上导致了一种非常积极的成果,这就是对真理的无限向往和热烈追求。因为把所有的真理都归结为一个上帝,所以避免了认识上的混乱和相对。理性受信仰的支持而进步,而信仰也因理性的论证而稳定。
christianity  confucianism  ming  conflict 
october 2018 by aries1988
The Clash of Ignorance

Samuel Huntington’s article "The Clash of Civilizations?" appeared in the Summer 1993 issue of Foreign Affairs, where it immediately attracted a surprising amount of attention and reaction
to supply Americans with an original thesis about "a new phase" in world politics after the end of the cold war,

Certainly neither Huntington nor Lewis has much time to spare for the internal dynamics and plurality of every civilization, or for the fact that the major contest in most modern cultures concerns the definition or interpretation of each culture, or for the unattractive possibility that a great deal of demagogy and downright ignorance is involved in presuming to speak for a whole religion or civilization. No, the West is the West, and Islam Islam.

Instead of seeing it for what it is–the capture of big ideas (I use the word loosely) by a tiny band of crazed fanatics for criminal purposes–

what is so threatening about that presence? Buried in the collective culture are memories of the first great Arab-Islamic conquests, which began in the seventh century and which, as the celebrated Belgian historian Henri Pirenne wrote in his landmark book Mohammed and Charlemagne (1939), shattered once and for all the ancient unity of the Mediterranean, destroyed the Christian-Roman synthesis and gave rise to a new civilization dominated by northern powers (Germany and Carolingian France) whose mission, he seemed to be saying, is to resume defense of the "West" against its historical-cultural enemies.

These are tense times, but it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis
muslim  debate  islam  terrorism  power  community  civ  conflict  europe  population  theory  leader  instapaper_favs 
october 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:廣東人就該說廣東話?

這類言論出現的背景,是因為在北方人看來,粵語、潮語和客語這三種語言都是很難理解,甚至十分難聽的「南蠻鳥語」,它們和它們所承載的風俗文化皆是在近代所謂的中原文化底下被歧視的對象。在民族主義開始形成,現代國家的觀念逐步興起的年代,這三個語群的文人和知識份子反擊偏見的辦法,並不是乾脆的另起爐灶,尋求自主認同;反而是利用語言等各種資源的重新描述,去訴說一個華夏文化和他們的深遠關係的故事。這個故事的主旨不是一個和國家文化截然不同的地域文化,卻是中國文化在地方上的完美體現。

幾乎一切圍繞着身份認同的言論,都帶有事實和規範等兩個部分,都試圖從你是個什麼人的事實,推導出你應當如何表現,如何行為,以及如何思考的結論。

唸哲學的人,大概會關心你是個什麼人的事實,如何可能推出你應當如何做的規範式結論。

從這種角度來看,身份認同可能不是一個從事實推出規範結論的推導過程;而是一個因為我想當某種人,所以我才看到了某種事實的逆向運動。
region  explained  canton  culture  hongkong  china  independence  comparaison  nation  conflict  language  moi  philosophy 
february 2018 by aries1988
Thinking about Chinese student experience
At the outset of my classes I explain and exemplify how there are usually two sides to any story,
anecdote  chinese  student  young  behavior  conflict  university  teaching  west 
january 2018 by aries1988
'You should consider our feelings': for Chinese students the state is an extension of family | Merriden Varrall

What is immediately notable is that while the student is not satisfied with his teacher’s position, he does not even attempt to deploy what he may consider to be relevant facts or rational counter-arguments to support his own case. He is not trying to draw on his understanding of history, or setting out what he might see to be the relevant details of the arrangements that currently influence the relationship between the mainland and the island.

This tendency to be easily offended taps into the narrative of “national humiliation” which many Chinese subscribe to – the idea that the outside world deliberately carved China up during the opium wars of the mid-1800s, leaving it weak and vulnerable. President Xi Jinping’s “China Dream” of rejuvenation is a direct response to this view.

Some Chinese people have explained to me that the tendency to take offence when an outsider comments on China in a way they perceive as a criticism stems from the idea the country and the family are conceptually conflated such that they are understood as deserving equal loyalty.

Officially, the status of Taiwan is a “core interest” for China. That is to say, most Chinese consider the idea that Taiwan is an indisputable part of China is sacrosanct. They learn it at school, and in almost everything they see and hear as they grow up. To them, Taiwan is a family member; that is why discussions about its sovereignty tend to be emotional. Many Chinese students find it difficult to articulate why they feel the way they do about Taiwan – particularly because they have not had much training in debating or critically arguing a point. And they find it impossible to fathom that foreigners cannot understand their position on Taiwan.
chinese  young  uk  student  gaijin  conflict  emotion  explained  education  taiwan  reflex  university  mentality  instapaper_favs 
september 2017 by aries1988
How Might Ethnonationalism Replace Religion?
If you are like me, you were transfixed by Shadi Hamid‘s NPR interview this morning. He touched broadly on two issues: the compatibility of Islam and democracy, and the consequences of the declining religious support in the West for the rise of ethnonationalism.
ethnonationalism, white pride, and other forms of identity politics fill the void in meaning where religion once was.

First, religion might provide individual psychological benefits, creating what we might term meaning-in-belief.
religion creates social structures that provide collective social benefits to those who participate.

There is a stronger argument here, but that contemporary expressions of ethnonationalism in the U.S. remain too disjointed and episodic to be convincingly doing this work.
The distinctive thing about Nazi Germany was not the presence or celebration of anti-Semites, it was the organization of anti-Semites into a team.
comparison  nazi  germany  opinion  usa  today  politics  racism  ethnic  religion  conflict  future  society 
june 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:唔關我事
在特朗普身上,在香港一些年輕學生身上,我看到一種很不可思議的共通點,那就是切割。和本該不可割捨的過去切割,往昔世界工業發展的歷史和我沒有關係,二十多年前香港發生過的事情也和我沒有關係。和不可能不與之相互影響的「外部」切割,全球其餘兩百多個國家和我沒有關係,中國再怎麼樣也和我沒有關係。和我們「內部」其他人切割,凡是與我看法不一致的大企業都不能代表「真正美國人」的利益,凡是與我觀點不相通的社運組織也都不能算是站在「真正香港人」這一邊。於是那最純粹、最本真的「美國人」或「香港人」,就是經過一連串的切割之後,既沒有過去,也顧不到將來;既不與遠親為伍,復不認近鄰為友的,蒼白的、懸峙的、原子化的我了。在我看來,這就是今日右翼民粹論述的一個邏輯特點。

不過若是繼續追問下去,想要發掘更多課本所不傳的史實的話,那就會犯上「歷史虛無主義」的罪了,是妄圖以歷史否定中國共產黨領導地位合法性的重大錯誤。但只要你不問不說,假裝發生過的事沒有發生過,假裝仍然活着的兇手與受害者皆不存在,歷史就不虛無了。你的歷史觀不虛無,你就安全了,你就可以好好地活着了。所以每當香港媒體問到在港內地學生關於「六四」的事,都一定有人會答:「那是歷史上的事,和我今天的生活沒有多大關係」。
china  hongkong  chinese  identity  government  democracy  cause  local  youth  opinion  comparison  conflict  today  crisis  history  killing  communism  64  idealism  politics 
june 2017 by aries1988
Alienation 101
No single front in bilateral relations connects more people in both countries, or has the potential to influence a cohort so vital to the future: the sons and daughters of China’s ruling class.

karaoke bars and bubble-tea shops, which now outnumber Starbucks in Iowa City.

Some nights, Haddy goes to bed and realises she hasn’t spoken a word of English all day.
usa  chinese  youth  study  student  life  conflict  american  reportage  comparison  campus  moi 
may 2017 by aries1988
Andrew Sullivan: Why the Reactionary Right Must Be Taken Seriously
Reactionism is not the same thing as conservatism. It’s far more potent a brew. Reactionary thought begins, usually, with acute despair at the present moment and a memory of a previous golden age. It then posits a moment in the past when everything went to hell and proposes to turn things back to what they once were. It is not simply a conservative preference for things as they are, with a few nudges back, but a passionate loathing of the status quo and a desire to return to the past in one emotionally cathartic revolt.

Politics comes before economics, Anton insists. Free trade may boost our economy, encourage efficiencies, and advance innovation and wealth, but it affects different people differently. And this matters in a democracy. A society’s stability and fairness and unity count for more than its aggregate wealth — especially when, as in recent decades, almost all the direct benefits have gone to the superrich, and all the costs have been paid by the working poor.

Why is my country benefiting foreigners and new immigrants, many of them arriving illegally, while making life tougher for its own people? And why doesn’t it matter what I think?

A nation, they believe, is not just a random group of people within an arbitrary set of borders. It’s a product of a certain history and the repository of a distinctive culture. A citizen should be educated to understand that country’s history and take pride in its culture and traditions.

I read the Christian traditionalist Rod Dreher with affection. His evocation of Christian life and thought over the centuries and his panic at its disappearance from our world are poignant. We are losing a vast civilization that honed answers to the deepest questions that human beings can ask, replacing it with vapid pseudo-religions, pills, therapy, and reality TV.

Because in some key respects, reactionaries are right. Great leaps forward in history are often, in fact, giant leaps back. The Reformation did initiate brutal sectarian warfare. The French Revolution did degenerate into barbarous tyranny. Communist utopias — allegedly the wave of an Elysian future — turned into murderous nightmares. Modern neoliberalism has, for its part, created a global capitalist machine that is seemingly beyond anyone’s control, fast destroying the planet’s climate, wiping out vast tracts of life on Earth while consigning millions of Americans to economic stagnation and cultural despair.

Beyond all that, neo-reactionaries have a glaring problem, which is that their proposed solutions are so radical they have no chance whatsoever of coming into existence — and would be deeply reckless to attempt.

There is, perhaps, a way to use reactionary insights and still construct a feasible center-right agenda. Such a program would junk Reaganite economics as outdated but keep revenue-neutral tax reform, it could even favor redistribution to counter the deep risk to democracy that soaring inequality fosters, and it could fix Obamacare’s technical problems. You could add to this mix stronger border control, a reduction in legal immigration, a pause in free-trade expansion, a technological overhaul of the government bureaucracy, and a reassertion of Americanism over multiculturalism.

The left, for its part, must, it seems to me, escape its own bubble and confront the accelerating extremism of its identity politics and its disdain for millions of “deplorable” white Americans.
thinking  essay  politics  conservatism  conflict  immigration  american  usa  2017  liberalism 
may 2017 by aries1988
BBC Radio 4 - In Our Time, The Boxer Rebellion
In the hot summer of 1900, Peking, the capital of China, was under heavy siege. But the surrounding forces were not foreign, they were Chinese. This was the Boxer Rebellion, the moment when the 'Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists', known as the boxers, purged China of foreign merchants and missionaries. The Boxers had came out of the northern provinces, they claimed their fists were stronger than fire and they were invincible to bullets. But they were also desperate and starving and they blamed foreigners for their plight. In the end, the Boxer rebellion failed but it changed China and, more than a hundred years later, the spirit of the Boxer Rebellion lives on. They may have lost their battles but they may have won their war.
shandong  china  history  gaijin  conflict 
march 2017 by aries1988
After Eta: Spain’s history of violence
Eta was founded in 1959, during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. Its mission was to fight for the independence of the greater Basque country, a region straddling the Franco-Spanish border. The group went on to assassinate Luis Carrero Blanco, Franco’s chosen successor in 1973, a killing that had profound political repercussions. Since 2011 though, Eta has made news only sporadically, mostly when another of its dwindling band of members is arrested. The group inhabits a strange netherworld, neither dead nor alive, as it waits for a grand political settlement that will probably never come.

History matters, he says. It always does. “What is history today becomes social reality a generation from now,” he says. “And, what’s more, the victims have a right to the truth.”
espagna  history  terrorism  story  killing  conflict  nation 
january 2017 by aries1988
How statistics lost their power – and why we should fear what comes next | William Davies

In France, it has been illegal to collect census data on ethnicity since 1978, on the basis that such data could be used for racist political purposes. (This has the side-effect of making systemic racism in the labour market much harder to quantify.)

Speaking scientifically about the nation – for instance in terms of macroeconomics – is an insult to those who would prefer to rely on memory and narrative for their sense of nationhood, and are sick of being told that their imagined community does not exist.

the geography of capitalism has been pulling in somewhat different directions. Plainly globalisation has not rendered geography irrelevant. In many cases it has made the location of economic activity far more important, exacerbating the inequality between successful locations (such as London or San Francisco) and less successful locations (such as north-east England or the US rust belt). The key geographic units involved are no longer nation states. Rather, it is cities, regions or individual urban neighbourhoods that are rising and falling.

Immigration may be good for the economy overall, but this does not mean that there are no local costs at all. So when politicians use national indicators to make their case, they implicitly assume some spirit of patriotic mutual sacrifice on the part of voters: you might be the loser on this occasion, but next time you might be the beneficiary.

Why then do the events of the past year feel quite so damaging to the ideal of quantitative expertise and its role in political debate?

Statistics, collected and compiled by technical experts, are giving way to data that accumulates by default, as a consequence of sweeping digitisation. Traditionally, statisticians have known which questions they wanted to ask regarding which population, then set out to answer them.

In this new world, data is captured first and research questions come later.

First, there is no fixed scale of analysis (such as the nation) nor any settled categories (such as unemployed).

Second, the majority of us are entirely oblivious to what all this data says about us, either individually or collectively.

What is most politically significant about this shift from a logic of statistics to one of data is how comfortably it sits with the rise of populism.

These data analysts are often physicists or mathematicians, whose skills are not developed for the study of society at all.

During the presidential election campaign, Cambridge Analytica drew on various data sources to develop psychological profiles of millions of Americans, which it then used to help Trump target voters with tailored messaging.

The new apparatus of number-crunching is well suited to detecting trends, sensing the mood and spotting things as they bubble up. It serves campaign managers and marketers very well. It is less well suited to making the kinds of unambiguous, objective, potentially consensus-forming claims about society that statisticians and economists are paid for.
statistics  expert  data  crisis  opinion  conflict 
january 2017 by aries1988
外刊扫描|“战争认识”:日本人迟迟不愿正视历史?
1931年的满洲事变、1937年的日中战争以及1941年的太平洋战争,在中国往往被看成一个整体来作评判。而在日本,它们之间的界限被明确、刻意地区分开来。1937年开始的日中战争被看成亚洲内部战争,在亚洲战场上同欧美展开的是人种战争,与苏联则是意识形态之争,除此之外还有自存自卫、亚洲解放等等各种各样的解释。在对日本本国国民的舆论调查中,认为太平洋战争是侵略战争的占52%,认为资源匮乏而不得已向他国采取军事行动,为了生存而战的占45%,认为太平洋战争美日双方都有责任的占56%。

日德之间存在着主体选择的差异。日本认为,德国在纳粹统治时期,当时的国民对政策决定的积极赞同和强烈支持不同,日本在发动战争时,大部分的国民在当时环境下只有顺从,却要承担起战争时期不断的空袭以及原子弹攻击这样的后果。普通的日本民众无法接受,受害者意识油然而生。对于德国来说,纳粹以及支持纳粹上台的德国民众理应承担战争全责,而日本真正应该承担责任的是旧日本军,特别是陆军。

教科书塑造了普通大众最基本的历史认识。教科书中所书写的历史,也往往被当做常识。在学校教育中,每每涉及到各自国家的历史,同时也意味着他要肩负着传达政治正确的重任。各国的历史教科书分别记述了各自不同的历史观,若非亲身处在全球商业和社交聚会中,面对不同文化的冲击,否则自身很难会发现这一点。

1949年后的中国继承了民国时期对抗战的评价话语,长时间受到革命史观的熏陶。而临海的日本,关于这场战争的历史认识随着战后思想的改变而不断变换。这种历史认识的差异成为中日两国民众频频产生误解的主因。
japanese  ww2  opinion  comparison  american  history  textbook  school  deutschland  china  conflict  question 
november 2016 by aries1988
Scared? Make women disrobe | The Economist
terrorism related murder = 25%

Even in the past year, a French citizen was three times more likely to be the victim of an ordinary murderer than of a terrorist.
france  2016  terrorism  policy  society  conflict  female 
november 2016 by aries1988
刘仲敬:东亚在世界史中的角色-墙外楼
而“中国”这个概念之所以产生,就是欧洲国际体系进入东亚的产物。大清为了跟欧洲国家打交道,签订条约,它必须对自己有一个称呼。就是由于大清和欧洲列强之间不断进行交涉的结果,不断签署条约的结果,才产生了后来我们现在看到的“中国”概念

欧洲最初产生的威斯特伐利亚体系散播到整个世界,包括亚洲。在这个过程中,亚洲原有的政治结构需要重组,这就是我们所说的“中国”产生的原因。因为以前,在欧洲人来到东方以前,我们其实没有“中国”这个东西。以前所谓的“中国”,就是中央的城池,就是首都,或者是中原,就是指的中部的、首都周围的土地,它是一个模糊的地理名词,并不是现在所谓的民族国家的那个“国”。

中国的前身毕竟是大清,而大清是王朝结构,它没有民族国家和民族国家之间那种明确的边界。大清和琉球、韩国之类的关系是宗藩性质的关系,它们不必要像民族国家和民族国家那样划定明确的边界。因此大清在跟西方打交道的时候,就有一个很明显的现象就是,西方国家和西方国家之间有明确的边界,而大清和它的周边没有明确边界,必须不断的重划边界。

孔子时代的诸侯结构和秦始皇时代的帝国结构,并不是现在这个中国的产生者。现在这个中国是西方国际体系输入以后,强迫大清留下来的那些各族群、各种各样的居民,按照西方民族国家观念重新组合的产物。我们要注意,这个重新组合是按照西方的原理重新组合的,而不是按照孔子的原理或者秦始皇的原理重新组合的。这就是两者不能直接划等号的原因。

,西方现在的民族国家结构是帝国解体的产物。

欧洲现代的主要问题是德国和两次世界大战,但是德国为什么是世界大战的策源地呢?就是因为德国是神圣罗马帝国的直接继承人,而神圣罗马帝国瓦解以后,德国找不到自己的位置。法国和英国可以直截了当地说它自己是民族国家,因为它们没有帝国的负担;而德国却搞不清楚,它到底是应该像神圣罗马帝国继承人一样,理直气壮的申索它对全欧洲的最高统治权呢,还是应该把自己降一格,变成跟英国和法国一模一样的民族国家?如果走前一条道路的话,必然会引起德国和全欧洲的战争;如果走后一条路的话,德国又是损失最大的,因为英法这些国家本来就不是帝国,而德国是帝国,德国放弃帝国,不仅是放弃了皇帝的虚荣,而且要把荷兰、瑞士、洛林这些边缘地区的土地都放弃出去,理论上和实际上都损失惨重。

如果中国要建立民族国家的话,那么很多缺乏认同感的原先的前藩属地带,就可以像是对待韩国一样,让它自己去独立,今后建立平等的民族国家的新型关系。但是如果真的是这样的话,那么现在的台湾问题就不存在了。台湾问题存在,就是因为现在的中国仍然不肯放弃的缘故。但是不肯放弃,又没有充分的实力来坚持,那结果就是一场灾难。
history  china  geopolitics  europe  comparison  today  future  conflict  world  order  opinion  germany  asia 
august 2016 by aries1988
War and peace in Asia — FT.com
he was also keen to reassure his audience that China’s rise would not lead to conflict with the outside world — “We all need to work together to avoid the Thucydides trap — destructive tensions between an emerging power and established powers,” he insisted.

Xi’s reference to “Thucydides’ trap” showed that he (or his staff) had been following the American debate about the rise of China. Graham Allison, a Harvard professor, had coined the phrase with reference to the ancient Greek historian’s observation that the war between Athens and Sparta in the fifth century BC was caused by Sparta's fears of a rising Athens. He has calculated that in 12 of 16 cases since 1500, the rivalry between a great power and a rising power had ended in war.

In the Middle East, a state-system largely constructed by Britain and France in the early 20th century — and which was then maintained by American power after 1945 — is now crumbling, amid violence and political anarchy.

The red thread connecting these seemingly regional crises is the west’s growing inability to function as a pole of stability and power, imposing order on a chaotic world.

The fundamental reason for the shift in economic power to Asia is simple: weight of numbers. By 2025 some two-thirds of the world’s population will live in Asia. By contrast the US will account for about 5 per cent of the world’s population and the European Union about 7 per cent.

Hans Rosling of Sweden’s Karolinska Institute puts it nicely when he describes the world’s pin code as “1114” — meaning that of the planet’s 7bn people, roughly 1bn live in Europe, 1bn live in the Americas, 1bn in Africa and 4bn in Asia. By 2050, the world’s population is likely to be 9bn, and the pin code will change to 1125, with both Africa and Asia adding a billion people.

stalwarts of the US foreign policy establishment, such as Madeleine Albright and Tom Donilon, make it clear that the maintenance of open global markets and the US alliance system remain the twin pillars of American foreign policy — as since 1945.
today  geopolitics  world  china  usa  europe  opinion  conflict  future  asia  economy  military 
august 2016 by aries1988
The new political divide | The Economist
Farewell, left versus right. The contest that matters now is open against closed

Too many friends of globalisation are retreating, mumbling about “responsible nationalism”. Only a handful of politicians—Justin Trudeau in Canada, Emmanuel Macron in France—are brave enough to stand up for openness. Those who believe in it must fight for it.
world  leader  globalization  2016  conflict  politics  democracy 
july 2016 by aries1988
The French Culture Wars Continue - The New Yorker
We are in a society that is so secularized that it no longer understands the reality of religiosity itself, Roy has said. It’s precisely there that we must make an effort, to normalize the Muslim reality as a religious reality and integrate it into the French cultural space.
debate  society  religion  muslim  islam  female  intelligentsia  culture  integration  conflict  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
Persian (or Arabian) Gulf Is Caught in the Middle of Regional Rivalries
This may be among the most minor of the disputes, but it speaks to the level of hostility and competition between the two, and is taken quite seriously by many with an interest in the region — including the United States Navy, which, for fear of alienating its regional allies, uses the term Arabian Gulf.

Persian Gulf has been used throughout history, in maps, documents and diplomacy, from the ancient Persians, whose empire dominated the region, to the Greeks and the British.

“It is commonly understood to be a friendly gesture of solidarity and support for our host nation of Bahrain and our other Gulf Cooperation Council partners in the region to use the term they prefer,” Commander Stephens wrote in an email.
geography  geopolitics  middle-east  name  conflict 
january 2016 by aries1988
The Arab winter | The Economist
Five years after a wave of uprisings, the Arab world is worse off than ever. But its people understand their predicament better


The West’s naivety, which was shared—and paid for—by those hopeful demonstrators, lay in underestimating two things. One was the fragility of many Arab states, too weak in their institutions to withstand such ructions in the way that, say, South Africa did when apartheid fell. The other was the vicious determination with which established regimes would seek to retain or recapture control. Who could believe that a soft-spoken leader such as Mr Assad would prefer to destroy his country rather than leave his palace? Those were the truths that brought hope to the ground.


Arabs may take heart from the fact that in Europe, the supposedly revolutionary years of 1848 and 1968 produced little forward motion; indeed their immediate effect was to prompt a conservative backlash. A.J.P. Taylor, a historian, described 1848, a year of continent-wide insurrection against autocracy, as a moment when “history reached a turning point but failed to turn.”
middle-east  2015  history  conflict  movement  revolution  dream  crisis  opinion 
january 2016 by aries1988
EDITO. Notre correspondante à Pékin menacée
De la même façon, nous avons toujours défendu âprement la liberté d’expression et le devoir d’information, en France comme à l’étranger. Et si notre journal est toujours prêt à reconnaître une erreur factuelle dans un article, il n’a pas pour habitude de "présenter des excuses" pour une analyse ou un point de vue, ni de céder à l’intimidation.
conflict  opinion  china  journalism  français 
december 2015 by aries1988
Name that country: What to call Macedonia?
Alexander was Greek — his tutor was Aristotle the philosopher — and grew up in the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, which stretched across the modern border towards Skopje, before setting out on his trail of conquests.

Meanwhile, ethnicity in Macedonia is so mixed it gave the French a word for fruit salad. In the modern republic there are Slavs, who consider themselves ethnically Macedonian and a big Albanian minority, along with smaller groups of Vlachs, Bulgarians, and Roma people.
greek  conflict  history  nation  name 
december 2015 by aries1988
L’Arabie saoudite, un Daesh qui a réussi
On veut sauver la fameuse alliance stratégique avec l’Arabie saoudite tout en oubliant que ce royaume repose sur une autre alliance, avec un clergé religieux qui produit, rend légitime, répand, prêche et défend le wahhabisme, islamisme ultra-puritain dont se nourrit Daesh.

Le wahhabisme, radicalisme messianique né au 18ème siècle, a l’idée de restaurer un califat fantasmé autour d’un désert, un livre sacré et deux lieux saints, la Mecque et Médine. C’est un puritanisme né dans le massacre et le sang, qui se traduit aujourd’hui par un lien surréaliste à la femme, une interdiction pour les non-musulmans d’entrer dans le territoire sacré, une loi religieuse rigoriste, et puis aussi un rapport maladif à l’image et à la représentation et donc l’art, ainsi que le corps, la nudité et la liberté. L’Arabie saoudite est un Daesh qui a réussi.
opinion  middle-east  religion  politics  conflict  history  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
Playing with fire
A floundering government risks igniting ethnic tensions
malaysia  2015  race  conflict  chinese  banyan 
november 2015 by aries1988
The growing problem of Pablo Escobar’s hippos
Here, conditions for hippos are idyllic. The river is slow moving and has plenty of shallows, perfect for larger animals which don't actually swim but push themselves off banks, gliding through the water. Moreover, the region never experiences drought, which tends to act as a natural brake on the size of herds in Africa.

How much the hippos like Colombia can be judged from how much sex they are having. In Africa they usually become sexually active between the ages of seven and nine for males, and nine and 11 for females, but Pablo Escobar's hippos are becoming sexually active as young as three. All the fertile females are reported to be giving birth to a calf every year.

Colombian people, he believes, are more vulnerable than Africans because they see hippos as cuddly, "floppy" animals. The respected El Colombiano newspaper recently reported that children in a school near Hacienda Napoles are sharing a pond with the animals, and having direct contact with hippo calves at home.

"My father brought a little one home once," an unnamed girl told the paper. "I called him Luna (Moon) because he was very sweet - we fed him with just milk." Another child, a boy, told the paper: "My father has captured three. It is nice because you have a little animal at home. We bottle-feed them because they only drink milk. They have a very slippery skin, you pour water and they produce a kind of slime, you touch them and it's like soap."

But adult hippos are dangerous. Despite their ungainly appearance, they are very agile in the water and can charge on land at up to 18 mph (29km/h). It's often said that hippos are responsible for more human deaths in Africa than any other animal - though it may be more accurate to say they cause more deaths than any other wild mammal.

Another idea, favoured by David Echeverri of the local environmental authority, is to build a reserve with proper hippo-proof fences. But it would be a huge challenge to round up all the feral hippos of Antioquia, and would cost an estimated $500,000 (£290,000).

He isn't joking. During experiments with electric fences a while ago, he recalls, someone misjudged the voltage and electrocuted one of the Hacienda Napoles hippos. "What did the local people do? They took him, they chopped him up, they barbecued him and they ate him!" The animal is said to have tasted similar to pork.
animal  story  human  conflict 
october 2014 by aries1988
Google Is Target of European Backlash on U.S. Tech Dominance
Perceptions in Europe have been gradually changing over Google’s dominance. The company commands about two-thirds of the United States search market, according to comScore, but close to 90 percent in Europe, excluding Russia.

Anger over mass data collection by the American government has only amplified the concerns. Jérémie Zimmerman, a co-founder of the French Internet activist group La Quadrature du Net, said that when people told him now that they worked for Google, he says, “How do you like working for the N.S.A.,” referring to the National Security Agency.

“Many users were lured by the convenience and comfort of the services,” he said, but he added that the revelations by the former N.S.A. contractor Edward J. Snowden revealed that Google was part of a “massive breach of our security, of our data and of our sovereignty.”

“Taken together, all these issues point to the pressing need for E.U.-wide common approaches to the challenges posed by Google and other players in the digital era,” Joaquín Almunia, Europe’s competition regulator, said in a speech this summer. “Their centrality for Europe’s economy and their pervasive presence in the lives of the vast majority of our fellow citizens are turning this into one of the defining domains of E.U. policy making.”
google  today  europe  conflict 
september 2014 by aries1988
The Strangers
He became trusted enough that “people were always showing me maps of East Turkestan and saying ‘Look, this is our country.’”
Western or Russian documents, Li’s friends were re-asserting their national identity even as they invited him into their circle.

As they watched, people began overturning cars, and they decided to split up and head home rather than risk serious trouble.
He could hear shouts from below, chants of “Kill the Han, smash the Hui [another Islamic minority], drive the Mongols out.”

Fear pervaded Urumqi; a week after the riots, stories started to spread that Uighur, or Han, depending on which side you talked to, were injecting AIDS-infected blood into random strangers in crowds.
reportage  xinjiang  journalist  religion  conflict  china 
march 2014 by aries1988
Buddhism v Islam in Asia: Fears of a new religious strife | The Economist
Radical monks, led by a notorious chauvinist, Wirathu, from a monastery in the northern city of Mandalay, have abandoned any claims to Buddhism as a universal doctrine of compassion and non-violence. For them Buddhism equates with a narrow nationalism. They argue, quite simply, that unless the majority-Buddhist population fights back, Muslims, with alarmingly high birth rates, will overrun the country. On July 22nd he claimed that a small explosion in a car near where he was preaching was the work of Islamic extremists. It all taps into old resentments against the big influx of Indians, many of them Muslim, who came into the country on the coat-tails of British colonialists during the 19th and early 20th centuries. They ran much of the country’s finance and commerce, and were hated for it by the indigenous Burmans. Race riots against Indians and Muslims in the 1930s in Yangon (then Rangoon, the capital) and elsewhere were whipped up then, as now, by a chauvinist Buddhist press.

They propose that Buddhist women must seek permission from local officials to marry a man of another faith; meanwhile, the husband-to-be should convert to Buddhism. Under Myanmar’s former military rule, such ideas had little chance of becoming law, but with the onset of democracy all that has changed.

They may have been inspired by an imprisoned radical cleric, Abu Bakar Basyir, who in April called for a jihad against Myanmar’s Buddhist population.
from:kindle  religion  asia  future  islam  conflict 
july 2013 by aries1988
Outrage in Okinawa - NYTimes.com
Many Okinawans believe, with justification, that their views are irrelevant to the Japanese government and the United States, whose geopolitical priorities trump local concerns about jet crashes, noise, environmental destruction and crime.
region  nation  conflict  geopolitics  japan 
november 2012 by aries1988
中美日缺少互信加剧钓鱼岛冲突
缺乏信任,首先是因为缺乏了解。中日两国是地理距离较近,但心里距离极其遥远的邻国。中日之间不仅没有“共享观点”,甚至连“共享知识”都没有做到。上个世纪20年代,国民党元老戴季陶就曾在《日本论》中一针见血地指出,“中国这个题目,日本人也不晓得放在解剖台上,解剖了几千百次,装在试验管里化验了几千百次。我们中国人却只是一味的排斥反对,再不肯做研究工夫,几乎连日本字都不愿意看,日本话都不愿意听,日本人都不愿意见,这真叫做‘思想上的闭关自守’,‘知识上的义和团’了。” http://www.instapaper.com/read/325210832
instapaper_favs  asia  usa  china  future  conflict 
september 2012 by aries1988
我问日本人:你为何去参拜靖国神社?_徐静波品味日本_新浪博客
8月15日,是一个特殊的日子,我在这里看到,走进靖国神社的人们,有军国复辟主义分子,也有心怀叵测的政治投机家,更多的是,仅仅为追思家人而来的普通民众。
googlereader  japanese  zeitgeist  china  conflict 
august 2012 by aries1988
柴静:没深夜痛哭过的人,不足以谈人生
柴静:没有深夜痛哭过的人,不足以谈人生。很多事不用问值不值得,只用问,它对你来说,是不是有如珍宝。
story  taiwan  war  conflict  tragedy  home  shandong  heze  death  parents  ww2  son 
august 2012 by aries1988
佔领华尔街可以达成什么?
歷史会记载著,2011年是不满之年,是这个世代/时代的1968年。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/214339498
youth  conflict  report 
august 2012 by aries1988
南方周末 - 为什么我们总不满于美国人的道歉
问题恐怕在于文化差异,西方人是动机效果二元论者,而中国人是动机效果统一论者。我们是否也应该多多了解美国文化,不要把无谓的小事和本来可以平和解决的问题,随意拉升到“维护民族尊严”的高度?
http://www.instapaper.com/read/279544034
culture  conflict  comparison  mentality  debate  chinese  american  opinion 
august 2012 by aries1988
你看到的网络,不是整个世界
世界这么大,总有从上到下各层阶级的存在。许多人到死都只在跟自己同级的圈子里交流,对于上层和下层都有盲目的误解和指责。抱怨社会不公的喷子从不认识那些艰苦奋斗的二代们,自以为生活寒酸的留学生也不会在自己的圈子里发现农民的孩子。如果你也是这样的人,就不要怪别人不了解你。尝试与各种各样的人交往吧,那么不管是否能够成为朋友,或许都会帮助你成为一个更加理性的人。 我想起大一去农村支教的时候,队伍里有个日本女孩。村民们说,他们原来以为日本人都是凶神恶煞的,没想到日本人也可以是她那样美丽温婉的。 所以,如果想改变什么的话,不必再写鲁迅式的文章,回国接触更多的人,与他们交谈,让他们明白很多群体不是他们想象的那样。而你也会发现,你看到的网络,不是整个世界。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/272480737
society  conflict 
august 2012 by aries1988
Fish Story - By Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt | Foreign Policy
The risk of conflict in the South China Sea is real. But not for the reasons you might think.
asia  fish  food  future  conflict 
june 2012 by aries1988
In war of words, Hong Kong and China need cool heads
The war of words between Hong Kong and mainland China, which intensified earlier this month with an ad in Hong Kong’s Apple Daily likening mainlanders coming to the SAR to “invading locusts,” continues to boil on the internet. For an overview of the row, readers can turn to our story last week, or to this video summary by Link TV.
hongkong  china  conflict 
february 2012 by aries1988
麦考马克:钓鱼岛在中日关系中的重要性
小列岛--大问题:尖阁列岛/钓鱼岛及
其历史地理在中日关系中的重要性
history  conflict  china  japan  today  report  info 
april 2011 by aries1988
刘原:找张圆桌,让鸡同鸭讲
各色人等若能在一个话语平台上对话,白天便可以知道夜的黑,三八线便可以从地图上抹去,无数战乱和人祸便可避免。
essay  history  communication  conflict 
march 2011 by aries1988

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