recentpopularlog in

aries1988 : essay   100

« earlier  
文明大国的条件
撰文:吴介民 本文选自《东方历史评论》第1期,回复“购买”了解如何购买…
taiwan  essay  china  beijing  society  quartier  inequality  civ  question 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
The American Scholar: Joyas Voladoras - Brian Doyle
Brian Doyle, who died on May 27, 2017, considers the capacity of the heart—including his own. Rest in peace.

When young we think there will come one person who will savor and sustain us always; when we are older we know this is the dream of a child, that all hearts finally are bruised and scarred, scored and torn, repaired by time and will, patched by force of character, yet fragile and rickety forevermore, no matter how ferocious the defense and how many bricks you bring to the wall.
heart  life  essay  death 
august 2018 by aries1988
中国现在能不能做到类似大东亚共荣圈的「大中华共荣」? - 知乎
我们要与对人民的权利戕害的一切势力作战。我们要不断地重复,在我们的国家,过去有哪些人,他们狂妄的行动,曾经造成过哪些本来没有必要造成的苦难。我们要不断地重复,为上述行为的一切辩护,甚至是拒绝采取立场的冷漠,都是这些罪恶继续的土壤。如果我们不能做些什么作出清算,我们也要对它们的不正当性一遍又一遍地声明,才能消灭它们继续产生的一切基础。
china  asia  thinking  essay  future  history  manifesto 
february 2018 by aries1988
Do you work more than 39 hours a week? Your job could be killing you | Life and style | The Guardian
Because there is a danger that merely reducing working hours will not change much, when it comes to health, if jobs are intrinsically disenfranchising. In order to make jobs more conducive to our mental and physiological welfare, much less work is definitely essential. So too are jobs of a better kind, where hierarchies are less authoritarian and tasks are more varied and meaningful.
work  essay  health 
january 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:艱辛探索的價值觀
在我看來,這才是廣被引述的這個採訪裏面最值得注意的問題。那就是認命,是對現實的完全肯定乃至於投降,是對權力以及贏家的絕對服從。假如那兩位年輕人所說的每一句都是真心話,那麼他們所接受的教育就可以說得上是十分完整了,與這次被修改的歷史教科書裏面所傳達的價值觀完全一致。

過去這麼多年,每次遇到和六四有關的爭議,不也有很多人告訴我們,要不是當年政府果斷,今天的中國又怎能成為全球第二大經濟體呢?每當有人批評中國共產黨幾十年前犯下的種種大錯,不也總是有人反駁,說今天的中國是全靠共產黨才能變得這麼有錢嗎?現在修改對於文革的認知,其背後的邏輯和上述這些說法是相當一貫的,乃過去二十多年來逐漸彌漫的主流價值觀。這種價值觀在某個意義上講,甚至是反價值的,因為它似乎要強調一切的是非對錯都是平等的,根本沒有絕對的錯誤,有的只是絕對的生死勝負,活下來就是對的,勝出了就是對的。兩個中學生能夠如此靈活運用這種「價值觀」,恰好說明這次教科書的修改,在整個教育之中只不過是水到渠成而已。

他們移民當然是為了生存,他們過去曾在公開場合表達自己的愛國,同樣也是為了生存。比起一本教科書上的一個章節,這種環境才是學生們的真正老師;比起不斷背誦「社會主義核心價值觀」的條目,這才是真正的德育教室。
essay  education  youth  opinion  chinese  today 
january 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:給「一部分」讀者的回覆

把一些黨政機構的通知和命令看作是一種「聲音」,然後將一些反對這些通知的民間意見看成是另一種不同的聲音,似乎要以此說明中國社會其實也是一個正常的多元現代社會,這是近幾年我在許多中國時局討論當中常常看到的思路。我非常懷疑,這樣子說話的人是不是太不懂得「國情」,把自己當成「外賓」了?
china  today  debate  government  society  expression  liberty  essay 
december 2017 by aries1988
« C’est devenu compliqué d’être un homme »

La drague, le flirt, la séduction obéissaient aux mêmes codes qui les avaient régis depuis la nuit des temps (approche, sourires, beaux habits, beaux discours, recherche du point de contact – physique, sentimental ou intellectuel) à la seule différence que le chemin vers l’arrivée (un baiser, une caresse) était sans doute plus bref.

J’ai en mémoire cette fameuse phrase de Roland Barthes à propos du langage dans sa leçon inaugurale au Collège de France (1977) : « Le fascisme, ce n’est pas d’empêcher de dire mais d’obliger de dire. » On en est là, non ?

J’attends à présent que mes petits-enfants grandissent pour les emmener au cinéma. Et si jamais James Bond doit envoyer deux SMS et trois e-mails pour obtenir le consentement d’une James Bond Girl, si Han Solo doit se mettre aux genoux de la princesse Leia pour un baiser, si Indiana Jones doit ranger son fouet, bref si on doit en arriver là, je leur passerai les DVD des vieux films. Vaillant et entêté, je résisterai sur mon petit îlot battu par les flots.
essay  france  usa  female  movement  movie  sex  sexism  opinion  censorship 
december 2017 by aries1988
来福:肆无忌惮的删帖时代,“谣言”才是抵达真相的途径?|一周精选|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
一天之内,发布消息的微信公众号遭到轮番删帖,微博热搜榜也被删去了与此事件相关的关键词。但屏蔽机制这次并没有太奏效,事件的热度接连暴涨,人们既为北京在寒冬里驱逐的外来“低端人口”鸣不平,又为京城里连城市中产的孩子都无法逃离魔掌而感到绝望(编注:该幼儿园的学费为5500元人民币/月)。

“底层”与“中产”,此刻才强烈意识到彼此是休戚与共的命运共同体。

问题在于,我们处在一个正常的社会吗?

在一个正常的社会,当家长发现了自己的孩子身上有针孔,从她的话里得知其在学校可能被陌生人脱光衣服后,一定会报警,警方会迅速介入,控制嫌疑人,启动侦查程序;之后检察院会介入,对案件进行审查起诉,再由法院进行公平裁决,无论嫌疑人有多大背景,司法程序都可以流畅运转;媒体当然也会介入全程,发布详实可信的调查报导;待到事件落幕,整个教育系统会有针对性地启动结构性改革,同时社会组织会推动未成年性教育,使其成为重要的社会议题。

文章在标题把红黄蓝幼儿园虐童事件(以下简称“红黄蓝”事件)和江歌案相提并论,但却不提为什么江歌案事件里几乎没有媒体和自媒体被删帖,而“红黄蓝”事件中,一开始发消息的媒体报导和公众号文章,几乎全都被屏蔽了。不把删帖这个因素考虑进去,单纯地将教科书里的传播学理论拿出来套用在事件上,才是真正的“失焦”。

江歌案可以被随意讨论,那是“人民内部矛盾”,你们怎么撕都无所谓;而这次的事件之所以要“全覆盖、无死角”地删帖,那是因为这已是人民与高墙间的“敌我矛盾”——我们只能这么解读,删帖的规则在“黑盒”里,无法被看到,只能从现象反推回去分析。

此类呼声,无论初心如何,实质上都模糊了问题的真正所在,也是删帖的源头之处。不讨论不受制约的权力,转而以“疑罪从无”的司法原则去谴责沸腾的民意,并以此为接近真相的方式,大概算是中国当代一大奇观。
opinion  essay  2017  beijing  scandal  children  kid  media  communication  academia 
november 2017 by aries1988
In the Tonnara
In these buildings, every scrap of the tuna was used, even the blood and the fat, just as my people butchered their hogs in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. The choice cuts are obvious, and the dried roe (bottarga) is especially prized, but in the tonnara, the fish’s entrails and offal also were salted or preserved in oil for various uses, and difficult portions such as the joints and buzzonaglia were accorded care. Even the lattume, the male Bluefin’s sac of seminal fluid, was kept for the table.

I was drawn again and again to the tonnare. Only now do I realize I was fatigued by the endless palazzi and cathedrals of the rich that one is pointed to in Italy. It was refreshing to encounter a place where typical people—workers—lived and made a living.

For all we romanticize the notion of “work” in America, and as much as the politicians shill for it, the daily life of a laborer is the first thing to slip the collective memory. Instead, our children are taken to visit the mansion, the cathedral, or the art museum where the dirty money was poured. The factories corrode. The roof falls in. The weather comes. I remember bored teenage friends throwing rocks at the high windows of Dalzell-Viking Glass—their people had surely worked there blowing glass, but no one had a sense that it was of any importance. I didn’t either, not at the time. I probably would have thrown a rock had I any athletic ability.
sicily  italia  factory  renovation  city  village  gentrification  local  life  region  essay  love  fish  sea 
october 2017 by aries1988
The tyranny of transparency | Privacy | spiked
Its undermining marks a significant shift in the values of the West. Although many chart the development of the idea of privacy from the Ancients onwards, drawing attention to Aristotle’s distinction between polis (political, public life) and oikos (domestic, family life), actually the importance we have long attached to it in liberal societies is largely a modern, post-Enlightenment achievement. That is, the idea of privacy as we understand it today developed as part of that broader struggle for liberty from the 16th century onwards, drawing initially on the deepening concept of private property, of every man’s home being his castle, and the calls for religious toleration and freedom of conscience, before then acquiring a moral and psychological dimension during the 19th and 20th centuries. By the time of John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty, written during the 1850s, the private sphere, a space in which the individual was free to think, to experiment and to pursue his life as he deemed fit, was clearly delimited and sacrosanct: a space into which the state was not to intrude, and over which majority opinion was not to dominate.

‘Behind closed doors’. It’s quite a turnaround. The closed door might once have represented the legitimate limit to the public’s gaze; now it’s an impediment to seeing what we, the public, need to see, a sign that something untoward could be happening, something sexually deviant, ideologically improper, politically incorrect, perhaps involving marital infidelity and olive oil, perhaps not.
freedom  privacy  opinion  essay 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter: Wednesday, September 6, 2017
Myanmar’s transition to democracy was ascribed to Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi’s heroism. Now its persecution of Rohingya is ascribed to her cowardice. Maybe she was always more a symptom of Myanmar’s best and worst than she was their cause.
myanmar  leader  hero  essay  howto  world  complexity 
september 2017 by aries1988
Against Murderism
As usual, the answer is that “racism” is a confusing word that serves as a mishmash of unlike concepts. Here are some of the definitions people use for racism: 1. Definition By Motives: An irrational feeling of hatred toward some race that causes someone to want to hurt or discriminate against them. 2. Definition By Belief: A belief that some race has negative qualities or is inferior, especially if this is innate/genetic. 3. Definition By Consequences: Anything whose consequence is harm to minorities or promotion of white supremacy, regardless of whether or not this is intentional.

Murder is an effect of other goals – sometimes base, sometimes noble – and the invocation of “murderism” only serves to hide these goals and conflate different actions into a single meaningless category.
politics  racism  debate  essay  idea  comparison  moi  question  toread 
august 2017 by aries1988
Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?
More comfortable in their bedrooms than in a car or at a party, today’s teens are physically safer than teens have ever been. They’re markedly less likely to get into a car accident and, having less of a taste for alcohol than their predecessors, are less susceptible to drinking’s attendant ills.

Gen X managed to stretch adolescence beyond all previous limits: Its members started becoming adults earlier and finished becoming adults later. Beginning with Millennials and continuing with iGen, adolescence is contracting again—but only because its onset is being delayed. Across a range of behaviors—drinking, dating, spending time unsupervised— 18-year-olds now act more like 15-year-olds used to, and 15-year-olds more like 13-year-olds. Childhood now stretches well into high school.
essay  teenager  generation  crisis  device  iphone  parenting  children  health  technology  2010s  moi  sociology  psychology 
august 2017 by aries1988
A Sociology of the Smartphone

we count on them to fill the dead spaces, the still moments and silences that used to occupy so much of our lives.

Most obviously, the smartphone replaced conventional telephones, leading to the widespread disappearance from streetscapes everywhere of that icon of midcentury urbanity, the telephone booth, and all the etiquettes of negotiated waiting and deconfliction that attended it. Where phone booths remain, they now act mostly as a platform for other kinds of services—WiFi connectivity, or ads for sex workers.

As a result, it’s already difficult to contemplate objects like a phone booth, a Filofax or a Palm Pilot without experiencing a shock of either reminiscence or perplexity, depending on the degree of our past acquaintance.

a rechargeable lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery capable of sustaining roughly 1,500 charging cycles. This will yield just about four years of use, given the need to charge the phone daily, though experience suggests that few of us will retain a given handset that long.

the performance of everyday life as mediated by the smartphone depends on a vast and elaborate infrastructure that is ordinarily invisible to us.

according to Google, four out of every five consumers use the map application to make local searches, half of those who do so wind up visiting a store within twenty-four hours, and one out of every five of these searches results in a conversion, or sale.

The only way to hide from that knowledge is to decouple ourselves from the fabric of connections that gives us everything else we are. And that is something we clearly find hard to do, for practical reasons as much as psychic ones: network connectivity now underwrites the achievement of virtually every other need on the Maslovian pyramid, to the extent that refugees recently arriving from warzones have been known to ask for a smartphone before anything else, food and shelter not excluded.
idea  essay  device  smartphone  life  change  technology  perception  today  world  opinion 
july 2017 by aries1988
Norbert Elias, sur le tard

Etrange paradoxe que celui qui entoure la vie et l'oeuvre de Norbert Elias. Le sociologue est aujourd'hui cité dans le monde entier. Son exposé du "processus de civilisation" est célébré comme l'une des plus fines analyses des sciences sociales du XXe siècle. Pourtant, l'homme a passé la plus grande partie de son existence à chercher, en vain, la reconnaissance de ses pairs pour ne la trouver qu'à l'âge où d'autres prennent tranquillement leur retraite.
france  deutsch  book  essay  sociology  civ 
july 2017 by aries1988
Andrew Sullivan: Why the Reactionary Right Must Be Taken Seriously
Reactionism is not the same thing as conservatism. It’s far more potent a brew. Reactionary thought begins, usually, with acute despair at the present moment and a memory of a previous golden age. It then posits a moment in the past when everything went to hell and proposes to turn things back to what they once were. It is not simply a conservative preference for things as they are, with a few nudges back, but a passionate loathing of the status quo and a desire to return to the past in one emotionally cathartic revolt.

Politics comes before economics, Anton insists. Free trade may boost our economy, encourage efficiencies, and advance innovation and wealth, but it affects different people differently. And this matters in a democracy. A society’s stability and fairness and unity count for more than its aggregate wealth — especially when, as in recent decades, almost all the direct benefits have gone to the superrich, and all the costs have been paid by the working poor.

Why is my country benefiting foreigners and new immigrants, many of them arriving illegally, while making life tougher for its own people? And why doesn’t it matter what I think?

A nation, they believe, is not just a random group of people within an arbitrary set of borders. It’s a product of a certain history and the repository of a distinctive culture. A citizen should be educated to understand that country’s history and take pride in its culture and traditions.

I read the Christian traditionalist Rod Dreher with affection. His evocation of Christian life and thought over the centuries and his panic at its disappearance from our world are poignant. We are losing a vast civilization that honed answers to the deepest questions that human beings can ask, replacing it with vapid pseudo-religions, pills, therapy, and reality TV.

Because in some key respects, reactionaries are right. Great leaps forward in history are often, in fact, giant leaps back. The Reformation did initiate brutal sectarian warfare. The French Revolution did degenerate into barbarous tyranny. Communist utopias — allegedly the wave of an Elysian future — turned into murderous nightmares. Modern neoliberalism has, for its part, created a global capitalist machine that is seemingly beyond anyone’s control, fast destroying the planet’s climate, wiping out vast tracts of life on Earth while consigning millions of Americans to economic stagnation and cultural despair.

Beyond all that, neo-reactionaries have a glaring problem, which is that their proposed solutions are so radical they have no chance whatsoever of coming into existence — and would be deeply reckless to attempt.

There is, perhaps, a way to use reactionary insights and still construct a feasible center-right agenda. Such a program would junk Reaganite economics as outdated but keep revenue-neutral tax reform, it could even favor redistribution to counter the deep risk to democracy that soaring inequality fosters, and it could fix Obamacare’s technical problems. You could add to this mix stronger border control, a reduction in legal immigration, a pause in free-trade expansion, a technological overhaul of the government bureaucracy, and a reassertion of Americanism over multiculturalism.

The left, for its part, must, it seems to me, escape its own bubble and confront the accelerating extremism of its identity politics and its disdain for millions of “deplorable” white Americans.
thinking  essay  politics  conservatism  liberal  conflict  immigration  american  usa  2017 
may 2017 by aries1988
If Animals Have Rights, Should Robots?

In a paper, she names three factors: physicality (the object exists in our space, not onscreen), perceived autonomous movement (the object travels as if with a mind of its own), and social behavior (the robot is programmed to mimic human-type cues).

The problem with torturing a robot, in other words, has nothing to do with what a robot is, and everything to do with what we fear most in ourselves.
right  robot  animal  human  essay  debate 
november 2016 by aries1988
Joel Mokyr: Progress Isn't Natural - The Atlantic
How and why did the modern world and its unprecedented prosperity begin? Many bookshelves are full of learned tomes by historians, economists, political philosophers and other erudite scholars with endless explanations. One way of looking at the question is by examining something basic, and arguably essential: the emergence of a belief in the usefulness of progress.

This was a departure from the beliefs of most societies in the past, which were usually given to some measure of “ancestor worship”—the belief that all wisdom had been revealed to earlier sages and that to learn anything one should peruse their writings and find the answer in their pages.
essay  human  history  technology  science  knowledge  development 
november 2016 by aries1988
梁文道:從遊客到中國

任何「國情說」的預設,多半都離不開相對主義的討論,也就是說你不能外在地用一把尺子衡量所有國家、文化和社會的情形,必須從內部出發,看看那些國家、文化與社會自己對事情的想法以及評斷標準。

中國別有自己一套言行規範的話;我們在此所說的「中國」,究竟是哪一個「中國」呢?不論它是《詩經》裏的中國,還是《環球時報》的中國,它在這類說法當中都應該能承擔起一個價值原點的作用,有一套規範系統和邏輯,於是才可以用來支撐所有人我之別的說法,使得我在說「我和你不一樣,不要拿你那套來看我」這句話時理直氣壯。然而,當前各種「國情說」後頭真有這麼一個能夠說得上是價值源泉的「中國」嗎?
china  tourist  essay  image  world  today 
november 2016 by aries1988
Andrew Sullivan: My Distraction Sickness — and Yours

At your desk at work, or at home on your laptop, you disappeared down a rabbit hole of links and resurfaced minutes (or hours) later to reencounter the world. But the smartphone then went and made the rabbit hole portable, inviting us to get lost in it anywhere, at any time, whatever else we might be doing. Information soon penetrated every waking moment of our lives.

My breathing slowed. My brain settled. My body became much more available to me. I could feel it digesting and sniffing, itching and pulsating. It was if my brain were moving away from the abstract and the distant toward the tangible and the near.

Remember, my friend Sam Harris, an atheist meditator, had told me before I left, if you’re suffering, you’re thinking.

If you’re watching a football game with your son while also texting a friend, you’re not fully with your child — and he knows it. Truly being with another person means being experientially with them, picking up countless tiny signals from the eyes and voice and body language and context, and reacting, often unconsciously, to every nuance. These are our deepest social skills, which have been honed through the aeons. They are what make us distinctively human.

in a controlled and sequestered world that exists largely free of the sudden eruptions or encumbrances of actual human interaction.

The reason we live in a culture increasingly without faith is not because science has somehow disproved the unprovable, but because the white noise of secularism has removed the very stillness in which it might endure or be reborn.

From the moment I entered a church in my childhood, I understood that this place was different because it was so quiet.

this silence demarcated what we once understood as the sacred, marking a space beyond the secular world of noise and business and shopping.

The only place like it was the library, and the silence there also pointed to something beyond it — to the learning that required time and patience, to the pursuit of truth that left practical life behind.

Has our enslavement to dopamine — to the instant hits of validation that come with a well-crafted tweet or Snapchat streak — made us happier?

just as modern street lighting has slowly blotted the stars from the visible skies, so too have cars and planes and factories and flickering digital screens combined to rob us of a silence that was previously regarded as integral to the health of the human imagination.
technology  culture  internet  meditation  distraction  essay  attention  habit  reading  information  brain  silence  thinking  family  today 
september 2016 by aries1988
Jason Bourne vs James Bond
Matt Damon, the 45-year-old actor who plays him, summed up the difference between the two men in a recent interview. “Bond is a misogynist who likes swilling martinis and killing people and then telling jokes about it. Jason Bourne is a serial monogamist — he’s tortured by the things he’s done and feels empathy and compassion for other people. And Bourne would obviously win in a fight!” Obviously.
essay  movie  hero  masculine  comparison  uk  usa  spy  female 
september 2016 by aries1988
为什么我不喜欢学术圈子-刘瑜-财新博客-新世纪的常识传播者-财新网
“名校文科博士”这个名号,大约可以说明一个人英语水平不太烂(总得把 GRE考过而且成绩靠谱吧),它还可以说明一个人比较坚强(考了这么多年的各种变态试仍然没有跨掉),以及懒得不离谱(好歹得码完各种作业以及毕业论文才让毕业),仅此而已了。
essay  academia 
august 2016 by aries1988
How Helicopter Parenting Can Cause Binge Drinking
We didn’t need much help from our parents to do those things. Which meant that at night, we were free. And we did many dangerous things. Mothers were not yet against drunk driving; cheerful ladies did not give you condoms at school. It wasn’t an arcadia, and many times things went terribly wrong. But most of us survived.

Today, of course, all of that is different: Professional-class parents and their children are tightly bound to each other in the relentless pursuit of admission to a fancy college. A kid on that track can’t really separate from her parents, as their close involvement in this shared goal is essential. Replicating the social class across a generation is a joint project.

A teenager growing up in one of the success factories—the exceptional public high school in the fancy zip code, the prestigious private school—will oftentimes be a person whose life is composed of extremes: extreme studying, extreme athletics, extreme extracurricular pursuits, and extreme drinking. Binge drinking slots in neatly with the other, more obviously enhancing endeavors.

A binge drinker emerges from college both elevated and coarsened: educated enough to compete in the market and sullied enough by the hard knocks of binge drinking that he won’t be too shocked by what he finds there.

make too much consciousness hard for anyone to take.
essay  drinking  university  usa  parents  parenting  choice  debate  opinion  history  culture  sports  society  college 
august 2016 by aries1988
对于“废柴”巴西的想象和误解:与其互黑,不如共情_文化课_澎湃新闻-The Paper
葡萄牙是在荷兰与法国明确表达出对那块肥沃殖民地的觊觎之后,才真正开始了殖民巴西。他们派出了军队,赶跑了荷兰人,确认了对巴西的绝对统治。我有不少中国知识界的朋友,对于荷兰没有成功占领巴西一事耿耿于怀,觉得如果宗主国不是葡萄牙这个天主教废柴,而是荷兰这个发达的新教国家,那么以巴西的先天条件,何愁不混个第一世界国家当当?他们深深地为巴西遗憾、委屈,就像许子东老师一样。

在《巴西之根》中,他详细地对比了葡萄牙与荷兰人之间的差异。荷兰人打北方来,喜寒怕热,热爱秩序,到哪儿都要建个整洁干净的城市,给自己人住,特别不爱下乡,尤其不跟土著妇女乱搞。葡萄牙人从温暖的南欧来,对热带的气候比较适应,性格也不是那样龟毛,吊床上也能睡睡。葡萄牙本土等级制并不森严,再加上高门大户的都不来巴西,所以来巴西的这批人也没什么门户之见,跟土著妇女通婚也不是什么大事。这样,才能孕育出一个新的种族,成为了未来巴西的基础。

我也一点儿不觉得遗憾,因为如果荷兰真的占领了巴西,那么巴西今天就成了南非。现实如此打脸,我真不愿提醒那些善心人。

各种来源的文化要素,交融在一起,形成了多元共生的奇观。这当然是伟大的贡献,并不逊于希腊的光荣、罗马的成就、英伦的保守主义、法兰西的自由平等博爱,尤其是对于当下的世界。
essay  brazil  portugal  history  nation  zeitgeist  olympics  2016  comparison  chinese  perception  today  intelligentsia  netherlands  success  cliche 
august 2016 by aries1988
What makes train travel such an antidote to life’s stresses? | Aeon Essays
trains blurred the line between public and private. ‘Train travel requires people to do private things in public,’

And what’s fascinating about it is the possibility of being able to observe strangers. For women in particular who don’t have a lot of geographic mobility in urban spaces, riding on a train is as close as they can get to that flâneur experience of urban life – where you can sit and you can watch people and you can eavesdrop on conversations.’

When, several years ago, I returned to Russia after a long absence, I booked a 24-hour train journey for myself and my eight-year-old daughter from St Petersburg to Odessa in Ukraine. I wanted her to experience what I remembered: a whole day together, an uninterrupted passage of hours filled with books and conversations, an opportunity to spend time entirely on ourselves, by ourselves, and with ourselves.

Just like my mother more than 30 years earlier, I packed boiled eggs, tomatoes, cucumbers, bread, cheese and apples. We ate all three meals together without television, telephone or the internet. When the conductor brought tea – much like I remembered from the Sochi express times, with two cubes of sugar, in a classic railway cup – we drank it with sweets we bought at an intermediate stop, looked out of the window, and talked.
essay  train  travel  transport  story  russia  family  nostalgia  history  people  female 
july 2016 by aries1988
Jason Bourne vs James Bond - FT.com
https://www.instapaper.com/read/751278094
Matt Damon, the 45-year-old actor who plays him, summed up the difference between the two men in a recent interview. “Bond is a misogynist who likes swilling martinis and killing people and then telling jokes about it. Jason Bourne is a serial monogamist — he’s tortured by the things he’s done and feels empathy and compassion for other people. And Bourne would obviously win in a fight!” Obviously.
essay  movie  hero  masculine  comparison  uk  usa  spy  female  hollywood  british  american  manliness  story  world  instapaper_favs 
july 2016 by aries1988
From Pokémon Red to Pokémon Go, How Nintendo's Video Game Franchise Captured the Experience of Leaving Home - The Atlantic
The original Pokémon (first released for the Game Boy in 1996) is a bildungsroman, or coming-of-age-story, disguised as a bug-collecting challenge.

It works because it captures the original game’s spirit of exploration, even if its players said goodbye to their childhood home years ago.

The way Tajiri describes his childhood in that interview alludes to the game’s bildungsroman quality, that of a child learning about the world around him by physically grappling with it. “If I put my hand in the river, I would get a crayfish. If there was a stick over a hole, it would create an air bubble and I'd find insects there,” he said. “In Japan, a lot of kids like to go out and catch beetles by putting honey on a piece of tree bark. My idea was to put a stone under a tree, because they slept during the day and like sleeping under stones. So in the morning I'd go pick up the stone and find them. Tiny discoveries like that made me excited.”

it’s still managed to turn its fans into a nation of Dr. Bugs, even if we aren’t turning over stones or baiting trees with honey. At its best, it can evoke a little wonder in the mundane world around us—or force us to realize the world we live in was never mundane in the first place.
game  children  iOS  animal  insect  discovery  nature  nostalgia  city  essay  neighborhood 
july 2016 by aries1988
How disgust made humans cooperate to build civilisations | Aeon Essays
I tell my class: as a heterosexual male, it’s not as if I won’t be disgusted if you show me pictures of certain sexual acts between two males. The task for me is to say: what the hell does this have to do with my ethical beliefs? I tell them, the thought of two very ugly people having sex also revolts me, but that does not lead me to consider legislating against ugly people having sex.

People who are reminded of the threat of infectious disease are more inclined to espouse conventional values and express greater disdain for anyone who violates societal norms. Disease cues might even make us more favourably disposed toward religion. In one study, participants exposed to a noxious odour were subsequently more likely to endorse biblical truth than those not subjected to the polluted air.
essay  human 
june 2016 by aries1988
The language of the cockpit is technical, obscure – and irresistibly romantic – Mark Vanhoenacker | Aeon Essays

For example, we’re instructed to pronounce three as ‘TREE’ and nine as ‘NINER’, and 25,000 as ‘two-five thousand’ (more specifically, ‘TOO FIFE TOUSAND’), not ‘twenty-five thousand’, because experience has shown that these modified pronunciations are less likely to be misunderstood.

Though Aeroese has predominantly English roots, a handful of common meteorological abbreviations have French origins (as do the words fuselage and aileron, of course). BR is Mist (brouillard) GR is Hail (grêle); HN is Sunset to Sunrise (horaire de nuit). MI is Shallow (a usage derived from mince) and BC is Patches (from bancs). I used some of these for years and never once wondered where they came from, until I researched them for my book.

aircraft? Why, that’s ‘any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the Earth’s surface’. In a heavens-transiting industry, angels are ‘an echo caused by physical phenomena not discernible to the eye… sometimes attributed to insects or birds flying in the radar beam’.

Terrain is important, but it sounds obvious, so much so that I never thought about how to define it: ‘the continuous surface that exists at the bare earth, the top of the [forest] canopy or something in-between, also known as the first reflective surface’.

Before I was either a pilot or a writer, I was a teenager whose obsessions, aside from airplanes, included browsing dictionaries, encyclopaedias and atlases, and staring at samples of languages that I’d never heard of, let alone studied. In my late 20s, when I finally started training to become a pilot, I was happy to realise how fascinating the sky is for anyone who loves words.

There are exceptions – places where controllers may speak to local pilots in a shared first language. This often occurs in France, for example, when a French pilot arrives in French skies. It also occurs when longhaul French pilots cross the aerial borders into the administrative airspace region of the Canadian sky known as Montréal. But every airline pilot flying internationally can speak English, and usually does.
essay  flight  aviation  metier  plane  language  world  travel 
june 2016 by aries1988
Edge People
Undergraduates today can select from a swathe of identity studies: gender studies, women’s studies, Asian-Pacific-American studies, and dozens of others. The shortcoming of all these para-academic programs is not that they concentrate on a given ethnic or geographical minority; it is that they encourage members of that minority to study themselves—thereby simultaneously negating the goals of a liberal education and reinforcing the sectarian and ghetto mentalities they purport to undermine. All too frequently, such programs are job-creation schemes for their incumbents, and outside interest is actively discouraged. Blacks study blacks, gays study gays, and so forth.

I prefer the edge: the place where countries, communities, allegiances, affinities, and roots bump uncomfortably up against one another—where cosmopolitanism is not so much an identity as the normal condition of life.

If identification with a community of origin was fundamental to my sense of self, I would perhaps hesitate before criticizing Israel—the Jewish State, my people—so roundly. Intellectuals with a more developed sense of organic affiliation instinctively self-censor: they think twice before washing dirty linen in public.
thinking  essay  identity  nation  intelligentsia 
may 2016 by aries1988
Atomic Bomb Victims Stand Alone
TOKYO — This newspaper’s recent obituary for Theodore Van Kirk, the last living crew member of the Enola Gay — the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on…
essay  ww2  japan  death  victim 
march 2016 by aries1988
Why Am I Obsessed With a Cellphone Game About Collecting Cats?
Where does the appeal of Neko Atsume: Kitty Collector lie — in the history of Japanese art, or the strange nature of the cat?
game  cat  essay  japanese 
february 2016 by aries1988
Moon Launch Was Man's Shining Hour
I found myself waving to the rocket involuntarily, I heard people applauding and joined them, grasping our common motive; it was impossible to watch passively, one had to express, by some physical action, a feeling that was not triumph, but more the feeling that that white object's unobstructed streak of motion was the only thing that mattered in the universe.
essay  human  space 
december 2015 by aries1988
Sailing the seas of global trade: From China to Europe on a cargo ship
If we read novels to understand life better, reading Conrad can help us understand globalized life better. He explores what it’s like to be out of place and to deal with difference, how to act when you are constrained by systems bigger than you, and how to make choices when every moral issue appears in shades of gray. His prophetic ability to speak to current concerns has helped make him one of the most influential English-language authors since Shakespeare, provoking and inspiring writers from Chinua Achebe to Mario Vargas Llosa to V.S. Naipaul to Ann Patchett to W.G. Sebald.

And though I hope to emulate the high-minded activities of travelers past by reading and writing while at sea, I’ve also equipped myself with lighter fare: New York Times crossword puzzles, the last three months of The New Yorker and the first three seasons of “Breaking Bad.” I also have a satellite phone, which I’ll be using to send dispatches from the ship. Till the ship comes in, I’m turning my scavenger hunt into a search for Hong Kong’s best dim sum. Reader suggestions welcome!

While networks of shopping malls form polished retail cities with about as much local feel as a major international airport, lanes of street-facing shops and stalls provide cheaper, more colorful commerce. In a single neighborhood you can walk past medicine shops jammed with jars of pale, bulbous curatives and bundles of healing twigs; electronics stores stuffed with Japanese camera lenses; tea sellers whose fat, wheel-shaped parcels cast a smoky aroma over the sidewalk; vendors of suitcases, fish sauces, cell-phone cases and a menagerie of plastic, fluffy, fluorescent, battery-operated creatures, the monstrous offspring of generations of inbred cartoon characters.

Two hundred years ago, in what must have been the first guidebook for British travelers to Asia, “The East India Vade-Mecum” counseled sea voyagers to take a washbasin, a chamber pot, a pound of tea, five pounds of sugar, soap that could be dissolved in salt water and both a horsehair and a feather pillow — the latter for cold weather and the former for hot. Passengers added diversions to help pass the time: backgammon sets, concertinas, playing cards. Imperial civil servants used their weeks at sea to study Asian languages or to undertake courses of edifying reading.

Although I have most of what I think I need, I have spent my extra time here in search of a clutch of final items: a cheap duffel bag, some ginger tea and a shortwave radio. It’s a self-imposed scavenger hunt, and what better place for a scavenger hunt than Hong Kong?

Your best bet is to get the entire crew to hide out in a designated safe room called the citadel. If pirates can’t find anybody to take hostage, the captain told me, then they’ll usually leave in a matter of hours. He took me to see the citadel. I won’t reveal its location, for safety reasons, but I will say that being inside was about what I’d imagine it would feel like to be locked in a bank vault. A set of utility shelves holds two days’ worth of bottled water and emergency food rations, a stack of inflatable mattresses with air pumps, a chemical toilet in a box and several dozen rolls of toilet paper. There’s a set of small folding tables. There’s also, critically, a satellite phone, with emergency phone numbers posted next to it — though this arrived a year after everything else.

That’s the official side. Then there are the cigarettes. Every one of these men receives a “gift” of cigarette cartons, according to an informally established tariff. By convention, the first pilot gets one carton; the second set of pilots gets two each; the third set asks for three but gets only two. The boatman, electrician and agent also leave stocked with nicotine. They all prefer Marlboro Gold to Red and don’t like the packages that have gruesome pictures of cancerous lungs — but they’ll take what they get. Our passage costs 12 or 13 cartons of cigarettes. “But that’s nothing,” says the captain, compared with some transactions in China, where 30 cartons are the norm (at least until recent crackdowns on corruption).
CMA-CGM  ocean  ship  hongkong  français  essay  travel  instapaper_favs 
november 2015 by aries1988
The Russia I Miss - NYTimes.com
That was because Russian culture had an unmatched intensity. It was often said that Russian thinkers addressed universal questions in their most extreme and illuminating forms.
culture  russia  opinion  essay 
september 2015 by aries1988
北海道纪行(一)
在Alan Booth的游记《千里走日本》中,他说到自己在北海道时的偶遇:一位当地的老爹说,东京不能代表日本,住在东京,无法了解日本、光看还是无法了解日本、就算你走过全日本,还是无法了解日本、就算你和各种人谈过话,还是无法了解日本,他最后只能反问:那如何才能了解日本?老爹答:你无法了解日本。
hokkaido  tourist  essay 
august 2015 by aries1988
Oliver Sacks: My Periodic Table - NYTimes.com
I LOOK forward eagerly, almost greedily, to the weekly arrival of journals like Nature and Science, and turn at once to articles on the physical sciences — not,…
death  essay 
july 2015 by aries1988
Alex Garland of ‘Ex Machina’ Talks About Artificial Intelligence

But there is a mistake here. The machines in question are not strong A.I.’s. They are weak. They have no motivation, no intention; they’re neutral. The thing with an agenda is us: consumers, who want to buy the machines, and manufacturers, who want to sell them. And looming over both, giant tech companies, whose growth only ever seems to be exponential, whose practices are opaque, and whose power is both massive and without true oversight. Combine all this with government surveillance and lotus-eating public acquiescence, and it’s not the machine component that scares me. It’s the human component.
movie  ai  future  human  society  industry  essay 
april 2015 by aries1988
Running the New York City Marathon at Age 60

Oh, to be able to run one mile as fast and elegantly as Haile. Not in this lifetime. Sometimes it seems every part of my body is going in a different direction, everything squishing about like water in a balloon.
run  aging  newyork  american  story  humor  essay  life  hobby  sports  elders 
april 2015 by aries1988
Oliver Sacks on Learning He Has Terminal Cancer
I feel a sudden clear focus and perspective. There is no time for anything inessential. I must focus on myself, my work and my friends. I shall no longer look at “NewsHour” every night. I shall no longer pay any attention to politics or arguments about global warming.

This is not indifference but detachment — I still care deeply about the Middle East, about global warming, about growing inequality, but these are no longer my business; they belong to the future. I rejoice when I meet gifted young people — even the one who biopsied and diagnosed my metastases. I feel the future is in good hands.
essay  death  fear  life  temoignage 
february 2015 by aries1988
水木社区: 那些年,我在北京有过的“家”
那些年,我在北京有过的“家”     作为一个正宗的北漂,我曾经在北京很多区域活动过。隐约记得那个时候最羡慕的就是别人家里暖暖的生活氛围,晚餐饭菜的香气,家人们叽叽喳喳的聊天或是抱怨,混杂在或浓或淡的暮色中,撩拨着我酸溜溜的思乡情绪。
life  beijing  story  youth  essay 
january 2015 by aries1988
Why We Need the Winter Solstice
Night was once the only thing that put the human agenda on hold.
essay  night 
december 2014 by aries1988
A Man and His Cat - NYTimes.com
Biologists call cats “exploitive captives,” an evocative phrase that might be used to describe a lot of relationships, not all of them interspecies. I made the mistake, early on, of feeding the cat first thing in the morning, forgetting that the cat could control when I woke up — by meowing politely, sitting on my chest and staring at me, nudging me insistently with her face, or placing a single claw on my lip. She refused to drink water from a bowl, coveting what she believed was the superior-quality water I drank from a glass. I attempted to demonstrate to the cat that the water we drank was the very same water by pouring it from my glass into her bowl right in front of her, but she was utterly unmoved, like a birther being shown Obama’s long-form Hawaiian birth certificate. In the end I gave in and began serving her water in a glass tumbler, which she had to stick her whole face into to drink from.

What our mass spending on products to pamper animals who seem happiest while rolling in feces or eating the guts out of rodents — who don’t, in fact, seem significantly less happy if they lose half their limbs — tells us about ourselves as a nation is probably also something we don’t want to know.

WHENEVER I felt embarrassed about factoring a house pet’s desires into major life decisions, some grown-up-sounding part of me told myself, it’s just a cat. It’s generally believed that animals lack what we call consciousness, although we can’t quite agree on what exactly this is, and how we can pretend to any certainty about what goes on in an animal’s head has never been made clear to me. To anyone who has spent time with an animal, the notion that they have no interior lives seems so counterintuitive, such an obdurate denial of the empathetically self-evident, as to be almost psychotic. I suspect that some of those same psychological mechanisms must have allowed people to rationalize owning other people.

We don’t know what goes on inside an animal’s head; we may doubt whether they have anything we’d call consciousness, and we can’t know how much they understand or what their emotions feel like. I will never know what, if anything, the cat thought of me. But I can tell you this: A man who is in a room with a cat — whatever else we might say about that man — is not alone.
pet  animal  people  life  story  best  essay  cat  love 
september 2014 by aries1988
If you can't choose wisely, pick at random – Michael Schulson – Aeon

Around the same time that Michael Dove was pondering his riddle in a Kantu’ longhouse, activists and political scientists were beginning to revive the idea of filling certain political positions by lottery, a process known as sortition.

to recognise that the judging process is already subjective and always will be. Had a different panel of 12 judges been chosen for the competition, the result would have varied, too. The ISU system simply makes that subjectivity more apparent, even as it reduces the likelihood that certain obviously bad influences, such as corruption, will affect the final result.

Something, somewhere, is always playing dice

Devoid of any guiding mind, it is subject to neither blame nor regret. Inhuman, it can act as a blank surface on which to descry the churning of fate or the work of divine hands. Chance distributes resources and judges disputes with perfect equanimity.
from:rss  essay  randomness  life  strategy  decision  rational  education  concours  uncertainty  idea 
july 2014 by aries1988
汉字、国家与天下
由于汉语以单音节为主,同音字的数量太多,所以汉字的发展走向了表意的道路,着重字形构义,以免同音字造成误会与不便,这种特征和语音辨义的拼音文字大异其趣,开发了拼音文字所不具备的视像世界。

至于中国,白话文运动和国语运动更是民族国家建立计划的一部分。可别忘了,自清末开始,“中国不算是一个国家”和“中国人是一盘散沙”的哀叹就已渐成共识。要让中国人团结起来,语言统一是极其必要的;要让中国人没有内在的区隔,把本属士绅阶层的书写能力交还给大众,也是不可避免的。白话文的推行,汉字的改革,以及标准普通话的成立,全是中国建成民族国家的核心工程。
chinese  language  writing  history  essay  nation  change  mandarin  instapaper_favs 
march 2014 by aries1988
夜色
每当此时,我都感到有一种特殊的爱意或者悲怆,或者一种别的什么宏大庄严的史诗般的情感,这大于我的理解力、也大于实际需要的情感从小腹上升,蔓延全身,皮肤起了鸡皮疙瘩,仿佛过去、未来和现在汇成一片巨大的洋流吞没了我,使我想要扑倒在什么上面放身大哭。但也许只是因为到晚饭时间了,肚子空空。最基本的身体需要和因心理需求而被诗化了的感受,这两者界限模糊,我们很难辨别。
city  life  essay  from:rss 
february 2014 by aries1988
How to be a smarter reader
"What great writers do is to turn you into the writer," explained one researcher. "In literary fiction, the incompleteness of the characters turns your mind to trying to understand the minds of others."
reading  howto  essay  opinion 
february 2014 by aries1988
一个没有性魅力的人,做什么事都不会成功
没人想和一具僵硬、胆怯、充满抵抗的身体做爱。那么我们想和什么样的身体做爱?人类数千年的文化艺术作品为我们提供了无数香艳的可视档案,象征画派莫罗描摹的在希律王面前跳舞的莎乐美、法国洛可可画家布歇尔笔下骄纵可爱的小贵妇、安格尔画笔下散发着奶味体香的大宫女、沃特豪斯画作中诱惑水手的海妖塞壬……或者当你直接面对那些描绘罗马人集体沐浴、全称狂欢的画作,直接就是一部古典主义版本的情色A片,画面中充溢着丰乳肥臀、肤若凝脂、自信与娇羞于一体的古代女人们,提醒着我们那是一个淫荡和纯真没有什么区别的时代。

在错误的教育与道德认知的限制之下,人群中的“性呆板”、“性僵硬”、“性冷淡”、比比皆是,在大多数情形之下,这是一个女性的命题。女孩一般都会受家庭以及社会观念影响而或多或少地限制了本身便该有的天然的性的吸引力,不懂得如何正确而快乐地使用它,从而使自己的人生缺乏了一种巨大的乐趣。而乐趣还只是其次,导致我们举手投足是否能呈现出强大气场,常常隐藏于一种难以言说的“吸引力”之中——那就是来自于力比多的魔力。当一个人从自己的身体开始,到自己的灵魂都能够刻骨热爱,毫不掩饰的时候,他(她)便具备了一种胜利意志的暗示,他(她)就算天生不美,却爱自己的每一寸肌肤,相信自己内在的巨大能量,谁会不爱他(她)呢?那便是一个所向披靡的人。
essay  sex  life  human  mind  success  self 
november 2013 by aries1988
What Our Telescopes Couldn't See - NYTimes.com
I left the world of professional astronomy some time ago. In the years since, I have often thought of how astronomy is seen as a benign, unbiased science. Its sole function is to increase our understanding of how the universe works: astronomers receive and record, but they do not experiment or perturb. They are not tainted by any application to, say, energy development or military technologies. Astronomy is, essentially, a passive science.

I remember realizing when I was a student that I could make a measurement of an object in the sky, and how extraordinary that felt to me, as if it were a way of reaching out and connecting with something so far away. But maybe I found distant galaxies easier to understand than the people around me, and I wonder if my work became a substitute for any true connection. I still look to the edge of the universe, but I try to remember always to keep one eye focused here on earth.
essay  astro  human  science  society  politics  telescope  astronomy  life  americas 
september 2013 by aries1988
张承志:「最终为之迷恋的地方」
摘要:弗朗哥的法西斯主义,主张唯一的天主教、唯一的西班牙语(其实是卡斯蒂利亚语)、主张彻底消灭共产党人和无政府主义者、主张大西班牙主义。所以等到弗朗哥一命呜呼,西班牙迎来了民主化,半岛上每一个角落的语言都立即复苏了。在巴斯克甚至出现了铁血的分离主义,大名鼎鼎的ETA数十年一日用炸弹和手枪,搅得西班牙狼狈不堪。法西斯主义招致了全面的报复
espagna  essay  history  muslim 
august 2013 by aries1988
所谓亲情
现在,我过着想象中自由而闯荡的生活,却发现把两个最爱的人留在了原地。有时候,真的只想做个没出息的人,整天赖在家,烦着爸妈。是谁说,再大的出息,敌得过父母新添的一道皱纹,一缕白发? 龙应台说,所谓父女母子一场,只不过意味着,你和他的缘分就是今生今世不断地在目送他的背影渐行渐远。高中的时候读到这里,觉得很有意境很有感觉;今天,它却真实得让我不忍直视。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/351579483
youth  essay  parents 
january 2013 by aries1988
The Way We Read Now - NYTimes.com
You can’t read an e-book in the tub. You can’t fling one across the room, aiming, as Mark Twain liked to do, at a cat. And e-books will not furnish a room. Writing in The Times in 1991, Anna Quindlen declared, “I would be most content if my children grew up to be the kind of people who think decorating consists mostly of building enough bookshelves.” I am so down with that. But it’s the mental furniture that matters. http://www.instapaper.com/read/335276318
instapaper_favs  essay  kindle  ebook  future  showcase  reading 
december 2012 by aries1988
我和爸爸的便当盒
「ぼくとお父さんのおべんとうばこ」 - 绯山的日志 - 网易博客
http://www.instapaper.com/read/256410857
essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
吴念真:思念 「读书马上」
孩子忽然安静下来,然后用力地、不断地摇着头,但爸爸看到他的眼睛慢慢冒出不知忍了多久的眼泪。他用力地抱着爸爸的腰,把脸贴在爸爸的胸口上,忘情地号啕大哭起来,而手指依然紧捏着那几条正映着夕阳的余光在微风里轻轻飘动的发丝。 http://www.instapaper.com/read/218495302
essay  children  love 
august 2012 by aries1988
时间与城市:北京时间•迷失在家门口
20多年前的北京,午后仿佛有人按了“停止”键,胡同里大多数人都在睡午觉 ,只有知了叫个不停。如今,北京在时间 维 度上四分五裂 ,中关村像泡沫时代的日本,朝阳区CBD与纽约曼哈顿无异,南城却又像新疆。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/345325532
life  nostalgia  beijing  essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
情书 » 那些剩下的东西
文/刘瑜 插画/晁春彬 我不怎么喜欢《活着》这部电影,虽然据说它得过很多大奖,赢得过无数热泪。 因为我没法理解为什么“活着”本身是最高价值。电影里的人物,都好像从不追问他们所置身的时代的对错,只是默默
essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
烧梦 「读书马上」
因为是坐在下层,车窗太低,视线常常是贴着站台的地皮,觉得火车开得尤其的快,从东京到仙台只用两个多小时,时速两百多公里的新干线子弹头列车,带着我们一头扎进沉沉的夜幕。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/218495346
japan  essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
烟花 | 读书马上
在西方,喜庆的时候喝香檳,国庆时烟花加香檳。香檳是法国人的骄傲,银色的气泡给伏尔泰带来这样的灵感:「这泛霜的酒光华闪烁的气泡,是我们法国人灿烂的形象。」我比伏尔泰更加骄傲,烟花是我们祖先以充沛原创力精心製作,送给人类的礼物──「欢乐」从此由心中释放出来,现身於天际,啊!原来它是如此华美灿烂,稍纵即逝。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/214489115
essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
舌尖上的无知与尊重
那是食物,那是家,那是我们的朋友,那是我们的爱人,是我们头顶的天,是我们热爱的这片土地。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/346402420
food  china  essay 
august 2012 by aries1988
« earlier      
per page:    204080120160

Copy this bookmark:





to read