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aries1988 : countryside   23

农村人的生老病死
年前新京报书评周刊的编辑就问我,是否愿意写一篇过年回乡观感,我说行。初六凌晨写完,第二天编辑说,领导觉得调子太灰暗,不适合在春节发出来。呵呵,过你个欢乐祥和年。 - - - - - - - 回老家得知,春节...
countryside  china  marriage  money 
november 2018 by aries1988
领读中国 | 梁鸿:我更看重的是,人怎么与历史发生关系
经观书评:阅读对你当时的生活来讲,应该是很重要的一部分。
梁鸿:我姐姐上高中,她有书,所以我从小就读到好多书,《世界之窗》、《高中语文》、《现代文学作品选》,那时候没电视、没网络,只有读书。我的性格比较内向,我跟孩子们出去玩的也比较少,经常就看书。我小时候对读书有渴望,喜欢看书,什么都可以看,我对“字”有一种渴望,喜欢看“字”。长大到小学四、五年级开始喜欢写作文,那个感觉很好,写的好不好不知道,反正喜欢写。后来我们整理老家的物品,翻到我初中日记,写着:我要当作家。其实后来完全忘掉了,是翻出初中的日记才看到。

经观书评:对“字”很着迷,这个启蒙最开始是什么?
梁鸿:可能还是跟我姐姐她们上学有关系,她们带回一些书籍,我自己性格刚好又比较内向、孤独。我觉得孤独的人很自然的喜欢阅读,喜欢写点东西,也比较惆怅,比较多思。我现在的性格相对比较好,但小时候不爱说话。

经观书评:后来接受了高等教育之后,比如在你一直研究的乡土文学、乡土文化领域,或是写作过程中,有没有喜欢的作家?对写作或人生观,或是思考方式有影响的一些书或作家?

梁鸿:我很早就开始阅读,非常混沌,我是一个泛读主义者,喜欢每个我能欣赏的作家和作品。
当年我十三、四岁的时候读托尔斯泰《战争与和平》——那时候肯定是囫囵吞枣,但也非常喜欢。读《安娜·卡列妮娜》是我上师范的时候,多激动啊。还有屠格列夫的《猎人笔记》。其实那时候已经读了相当多的经典,也有郁达夫、沈从文……
从我日后的创作和我的性格而言,可能我还是比较偏重于鲁迅那一支。但是我欣赏所有的作家,比如纳博科夫的《洛丽塔》、沈从文的《边城》、婉约派的诗人、辛弃疾,我都很喜欢,我喜欢所有文字里表达情感方式。我没有特别挑剔说我不喜欢周作人,我喜欢鲁迅,但是我自己的创作倾向可能更偏重于鲁迅的气质,或者偏重于那些相对具有批判性的方式。我欣赏那种语言的美,对一个小世界的创造,我都非常着迷。
nonfiction  chinese  writer  interview  reading  childhood  countryside  china 
october 2018 by aries1988
黄章晋: 在隔壁的中国,那些孩子已经长大了
2001年国务院颁布《国务院关于基础教育改革与发展的决定》,提出「农村地区学校布局调整」的改革计划,通俗的话讲,就是撤销村里的幼儿园、小学,将之合并到大的乡镇,有些地方,则是撤销乡镇教学点,集中到县城,这就是所谓的「撤点并校」。

我们同事邓飞采访时有个颠覆认知的意外发现,造成2万余学生伤亡的质量低劣校舍,几乎都是1990年代「普九」验收期间突击建造。「普九」即1986年颁布的教育法提出20世纪末普及九年义务教育。它有一套从校舍到图书室在内的验收标准。

当时国家财力不济,任务全部压在最基层的乡镇一级:资金自行筹募,自行设计、自行建设、自行验收。为满足必须一次验收通过、无楼不成校等硬性任务,各地普遍采取采取一次建校、逐年集资的办法应付建筑商。

也就是说,校车事故大幅减少,很大程度是越来越多的孩子在学校寄宿而不是乘坐校车。
today  china  countryside  children  school  transport  crisis  opinion 
july 2018 by aries1988
书写者何江:关于一本不存在之书的推荐和版本学研究

对于这些修改,我不太同意喜欢。究其原因,并不是因为我觉得何江写得不对或者不应该这样写,而是近几年的这个国家的政治走向,让我对这样一种“中国梦”的歌颂式的调子的本能的怀疑。也许何江的家庭和村庄的确在最近几年中日新月异,天翻地覆,而我的下意识总觉得“这些对于威权政府的赞美令人可疑”,“为什么他不提提留守儿童问题呢?”,“为什么他没有提到农民工问题呢?”。我受到的自由化的教育让我觉得:一个知识分子的良知理应让作者带有批判意识的看待问题,而不是去附和/加强一种意识形态下的主流观念。想到这里,我就意识到,我这种批评本身其实就局限于自己的背景和阶级的。只有一个城市中产阶级,才会凡事都本能地对当权者产生怀疑。而只有一个受过高等教育训练的人,才会把评判精神当作是良知的一部分。
usa  chinese  china  countryside  childhood  book 
december 2017 by aries1988
D.I.Y. Artificial Intelligence Comes to a Japanese Family Farm
The Koikes have been growing cucumbers in Kosai, a town wedged between the Pacific Ocean and the brackish Lake Hamana, for nearly fifty years.

For his project, he used TensorFlow, which Google released to the public in 2015.

He began by building a custom photo stand, which allowed him to photograph each cucumber from three angles. Then, to analyze the images, he adapted a popular piece of TensorFlow software used for recognizing handwritten numerals. Before he could turn the A.I. loose, though, Koike had to train it. He captured seven thousand photos of cucumbers that his mother had already sorted, then used the data to teach his software to recognize which vegetables belonged in which categories. Finally, he built an automated conveyor-belt system to move each cucumber from the photo stand to the bin designated by the program.
agriculture  ai  business  city  countryside  engineering  example  family  japanese  story 
august 2017 by aries1988
The Long Shot - The New Yorker
Jia is not much interested in plot. His attraction to film seems to owe more to the dictum of André Bazin, the French theorist whom he counts as an inspiration, that photography “embalms time.” Jia crams his movies with so many hair styles, pop songs, and news references that they feel like time capsules of the here and now. He has a single, unwavering theme: the liminal space in which individuals try, usually in vain, to move from one life to another—floating migrants, laid-off factory hands, restless teen-agers, all trapped on the margins of China’s boom, with enough technology to glimpse the wider world but no way to reach it. In Jia’s cosmology, trains usually speed out of sight before you can catch them and motorcycles break down.

His characters are often inspired by people he grew up with—friends, in his words, “as ignorant and coarse and full of vitality as roadside weeds.”

the movement made a searing impression on him. “Although it failed, it didn’t really fail,” he said, “because it took freedom and democracy, individualism, individual rights, all these concepts, and disseminated them to many people, including me.”

Jia immersed himself in films from Taiwan and Europe, often watching three a day. Those which he could not find in the school archives he found on the street, as pirated V.H.S. tapes. He often pedalled his bicycle across town to watch screenings at a French cultural center in Beijing.

In contrast to the epic historical Chinese dramas that were popular at the time, Jia had revealed a bitterly unadorned image of contemporary life and its discontents. To older Chinese admirers especially, the film’s honesty was bittersweet. “We had been forbidden from telling the truth for such a long time that once we were allowed to do so, we did not know how to tell the truth,” the painter Chen Danqing wrote of the film.

He felt powerless. “My motivation for making films was not simply a love of movies but also a sense of idealism, a hope that I could help to change society.”

In “Still Life,” a building launches into the air like a rocket, and a flying saucer zips across the sky. (As Jia has explained to a film magazine, China’s “official speeches and pictures are like U.F.O.s that never touch the ground.”)

“Not because they are kung-fu movies—I like kung-fu movies—but because the film underscores power, that we should ‘bow down’ before power! For ‘harmony in the world,’ we should give up individual fights and efforts. The ‘authority of power,’ the focus of his films, is what makes me extremely uncomfortable.”

“My expression, my view on history, my view on the truth must be independent,” he says, “but I tell myself not to get marginalized, because being marginalized means you can’t do anything. Marginalization can be a kind of pleasant stance—I really admire many of those people—but I would rather expend enormous energy trying to dance with the many levels of the era in which we live.”
reportage  bio  movie  chinese  china  leader  art  idea  people  nostalgia  countryside  shanxi 
june 2017 by aries1988
Why Refrigerators Were So Slow to Catch On in China
A device like a refrigerator has to fit within a web of habits, conditions, and behaviors. But then again, maybe it fits best when it changes those habits, transforming them into new ones. Refrigerators allow their owners to buy groceries less often, to change up cooking habits and eating schedules and not worry about leftovers, to keep on-hand foods that are more perishable. These aren’t old habits, after all, but the peculiar habits of modern living. And those habits make refrigerators all but obligatory.
explained  life  chinese  countryside  home  cuisine 
may 2016 by aries1988
Germany’s Small Towns Feel the Cost of Europe’s Migrant Crisis
As European leaders focus on trying to stop the flow of migrants to the Continent, towns and villages across Germany are pleading for money and assistance to take care of their new arrivals.
immigration  germany  countryside  german 
april 2015 by aries1988
The Disintegration of Rural China - NYTimes.com
The peaceful and idyllic village I grew up in, like many of China’s rural towns, has been brought to ruins by the breakdown of traditional social norms that followed decades of failed policies and neglect by the state. Many of my contemporary fellow villagers would prefer to go back to the old days.

My childhood came at a unique moment for China. We were still living traditional village lives, having left the horrors of Mao behind, but not yet in the thick of the capitalist frenzy. Families were strong, crime was unheard of and the landscape was pristine. We didn’t mind being poor — in my third and fourth years at primary school in the early-’70s, the whole school did not have textbooks — because we didn’t know what we were missing. We lived in peaceful, tight-knit communities.

Too many rural residents have missed out on China’s property boom, contributing to the wealth gap between the cities and the countryside.

The retreat of the state has left a dangerous power vacuum, and many villagers have been left to fend for themselves. There is a lot of talk of mafia-like groups wielding power behind the scenes.

In the old days, officials at the village and townships had the mandate and resources to mediate disputes, including domestic violence. The police would patrol even the most remote villages. Today the police seem to stay in cities, and village heads don’t have the resources to intervene in social issues.
story  chinese  china  today  countryside 
november 2014 by aries1988
消失的故乡:三百年去来 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
人总是不幸的。何必自欺欺人?父母也许恨小孩。小孩诅咒父母死去。人是自私的,盛怒之下,无妨将痛苦施予他人。这就如同杨树的叶子会被夏天的太阳晒卷一样并不稀罕。幸福也有,倏忽而逝。一切恰如叔本华的话:生命就是在痛苦与倦怠间摇摆。在张村,在当年,各种认知、概念、感慨,在人的意识中不过萤虫之光。
china  history  instapaper_favs  countryside  story  nostalgia 
september 2013 by aries1988
春节观感:十字路口的中国 - 荐读 - FT中文网
笔者并不理解目前政府力推“城镇化”的目的,农民入城是已经启动的缓慢进程,考虑到未来可能出现一个个被弃置的“老城”,农民实际上最有可能成为老区的新主人。笔者认为目前不宜让农民“并村上楼”,因为有能力的家庭均倾向于到公共资源与就业机会多的城市置业,即使在农村也大部分盖了新楼房,“并村上楼”不仅浪费资源,假如中国经济增长动力减弱,尤其是以基础设施与地产投资为主的三四线城市就业机会减少和市场萧条,意味着农民的主要收入来源消失。这时候农民大规模聚集于社区,而不是分散在与耕地临近的村庄,并生活在熟悉的社会关系中,那么,“贫民窟”将成为严重的社会问题。
china  future  city  countryside  youth  society  opinion 
july 2013 by aries1988
南方周末 - 他们为什么选择去死? 农村自杀者档案
“中国已经成了老龄型社会,截至2012年3月30日,中国60岁以上老人数量为1.85亿,其中49.7%的老年人为空巢老人。农村还有570多万,是‘无子女、无收入来源、无劳动能力’的孤寡老人。”贾树华对南方周末记者说,老无所依、子女虐待老人已成为农村普遍现象,不给老人饭吃,给老人馊饭吃,逼迫高龄老人下地干农活等虐待行为屡见不鲜。“但这个85岁的老人生养了7个健康儿女,最后剖腹自杀,没有当场死亡,儿女放弃治疗,不送到医院缝合和抢救,还是比较极端的。”

贾树华和她的调查团队感叹的是,他们进入农村太晚了:“中国自杀死亡和国外很不一样,国外的自杀者往往是不想活了,他们对死亡往往是主动的;中国大部分自杀者都不想死,好死不如赖活着,自杀往往是被动的,只是他们解决问题的一种方式。中国农民要面对很多难以抗拒的社会问题,土地流转、房屋拆迁、移民、夫妻感情……一旦不能公平合理地解决,他们往往会以自杀和压抑来抗争。”
china  countryside 
july 2013 by aries1988
开卷八分钟:黄宗智《中国的隐性农业革命》(一)_读书频道_凤凰网
他说农业发展的关键在于农业的劳动力的产出,或者产值的提高,你别说你这块地过去要十个人来种才能够种出这么一个量,今天我五个人种,甚至一个人种就行了,那不是生产力提高了吗,那么产值就提高了吗,那么这才叫做真正的发展,那么但是他认为中国,明朝、清朝以来一直经历的情况却是什么呢?总产量提高,但是实际上没有发展

中国是怎么回事?中国是没错你做经济作物了,做经济作物你投入劳动力增加,但总产值没增加,这里的秘密到底在什么地方呢?简单,就是因为人口压力太大,中国人太多了,这个中国人口压力大成这个样子,乃至于就是中国其实一直以来要解决的问题就是这么多的过剩的劳动力该怎么安顿他们,怎么安置这帮人才好呢?他们于是就变得是更密集的来耕作,开发土地,那么非常密集的聚在小地方,绝对不可能像英国的那种大庄园,或者美国的集体大农场,美国的那种集体大农场要是搬到中国来,我们有几亿人大概活不下去,都不晓得该干什么了,对不对?没地可种了,所以中国一直是个小农经济。

那这个小农经济它普遍的状况是什么呢?就是长期的稳定的贫穷,也就是说你饿一时半两还饿不死你,但是要吃得饱恐怕也很困难,按照黄宗智的讲法就是从明朝以来,一直到近代中国一直都是处在这个状态
china  countryside  agriculture  opinion  video 
january 2013 by aries1988
消失的故乡 - 荐读 - FT中文网
甜瓜被刺猬拱了,这厮也知道泛香味就是熟透了。抓把草擦擦,咔嚓就是一口。小杏、小桃,总还在青春期就被我们这一茬茬的毛孩子们扫荡了,走进去看不到人的庄稼地里,刚学会骑自行车的孩子们疯跑,什么拐卖,什么打劫,完全不知道。
googlereader  nostalgia  countryside 
september 2012 by aries1988
【乡村!乡村!】朴素、“迷信”见智慧
“鸟儿也有性命,招惹它的人会遭殃的。”——说法朴素,似乎有点“迷信”,却让人心生尊重。
countryside  china 
march 2011 by aries1988
寻药病乡村
乡村湮灭在自身的复杂病历中,疾病本身成为疾病的营养,不断繁殖出新的疾病和病人
china  countryside  health 
march 2011 by aries1988

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