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aries1988 : ethic   27

中国人的公平观:表面追求大公无私 私下热爱厚黑学
这种历史上轮番争夺帝位的事件在日本的思维模式中却很难,因为A 的对立面不是非A ,而是B ,因此A 只能做自己的事,不能去想B 的事,A 也不能去占有属于B 的东西,这或许是日本天皇可以保留,实行君主制的逻辑根源。
theory  book  chinese  culture  thinking  comparison  concept  private  collective  justice  ethic 
september 2018 by aries1988
Who Killed More: Hitler, Stalin, or Mao? | by Ian Johnson | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books

Their most prominent spokesperson is Sun Jingxian, a mathematician at Shandong University and Jiangsu Normal University. He attributes changes in China’s population during this period as due to faulty statistics, changes in how households were registered, and a series of other obfuscatory factors. His conclusion: famine killed only 3.66 million people. This contradicts almost every other serious effort at accounting for the effects of Mao’s changes.

According to Chang, Mao was responsible for 70 million deaths in peacetime—more than any other twentieth-century leader.

The peacetime adjective is significant because it gets Hitler out of the picture. But is starting a war of aggression less of a crime than launching economic policies that cause a famine?

How, finally, does Mao’s record compare to those of Hitler or Stalin? Snyder estimates that Hitler was responsible for between 11 million and 12 million noncombatant deaths, while Stalin was responsible for at least 6 million, and as many as 9 million if foreseeable deaths caused by deportation, starvation, and incarceration in concentration camps are included.

If one includes the combatant deaths, and the deaths due to war-related famine and disease, the numbers shoot up astronomically. The Soviet Union suffered upward of 8 million combatant deaths and many more due to famine and disease—perhaps about 20 million.

As for Hitler, should his deaths include the hundreds of thousands who died in the aerial bombardments of Germans cities? After all, it was his decision to strip German cities of anti-aircraft batteries to replace lost artillery following the debacle at Stalingrad.

Mao didn’t order people to their deaths in the same way that Hitler did, so it’s fair to say that Mao’s famine deaths were not genocide—in contrast, arguably, to Stalin’s Holodomor in the Ukraine, the terror-famine described by journalist and historian Anne Applebaum in Red Famine (2017). One can argue that by closing down discussion in 1959, Mao sealed the fate of tens of millions, but almost every legal system in the world recognizes the difference between murder in the first degree and manslaughter or negligence. Shouldn’t the same standards apply to dictators?

By contrast, Mao himself and his successors have always realized that he was both China’s Lenin and its Stalin.

In Xi’s way of looking at China, the country had roughly thirty years of Maoism and thirty years of Deng Xiaoping’s economic liberalization and rapid growth. Xi has warned that neither era can negate the other; they are inseparable.
comparison  dictator  leader  china  soviet  nazi  history  today  death  disaster  famine  numbers  research  narrative  mao  debate  ethic 
february 2018 by aries1988
If your pay is not yours to keep, then neither is the tax – Philip Goff | Aeon Essays

Here’s where we’re up to: to make sense of the idea that taxation is (moral) theft, we have to make sense of the idea that each person has a moral claim on the entirety of her gross income, and this can be made sense of only if property rights are natural rather than mere human constructions. We need, therefore, to defend a theory of natural property rights.

In theory, Right-wing libertarianism does entail that people have a moral claim on their pre-tax income, and hence that taxation is theft, but only in hypothetical societies where there is zero or minimal state interference in the economy. In states in which the government intervenes in the economy through taxation – ie, in almost every developed state – market transactions are tainted and so are morally void. The Right-wing libertarian is perfectly entitled to campaign for the day when her minimal-government Utopia is brought about, but until that day she cannot consistently argue that she has a right to her pre-tax income, and hence cannot consistently complain that the government is taking what is hers by right.

Still, the vast majority happily vote for low taxes, rejoicing that they get to keep their morsel while in reality all they’ve done is protect the spoils of a tiny minority at the top. The result is our failure to create what we really need: a tax system that – as part of the wider economy – creates a just society.
tax  ethic  question  debate  economy  money  work  politics  philosophy  liberalism 
september 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:殺無赦(上)

極權政治的最大特點之一,就是徹底改變了人類文明自古以來的種種基本道德信條,例如將「不可殺人」變成「你應該殺人」。

他們掌控的機器全都非常成功,殺人無算,而且殺得理直氣壯,冠冕堂皇。他們之所以幹得如此出色,是因為那道以界定神聖政治目標為起點程序,被精心構造成了一套雖然經不起理性考驗,但卻非常誘人,在情感上極具號召力的意識型態。

當所有奠基社會的德目一一受到質疑、衝擊、否定、和改造之後,終於,那最不可突破的最後底線也就坍塌下來了。為什麼文革時期,就連一些還在襁褓之中的嬰孩都會遭到毒手呢?那是因為他們的父母身為政治敵人,其實已經不算是人了,殺了都不能叫殺。由於這些嬰兒非人所生,所以殺害他們也就沒有道德負擔了。這不是傳統意義上的殺人,而是明智的,合理的,剷草除根的,防患於未來。
china  ethic  killing  crime  ideology  mao  revolution  communism 
september 2017 by aries1988
Experience: I accidentally bought a giant pig

By the time we realised her size, we were in love. She’s unlike any animal I’ve met. Her intelligence is unbelievable. She’s house trained and even opens the back door with her snout to let herself out to pee. Her food is mainly kibble, plus fruit and vegetables. Her favourite treat is a cupcake. She’s bathed regularly and pigs don’t sweat, so she doesn’t smell.

It was emotional realising she was a commercial pig. The more we discovered about what her life could have been, it seemed crazy to us that we ate animals, so we stopped.
pig  pet  story  home  lgbt  family  animal  food  ethic  vegetarian 
march 2017 by aries1988
Killing Animals at the Zoo

The modern defense of zoos tends to refer to four achievements: education, conservation, scientific research, and the societal benefit of getting people out of the house. Much of this is often packed into a single claim, which may be true even if it is unsupported by good evidence: zoos are said to cause people to value wild animals more than they otherwise would, thereby improving the survival prospects of threatened species.

His manner, like that of Richard Dawkins, combines reserve and certainty in a way that can suggest adolescence: sometimes, when countering one of his critics, he reddens slightly, and half smiles.

An animal can be a city’s shared pet, or it can be a quasi-agricultural team member whose work is to be seen and to breed and, perhaps, to die young. The Copenhagen Zoo, more than most others, aims to include virtually every animal in the second category, and to avoid what Holst likes to call the Disneyfication of nature.

the Copenhagen Zoo adheres to a practice known as breed and cull. The case for this policy, which is followed by many other zoos in Europe, if with less gusto, is this: because contraception carries medical risks, and because animals can become infertile if they don’t breed, and because zoos must deprive animals of many natural behaviors, it’s important to allow them to mate and raise infants. Why take that away? Holst asked me.

The global giraffe population has declined by nearly forty per cent in the past thirty years

a strand of Danish animal exceptionalism. Danes aren’t unusually careless about animal welfare, but there’s a tradition of pragmatism—or, a critic could say, an insular and self-congratulatory moral laxity—about animal death.

a school of Danish thought, in the early twentieth century, that stressed a greater openness around sex and death and gross bodily functions. He noted that Denmark was the first country in the world to legalize pornography, in the late sixties.

I mean, when you’re dead you’re dead, Holst said to me at one point. And animals don’t have any expectations of what happens after death, or that they could have had a longer life.
zoo  children  education  debate  ethic  culture  dane  denmark  animal  life  instapaper_favs 
january 2017 by aries1988
How science goes wrong | The Economist
Conversely, failures to prove a hypothesis are rarely even offered for publication, let alone accepted. “Negative results” now account for only 14% of published papers, down from 30% in 1990. Yet knowing what is false is as important to science as knowing what is true. The failure to report failures means that researchers waste money and effort exploring blind alleys already investigated by other scientists.
science  explained  crisis  truth  scientist  ethic 
november 2016 by aries1988
Why so much science research is flawed – and what to do about it
Some fields of research are less susceptible than others, though. In astronomy, chemistry and physics, for instance, people have a very strong tradition of sharing data, and of using common databases like big telescopes or high energy physical experiments, Ioannidis says. They are very cautious about making claims that eventually will be refuted. But in fields where such checks and balances are absent, irreproducible results are rife.
science  academia  data  debate  ethic  scientist 
april 2016 by aries1988
Ethics vs Morals - Difference and Comparison | Diffen

Ethics and morals relate to “right” and “wrong” conduct. While they are sometimes used interchangeably, they are different: ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual’s own principles regarding right and wrong.
english  language  ethic 
august 2015 by aries1988
Chinese City Defends Dog Meat Festival, Despite Scorn
Yulin, whose lush subtropical surroundings are said to be the birthplace of the legendary imperial beauty Yang Guifei, has become the target of a fast-growing animal rights campaign, which has made its residents feel increasingly under siege and at times defensive.

Locals say the moral hypocrisy over the eating of animals is a bottomless grab bag. What about the consumption of beef when cows are considered sacred in India, they say, or guinea pigs in Latin America, or dogs in Korea or turkeys in the United States? What makes eating dog meat any different from eating the flesh of chickens or pigs, they ask?
debate  animal  human  ethic 
august 2015 by aries1988
What pushes scientists to lie? The disturbing but familiar story of Haruko Obokata
Apart from outright fraud, there are all those “benevolent mistakes” that scientists make more or less unwittingly: poor experiment design, sloppy data management, bias in the interpretation of facts and inadequate communication of results and methods. Then, of course, there is the devilish complexity of reality itself, which withholds more than it reveals to the prying eyes of science.
scientist  ethic  research  analysis 
february 2015 by aries1988
Tom The Dancing Bug Blog
"destroy without a twinge of guilt"
fun  ethic  human  explained 
december 2014 by aries1988
La bête humaine
Au sortir de la seconde guerre mondiale, le paysage n’est plus le même. Regroupés dans des exploitations d’élevage intensif, les cheptels meurent désormais dans d’invisibles abattoirs. L’urbanisation s’intensifiant, la population perd peu à peu le contact avec les bêtes sauvages et domestiques. A la place de ces deux faunes traditionnelles émerge celle des animaux de compagnie. En quelques décennies, le nombre de chiens et de chats explose dans les villes, faisant naître une sensibilité nouvelle à la cause animale. Ce que le philosophe Francis Wolff appelle « le tournant animaliste dans l’éthique contemporaine ».

On sait désormais qu’ils sont capables de souffrance, d’émotions. Que les plus évolués d’entre eux savent mentir, mais aussi faire preuve de courage ou d’altruisme – valeurs longtemps réservées à l’espèce humaine.

le 30 octobre, une disposition a été adoptée par l’Assemblée nationale faisant passer les animaux du statut de « biens meubles » à celui d’« êtres vivants doués de sensibilité ».
animal  ethic  history  today 
december 2014 by aries1988
Doctors Who Don't Know How to Talk About Death - The Atlantic
The one time I remember discussing mortality was during an hour we spent on The Death of Ivan Ilyich, Tolstoy’s classic novella. It was in a weekly seminar called Patient-Doctor — part of the school’s effort to make us more rounded and humane physicians.
death  doctor  ethic  opinion 
november 2014 by aries1988
Drones and the Democracy Disconnect

There are few philosophers more clear-eyed, frank, even cynical when it comes to war than Niccolò Machiavelli.

Never have the American people been more removed from their wars, even while we are the most martial nation on earth, and drones are symptoms, and drivers, of this troubling alienation.
usa  american  war  ethic  drone  opinion  democracy  politics  state 
october 2014 by aries1988
注射死刑不一定比枪决更人性化 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
医生会是最有资格为犯人注射毒药的专业人士,但因为希波克拉底誓词(Hippocratic Oath,俗称医师誓词,是西方医生传统上行医前的誓言——译注),他们一般都被禁止这么做。这样就只能让那些不太有经验的人来注射,而他们犯错的可能性更大,比如找不到血管,或是过早注射导致心跳停止的药物。
承受痛苦的不仅是死刑犯。在越南,主张废除枪决的人说,枪决会给那些扣动扳机的警官带来心理上的伤害。但德诺表示,安排行刑队执行死刑就是为了将个人的自责最小化,也就是说,会有几个人同时开枪,而且其中一支枪发射的是空弹,这样,开枪者就不会知道,到底是他们中的哪一个射出了致命的那枪。距离也可以将行刑人员与囚犯隔开。
from:kindle  ethic 
july 2013 by aries1988
An Illegal Marriage That Benefits Society? - NYTimes.com
If you married this woman, it would be positive for society. It would be transformative for her children, it would eliminate the possibility of her being taken advantage of by someone marrying her for financial gain and it would add a hardworking person to the American populace. I suppose some will argue it would unjustly place her in a position to take a job from a “more deserving” U.S. citizen, but I don’t believe mere citizenship entitles anyone to a job.
from:kindle  citizen  usa  ethic  opinion 
july 2013 by aries1988
道不道德,环境说了算
要是撞见自己尊敬的人或是亲朋好友正在干违法犯罪的事,你会冲上去加以制止吗?会马上打电话通知当局,毫不顾及这样做可能对你的工作、你的单位还有你深爱的事业造成的负面影响吗?
http://www.instapaper.com/read/234779863
ethic 
august 2012 by aries1988
《十三钗》:谢绝思考的痛感
读了《贝尔、张艺谋谈》一文,我认为,张艺谋是中国最优秀的导演之一,这是事实。在电影美学上,他的“后现代主义式”的色彩运用,尽管也受到一些批评,但其鲜明的个人风格使他在中国导演中独树一帜。张艺谋在中国电影史上的地位已经无法消抹了。不过,这不代表我喜欢他的每一部作品。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/340826092
critic  china  movie  ethic 
january 2012 by aries1988
【方舟评论】中国企业最起码应该“不作恶”
是继续作恶,还是金盆洗手?这个莎士比亚式的问题,让百度再次站上了风口浪尖。
china  corporation  ethic 
march 2011 by aries1988

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