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aries1988 : environment   43

中国人为什么爱吃猪肉
中国是世界第一的猪肉消费大国,尽管近些年随着生活富裕、口味多元,全国猪肉消费总量已从2014年最高峰时的5719万吨下降到去年的5489万吨,但仍然 稳占全球一半份额 [1] ――也就是说, 中国人口虽然只是世界五分之一,但每两斤猪肉里就有一斤是被中国人吃掉的。…
numbers  chinese  porc  explained  food  taboo  environment  china  region  population 
12 weeks ago by aries1988
岛上无事发生(下)
最好金杯换酒

大陆最终的优势在于它的纵深和复杂——即便是那种泥沙俱下的复杂也是生命力之所在。尤其是在北京,这里的人们更加多元,历史底蕴依然厚重,有更多更有趣的文化活动,也并非所有的事物都会被折算成金钱。忘了在哪儿看到有人说,北京像是纽约,一个人必须非主流才能入流(You have to be out to be in),而在上海,这个人必须入流才能入流(You have to be in to be in)。此处的上海也可换作香港。
beijing  shanghai  comparison  identity  environment 
november 2018 by aries1988
Jared Diamond: ‘Humans, 150,000 years ago, wouldn’t figure on a list of the five most interesting species on Earth’

It was a painful thought for someone who recalled being told, by an admiring teacher at his Massachusetts school, that one day he would “unify the sciences and humanities”. Clearly, he needed a larger canvas. Even so, few could have predicted how large a canvas he would choose.

1997’s Guns, Germs and Steel – which ask the most sweeping questions it is possible to ask about human history.

Diamond, who describes himself as a biogeographer, answers them in translucent prose that has the effect of making the world seem to click into place, each fact assuming its place in an elegant arc of pan-historical reasoning.

Why? Because 8,000 years ago – to borrow from Guns, Germs and Steel – the geography of Europe and the Middle East made it easier to farm crops and animals there than elsewhere.

vicious jousting between Diamond and many anthropologists. They condemn him as a cultural imperialist, intent on excusing the horrors of colonialism while asserting the moral superiority of the west.

In person, Diamond is a fastidiously courteous 77-year-old with a Quaker-style beard sans moustache, and archaic New England vowels: “often” becomes “orphan”, “area” becomes “eerier”. There’s no computer: despite his children’s best efforts, he admits he’s never learned to use one.

What changed, Diamond argues, was a seemingly minor set of mutations in our larynxes, permitting control over spoken sounds, and thus spoken language; spoken language permitted much of the rest.

It won a Pulitzer prize and has sold more than 1.5m copies in 36 languages. Mitt Romney quoted it admiringly in his 2012 presidential campaign, garbling its message entirely.

he found himself accused of “geographic determinism”: in his critics’ opinion, his arguments squeeze out any role for human agency and decision-making, thereby sparing history’s colonisers – and today’s elites – any responsibility for having created our grotesquely unjust world.

Each of the two books has the unusual distinction of having another book dedicated largely to demolishing it: Yali’s Question, which offers a different answer from Diamond’s New Guinean acquaintance, and Questioning Collapse, which calls the Easter Island “ecocide” a myth.

Whenever I hear the phrase ‘geographic determinism’,” he says, “I know I’m about to waste time discussing with someone who has no right to be discussing [how human societies developed]. Because the fact is that geography has a strong influence on humans. It doesn’t determine everything, but it has a strong influence
bio  book  leader  human  development  inequality  world  history  biology  environment  debate  theory  geography  opinion 
october 2018 by aries1988
La Chine ne veut plus être la poubelle du monde !
Avoir un partenaire peu regardant sur la qualité de ce qu'il réceptionne et dont la conscience environnementale était jusque là inférieure au reste du monde, c'est en effet pratique. Ce temps-là est fini... Il y a 6 mois, la chine a prévenu l'Organisation mondiale du commerce qu'elle cesserait fin 2017 donc à la fin de cette semaine d'importer le PET, PVC , le polyéthylène  et le polystyrène ... En tout 24 catégories de déchets recyclables solides. La raison est double. Avec l'émergence de la classe moyenne, les chinois eux-mêmes produisent ces déchets qui se substituent aux nôtres. Le pays affirme par ailleurs qu'un mauvais tri rend difficile le recyclage et la valorisation en produits non polluants. Pékin mène en parallèle une opération d'envergure sur son territoire en inspectant les usines d'utilisation du plastique recyclé. Des centaines ont été verbalisées pour non respect des normes.   
tri  china  pollution  plastic  environment  recycle 
december 2017 by aries1988
Warning of 'ecological Armageddon' after dramatic plunge in insect numbers
Three-quarters of flying insects in nature reserves across Germany have vanished in 25 years, with serious implications for all life on Earth, scientists say
environment  entomology  crisis  science  research  numbers  earth  europe 
october 2017 by aries1988
What Makes Countries Rich or Poor?

Acemoglu and Robinson, generalize from these examples of bordering countries and deduce that good institutions also explain the differences in wealth between nations that aren’t neighbors and that differ greatly in their geographic environments and human populations.

why have some countries ended up with good institutions, while others haven’t? The most important factor behind their emergence is the historical duration of centralized government.

The various durations of government around the world are linked to the various durations and productivities of farming that was the prerequisite for the rise of governments.

the reversal of fortune,

in formerly poor countries with sparse native populations, such as Costa Rica and Australia, European settlers had to work themselves and developed institutional incentives rewarding work.

In the New World the two north temperate countries (the US and Canada, average incomes respectively $47,390 and $43,270) and the three south temperate countries (Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina, respectively $10,590, $10,120, and $8,620) are all richer—on the average five times richer—than almost all of the intervening seventeen tropical countries of mainland Central and South America (incomes mostly between $1,110 and $6,970).

biological characteristics of the responsible microbes have made it easier to develop vaccines against major infectious diseases of temperate areas than against tropical diseases; we still aren’t close to a vaccine against malaria, despite billions of dollars invested.

glaciers repeatedly advanced and retreated over temperate areas, creating young nutrient-rich soils.

It costs roughly seven times more to ship a ton of cargo by land than by sea

Young fertile volcanic and alluvial soils are exceptions

inclusive institutions are required for sustained growth based on technological change.

Acemoglu and Robinson’s view of history is that small effects at critical junctures have long-lasting effects, so it’s hard to make predictions. While they don’t say so explicitly, this view suggests that good institutions should have cropped up randomly around the world, depending on who happened to decide what at some particular place and time.

In their Chapter 5, Acemoglu and Robinson use one of those exceptional patterns (that for the Fertile Crescent) to assert, in the complete absence of evidence, that those particular hunter/gatherers had become sedentary because, for unknown reasons, they happened to develop innovative institutions through a hypothesized political revolution.

They take these maps to mean that the ancestors of barley and wheat were distributed along a long arc beyond the Fertile Crescent, hence that the Fertile Crescent’s unique role in agriculture’s origins was not determined by the availability of plant and animal species.

My overall assessment of the authors’ argument is that inclusive institutions, while not the overwhelming determinant of prosperity that they claim, are an important factor.
review  critic  book  debate  economy  inequality  question  instituition  environment 
september 2017 by aries1988
Pollution de l’air : Paris va tester une colonne Morris dépolluante
Des microalgues présentes dans ces puits de carbone sont à l’origine de la décarbonisation de l’air. Elles seront aussi recyclées en énergie verte.
environment  idea  city 
april 2017 by aries1988
专访《塑料王国》导演王久良:消费主义社会的垃圾问题无解
王久良:这个项目的最重要结论之一,就是揭示所谓“国际贸易”的虚伪性。
documentary  china  environment  plastic  crisis  money 
january 2017 by aries1988
Planet of the apps — have we paved the way for our own extinction? — FT.com
Harari’s skill lies in the way he tilts the prism in all these fields and looks at the world in different ways, providing fresh angles on what we thought we knew. No matter how scary and incomplete, the result is scintillating.

He points to the success of the Montreal Protocol of 1987 as a great model of international co-operation and solidarity. This treaty, ratified by 197 countries, played a vital role in reducing the release of harmful ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons from aerosols and refrigeration systems.

For the moment, the rise of populism, the rickety architecture of the European Union, the turmoil in the Middle East and the competing claims on the South China Sea will consume most politicians’ attention.
human  future  biology  technology  challenge  environment  book  ai  debate  crisis 
september 2016 by aries1988
Empire of the pig | The Economist
The Communist Party prizes self-sufficiency in food. Most of the pigs China eats are indeed home-grown. But each kilogram of pork requires 6kg of feed, usually processed soy or corn. Given the scarcity of water and land in China, it cannot feed its pigs as well as its people. The upshot is that Chinese swine, which previously ate household scraps, increasingly rely on imported feed.

A few in China—a very few—are beginning to question the benefits of eating more and more pork. Meat consumption is beginning to plateau among the very rich; health scares have boosted sales of organic food, though it still accounts for a tiny share of agricultural production. Vegetarianism is growing, but is generally thought eccentric. The ambition of most Chinese continues to be to devour as large a slice of the pork pie as possible. In much of the rich world meat consumption is stable or falling but in the Middle Kingdom it soars unrestrained. Forget the zodiac: in today’s China, every year is the year of the pig.
agriculture  china  environment  food  porc 
may 2016 by aries1988
北京为什么这么脏?_土摩托_新浪博客
北京春天多风,一刮风空气中就充满了灰尘,把整座城市弄得脏兮兮的。其实我们本可以不这样,只是因为政府环卫部门管理理念的落后,才让北京,乃至整个中国的城市居民不得不生活在肮脏的环境之中。
environment  city  beijing  explained  opinion 
april 2016 by aries1988
La Grande Muraille Verte au Sénégal - RFI
Construire une Grande Muraille Verte contre la désertification, c'est le pari un peu fou de planter des arbres sur toute la largeur du continent africain, de l'océan Atlantique à la mer Rouge, de la Mauritanie à Djibouti....
environment  desert  engineering 
november 2015 by aries1988
The World’s Hot Spot
All the people in this region are playing with fire. While they’re fighting over who is caliph, who is the rightful heir to the Prophet Muhammad from the seventh century — Sunnis or Shiites — and to whom God really gave the holy land, Mother Nature is not sitting idle. She doesn’t do politics — only physics, biology and chemistry. And if they add up the wrong way, she will take them all down.
middle-east  environment 
august 2015 by aries1988
Facing Rising Seas, Bangladesh Confronts the Consequences of Climate Change
Though countries like Bangladesh have contributed little to the industrial pollution driving climate change, they will suffer the most from the devastating consequences.
environment  future 
december 2014 by aries1988
Environnement : les vérités de l’imaginaire
C’est la rapidité des bouleversements imposés à l’environnement qui produit cette étrangeté. Alors que les citadins occidentaux imaginent que ces bouleversements ne seront un problème que dans un futur lointain et hypothétique – une bonne part les tient même pour de purs fantasmes –, d’autres populations les vivent et les affrontent déjà au quotidien. La science-fiction des uns est, en somme, devenue l’actualité des autres.

Je me trouvais en Chine, en 2007, lors de la première convention de science-fiction et de fantasy de l'histoire chinoise à être approuvée par le Parti. A un moment, j'ai pris à part un officiel de haut rang et je lui ai demandé : «Pourquoi ?» La science-fiction faisait depuis longtemps l'objet d'une désapprobation, qu'est-ce qui avait changé ? "." C'est simple, m'a-t-il répondu. Les Chinois excellaient à créer des choses si d'autres leur en apportaient les plans. Mais ils n'innovaient pas, ils n'inventaient pas. Ils n'imaginaient pas. Aussi ont-ils envoyé une délégation chez Apple, Microsoft, Google et ils ont posé là-bas, aux gens qui inventaient le futur, des questions sur eux-mêmes. Et ils ont découvert que tous lisaient de la science-fiction lorsqu'ils étaient enfants.
scifi  environment  future  opinion  mentality 
december 2014 by aries1988
BBC News - China's per capita carbon emissions overtake EU's
While the per capita average for the world as a whole is 5 tonnes of carbon dioxide, China is now producing 7.2 tonnes per person, to the EU's 6.8 tonnes. The US is still far ahead on 16.5 tonnes per person.
today  environment 
october 2014 by aries1988
To Save the Planet, Don’t Plant Trees
So it’s understandable that we’d expect trees to save us from rising temperatures, but climate science tells a different story. Besides the amount of greenhouse gases in the air, another important switch on the planetary thermostat is how much of the sun’s energy is taken up by the earth’s surface, compared to how much is reflected back to space. The dark color of trees means that they absorb more of the sun’s energy and raise the planet’s surface temperature.

Climate scientists have calculated the effect of increasing forest cover on surface temperature. Their conclusion is that planting trees in the tropics would lead to cooling, but in colder regions, it would cause warming.

Moreover, it is a myth that photosynthesis controls the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Even if all photosynthesis on the planet were shut down, the atmosphere’s oxygen content would change by less than 1 percent.

The Amazon rain forest is often perceived as the lungs of the planet. In fact, almost all the oxygen the Amazon produces during the day remains there and is reabsorbed by the forest at night. In other words, the Amazon rain forest is a closed system that uses all its own oxygen and carbon dioxide.
opinion  numbers  environment 
september 2014 by aries1988
Who Wants to Shoot an Elephant?
She’s a competitive bodybuilder and does those tractor-tire and sledgehammer workouts, and there is no part of her body, from the look of it, that you couldn’t crack a walnut on.

They look like models from a Cabela’s catalog. They are companionable and jolly, and part of the pleasure of their company is the feeling that you’ve been welcomed into a kind of America where no one is ever fat or weak or ugly or gets sad about things.

Not being a hunter myself, I subscribe to an admittedly sissyish philosophy whereby I only wish brain-piercing bullets upon creatures I dislike. http://ift.tt/1mbpLp2
I’m a little worried that some unprofessional, bleeding-heart sympathies might fog my lens when the elephant gets his bullet. So I’m trying to muster up some prophylactic loathing for the animals out here. I want to be properly psyched when the elephant goes down.

So why would you want to put a bullet in one? Well, if we are to take hunters at their word, it is because the experience of shooting an animal yields a thrill, a high that humans have been getting off on since we clubbed our first cave bear. And if you go in for this sort of thing, then it arguably stands to reason that the bigger the beast, the bigger the thrill when it hits the ground.

Rann is the most perfect exemplar I have ever met of Hemingway’s speak-softly-and-shoot-big-things-without-being-a-blowhard-about-it masculine ideal. He is lethally competent and incredibly understated and cool, even when he’s telling swashbuckling stories

Nothing in the animal world tops an elephant’s ass as an emblem of indifference and reproof.

Forty seconds elapsed between the first shot and the last, yet what happened in those forty seconds seemed to happen out of time. It was another kind of time in which a new understanding of death impressed itself upon me more rapidly than my cognition could accommodate.

An elephant gets six sets of teeth in its lifetime. This one was on its final set, and judging from its condition it was probably about 53. The sand of the savanna is hard on an elephant’s dentition. Five to seven more years and it’d have blown through this set and starved to death, assuming neither Jeff nor the poachers got him first.
humor  story  animal  environment  hunting 
july 2014 by aries1988
Researchers use Moore's Law to calculate that life began before Earth existed
(Phys.org) —Geneticists Richard Gordon of the Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory in Florida and Alexei Sharov of the National Institute on Aging in Baltimore have proposed, in a paper uploaded to the preprint server arXiv, that if the evolution of life follows Moore's Law, then it predates the existence of planet Earth.
earth  environment  life 
december 2013 by aries1988
Don’t Forsake the Gray Wolf - NYTimes.com
If you really want to understand wolves, though, consider the dog. Studies analyzing mitochondrial DNA have concluded that dogs are derived from wolves and are closely related. In most ways, they are the same genetically, behaviorally and emotionally.
animal  environment 
june 2013 by aries1988
新安江生态补偿样本_杂志频道_财新网
生态补偿机制,是一种让生态破坏的责任者承担经济损失,让生态环境保护者、建设者或生态环境破坏受害者得到补偿的制度安排。
新安江从安徽省黄山市休宁县山间发源,绵延200多公里后到达浙江省境内,途经千岛湖、富春江、钱塘江入东海。在新安江上建坝蓄水而成的千岛湖,是浙江重要的饮用水源地,以优质水闻名。
生态补偿机制,是一种让生态破坏的责任者承担经济损失,让生态环境保护者、建设者或生态环境破坏受害者得到补偿的制度安排。

新安江从安徽省黄山市休宁县山间发源,绵延200多公里后到达浙江省境内,途经千岛湖、富春江、钱塘江入东海。在新安江上建坝蓄水而成的千岛湖,是浙江重要的饮用水源地,以优质水闻名。
from:kindle  environment 
may 2013 by aries1988
A Cycle of Contamination — and Cancer — That Won’t End - NYTimes.com
As in Toms River, so many things about last week’s debacle in Handan were infuriating, starting with the chemical involved: aniline. That was the compound that launched the synthetic chemical industry in 1856, when a precocious 18-year-old named William Henry Perkin, experimenting in his parents’ London attic, inadvertently discovered that aniline, dissolved in sulfuric acid and mixed with potassium dichromate, made a superb purple dye.

Soon London, Basel, Switzerland, and the Ruhr Valley in Germany were littered with aniline factories, many of which would morph into familiar corporate giants like CIBA, Geigy, Agfa and the German behemoth BASF, the industry leader. In Basel and London, it was said, you could tell which dyes were being made by the color of the nearby canals and rivers, where the factories dumped their waste. Factory bosses would send workers on clandestine midnight runs to the Middle Bridge in Basel to dump barrels of waste into the fast-moving Rhine.

The reality of 21st-century globalism, however, is that none of us can pretend that by pushing the chemical industry out of our communities we have stopped enabling its dangerous practices. The industry jobs that started in Basel, and then migrated to Cincinnati and Toms River, are now in Shanxi Province and other coal-rich areas of China. BASF alone now owns or invests in 45 Chinese ventures. Meanwhile, hundreds of smaller companies like the Tianji Coal Chemical Industry Group, whose Changzhi factory was the source of last week’s leak, are busy turning coal into aniline and a host of other chemical products.
globalization  life  history  chemistry  industry  environment  health 
january 2013 by aries1988
Prêt à jeter - ARTE
 Dès les années 1920, un concept redoutable a été mis au point : l'obsolescence programmée. "Un produit qui ne s'use pas est une tragédie pour les affaires", lisait-on en 1928 dans une revue spécialisée. Peu à peu, on contraint les ingénieurs à créer des
documentary  environment  industry  via:mandarine 
november 2012 by aries1988
China Takes Off | Popular Science
James Fallows is the author of China Airborne, which will be published by Pantheon this month. http://www.instapaper.com/read/279130540
china  aviation  future  infrastructure  reading  info  environment 
august 2012 by aries1988
Un panier de la ménagère qui coûte cher en carbone
Vous êtes plutôt viande ou poisson? Légumes ou céréales? Jus de fruits ou alcool? Des choix qui sont loin d'être indifférents pour celui qui se soucie de ses émissions de CO2. Les légumes sont le parfait exemple inverse. Les fruits et légumes représentent ainsi 20 % du poids du panier, 14 % des dépenses et seulement 7 % du contenu carbone. La viande est à ce titre très emblématique. Elle ne représente que 8 % du poids moyen du panier, 23 % de son coût mais près du tiers de son contenu en carbone. http://www.instapaper.com/read/271963333
family  food  infographics  environment  numbers  français 
august 2012 by aries1988
【发现者】雾霾天气多,不能全都怪北京
导读:在刚刚过去的10月,北京在很长一段时间内被笼罩在雾霾中。人们意识到城市空气中的PM2.5微粒浓度多次达到了非常不健康的400ppm以上,关于北京空气质量的质疑与抱怨再次集中爆发。但是,北京的空气真的变得更糟了吗?为何三年来种种治理措施看上去毫无效果?
air  pollution  china  beijing  environment 
november 2011 by aries1988

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