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The English Word That Hasn’t Changed in Sound or Meaning in 8,000 Years - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus

The English word honey is madhu in Sanskrit and myod in Russian. Sanskrit and Russian haven’t shared a common ancestor since Indo-European, so these words had to come from the same source. (There are also the words mead in English, met in German and mjød in Danish that refer to an alcoholic drink made from honey.)

The fact that those distantly related Indo-European languages had almost the same pronunciation of a single word meant that the word—and the concept behind it—had most likely existed in the Proto-Indo-European language. “If they had a word for it, they must have lived in a place where there was salmon,” explains Guy. “Salmon is a fish that lives in the ocean, reproduces in fresh water and swims up to rivers to lay eggs and mate. There are only a few places on the planet where that happens.”

In reconstructed Indo-European, there were words for bear, honey, oak tree, and snow, and, which is also important, no words for palm tree, elephant, lion, or zebra. Based on evidence like that, linguists reconstructed what their homeland was. The only possible geographic location turned out to be in a narrow band between Eastern Europe and the Black Sea where animals, trees, and insects matched the ancient Indo-European words.
language  europe  origin 
3 days ago by aries1988
‘Overrun,’ ‘Outbred,’ ‘Replaced’: Why Ethnic Majorities Lash Out Over False Fears - The New York Times
That dynamic, sometimes known as a majority with a minority complex, is thought to be a major factor in the rise of right-wing populism in Europe, religious nationalism in Asia, and white nationalist terrorism in the United States and New Zealand.

When communal tensions broke out into the outright fighting known as the Troubles in the late 1960s, Northern Ireland’s Protestants were numerically, politically and economically dominant. But they were a minority on the island as a whole, feeding a sense of demographic peril.

Fears of existential, sectarian conflict can be self-realizing.

“more negative attitudes toward Latinos, blacks, and Asian-Americans” and “more automatic pro-white/anti-minority bias.”
rightwing  race  population  birth  usa  europe  banyan  crisis  genocide 
10 days ago by aries1988
When Asia Ruled the World
Nonfiction The Pudong skyline, Shanghai. Credit Lauryn Ishak for The New York Times Amazon Local Booksellers Barnes and Noble When you purchase an independently…
contrarian  west  empire  conflict  world  war  success  europe  fail  qing  ottoman  book  opinion  history  prediction  theory 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
Aditi Shrivastava's answer to What's the difference between Gothic and Romanesque architectures? - Quora
Aditi Shrivastava , pursued B.E. (Hons.) Civil Engineering from BITS Pilani Updated Oct 10, 2015 1. Gothic architecture had pointed arches in roof while…
architecture  europe  church  west  primer 
march 2019 by aries1988
The Story of the Iberian Peninsula, Told in DNA - The New York Times

The team was able to identify pieces of North African DNA in people across Spain. The researchers estimated that the subjects’ North African ancestors lived about 800 years ago, during Muslim rule.

The researchers were also able to group Spaniards into five genetic clusters. On a map, these groups form five strips running north to south. Those strips line up neatly with history.

At the height of the Muslim rule, a few small Christian states survived on the northern coast of Spain. As Muslims lost power, those states expanded their southern borders, starting roughly 900 years ago.
Iberia  genetics  archaeology  origin  europe  human  migration 
march 2019 by aries1988
宮崎市定:亚洲对欧洲近代化的贡献 | 海交史
独裁君主制原本起源于古代西亚,由于该制度对于大一统国家来说最为简便易行,所以罗马共和国在与西亚接触之后,也逐渐倾向于建立独裁制。随着穆斯林侵入伊比利亚半岛,当地也引入了西亚的独裁君主制。此后,西班牙对居住于半岛地区的穆斯林进行了驱逐,并在此建立了国家。西班牙不仅在文化方面,而且在政体上也吸纳了许多伊斯兰元素。于是在西欧的一角,就出现了西班牙这个实行独裁专制的君主国。

独裁君主制之所以被引入法国,很大程度上是由于波旁王朝的两代君主都从西班牙迎娶王后。路易十三及其子路易十四的王后都是西班牙王室成员的女儿,而路易十三的遗孀、曾辅佐路易十四的安妮太后,对法国宫廷的影响尤为深远。安妮之子路易十四长大后成为“太阳王”,并发出了“朕即国家”的豪言壮语,可以说绝非偶然。

这种认为人格的存在可以独立于宗教的主张,在作为现实问题被提出之前,必须面对极大的困难。对于那些长期以来不断与西亚的穆斯林进行斗争的欧洲基督徒来说,宗教上存在着鲜明的敌我关系,人与人之间非友即敌,除此之外再无第三种立场。在那个以宗教作为思想根基的时代,人们无法想象脱离宗教而又有文化教养的人类的存在。当一切皆处于非友即敌的对立状态时,想要抽象出对立双方的共通人性,实在是难上加难。

这种不依赖宗教的文明社会的存在,对于欧洲主张排斥宗教的论者来说是非常有力的武器。他们称,摆脱了宗教束缚的社会构成是有可能存在的,这一点已经在东亚得到了证实,那么将其实现于欧洲又有何不可?就这样,中国社会以被美化的理想化形象传入了欧洲。以往,传教士在中国出于传教之便,会否定儒教的宗教性,而这种否定儒教宗教性的中国观传到欧洲之后,却产生了意料之外的结果—它为欧洲的无神论者和革命思想家壮了声势。

然而,这种观念的传播并没有介绍儒教本身,而是介绍非敌非友的第三种世界。这种观念的传播本身,从更为根本的程度上动摇了欧洲的思想根基。人们原本很难从相互对立的敌我关系中抽象出共通的人性,但当第三者出现后,人们终于能够由此产生对整个人类社会的新的意识自觉。毫不夸张地说,在欧洲与西亚的敌对关系中,东亚长期以来一直扮演着无言的调停者的角色。
asia  europe  confucianism  china  history  world  politics 
december 2018 by aries1988
Prêts à des entreprises d'origines différentes
Risque conjoncturel : Les niveaux de défaut des paiements des PME dans les trois pays n’est pas le même. 4% des prêts aux PME en France font défaut par an, 9,5% en Espagne et 18,5% en Italie
numbers  pme  europe  espagna  italia  france  investment  economy 
november 2018 by aries1988
欧洲为人类带来了什么?
旅法学者、法兰西学院院士程抱一先生的对话,在这篇对话里,程先生提到了一个非常有见证意义的观点:一个人正是在与他者进行最高度的交流时,他身上最优良的部分也才发挥出来;
europe  love  letter 
november 2018 by aries1988
陈乐民:欧洲文明的源头_爱思想
陈乐民先生是研究国际关系和欧洲史的知名学者,而且在外交领域有相当多的实践经验,对欧洲历史的理解与研究,有许多鲜活的内容。这是他与那种典型的学院派研究者最明显的区别。本文是他为北京大学国际关系学院学生开设的欧洲文明史论课程的讲演稿,更能够体现出他独特的治学风格。我们将陆续摘登讲演的部分内容,以飨读者。——编者…
list  book  history  historian  europe 
october 2018 by aries1988
何谓“欧洲文明”?

陈乐民、周弘认为,促进欧洲社会发展和进步的文明,主要是指:以求真善美的希腊思想为源头的哲学、伦理学和美学;重视社会效能的政治学、经济学、法学;凝合人生、人性、人格至善本性的基督教精神;探索宇宙,改造自然,造福人类的科学实践。

马克思在分析希腊和罗马建立殖民地根源时非常精辟的一段论述:“在古代国家,在希腊和罗马,采取周期性地建立殖民地形式的强迫移民是社会制度的一个固定环节。这两个国家的整个制度都是建立在人口的一定限度上的,超过这个限度,古代文明就有毁灭的危险。……由于生产力不够发展,公民权要由一种不可违反的一定数量对比关系来决定。那时,惟一的出路就是强迫移民。”这种贸易和殖民的过程,也是希腊人开始走向文明的过程。
LOL

西欧文明之所以有深厚、持久的历史文化传统和创造性活力,其根本原因在于:西欧进入文明社会以来,在特定历史条件下,它经历了约两千五百年的奴隶制社会,一千多年的封建制社会,近四百年的资本主义社会,这些社会形态及其历史阶段都得到比较充分的发展,而且西欧文明在各历史阶段,又善于从周边的诸多外部文明中吸纳、摄取优秀文化成果,才使自身得以发展、壮大。
FRD Norbert Elias

刘文明认为,“文明”观念在欧洲经历了一个演变过程,它源于中世纪宫廷社会的“宫廷礼仪”,经文艺复兴时期的“礼貌”,最终于18世纪中叶出现“文明”这一名词,到19世纪发展成为具有“现代”意涵的“文明”概念。在这一过程中,通过自诩为“文明”群体的“自我”与被贬低为“野蛮”群体的“他者”之间的互动,欧洲人对“文明”的认知及自我“文明”的认同得到强化,并将“文明阶梯”的空间序列时间化,以欧洲经验为基础的“文明”概念被建构起来。
2000s  book  academia  chinese  europe  civ  origin  debate  greek  emigration  antiquity 
october 2018 by aries1988
Pourquoi change-t-on d'heure deux fois par an ? - Direct Energie
L’idée n’est appliquée pour la première fois qu’en 1916 en Allemagne et adoptée définitivement en France en 1973 pour amortir la crise pétrolière. Elle sera généralisée à toute l’union européenne en 1980, sur la base de ce même principe : profiter d’une heure supplémentaire d’éclairage naturel et ainsi faire des économies sur l’éclairage artificiel. Aujourd’hui 70 pays sont adeptes du changement d’heure. 

En pratique, le passage à l'heure d'été (+1h) se fait toujours dans la nuit du dernier samedi de mars tandis que le passage à l'heure d'hiver (-1h) se fait dans la nuit du dernier dimanche d'octobre.

La discussion est en cours mais elle devrait durer plusieurs mois encore. En tout cas, selon une consultation publique, 80% des Européens ont exprimé leur souhait de voir le changement d'heure être supprimé. Si la mesure disparaissait à l'avenir, pas moins de 510 millions d'Européens seraient concernés.
explained  history  energy  time  europe 
october 2018 by aries1988
就士游 | 陈浩武:从启蒙运动到大革命——法国旅行手记(上)
此次随团学者刘军宁研究员,是中国政治哲学界领军人物之一,近年来积极倡导保守主义,有极大影响。此次法国旅行的确值得期待。

十二世纪时,拥有这块富饶土地的是美丽的女人埃莉诺公爵,她先嫁给法王路易七世,因为无子而离婚,后嫁给英国金雀花王朝的享利二世,却一下子生了四个男孩!亨利二世后来加冕为英国国王,他们的儿子亦继承英国王位,那就是著名的“狮心王”理查一世和“失地王”约翰。其中约翰王就是那位在1215年被迫与诸侯签订《大宪章》的那位阁下。

普瓦提埃大学,是法国历史上最负盛名的大学之一,仅次于巴黎大学,创立于十五世纪,培养的学生可以说星光灿烂,包括笛卡尔、居里夫人等。我们围坐在普瓦提埃大学参天古树荫蔽的草地,开讲普瓦提埃大战。
poitiers  history  europe  muslim  christianity  bordeaux  leader  france 
october 2018 by aries1988
How Islam Created Europe - The Atlantic
“the West” emerged in northern Europe (albeit in a very slow and tortuous manner) mainly after Islam had divided the Mediterranean world.

“The West,” if it does have a meaning beyond geography, manifests a spirit of ever more inclusive liberalism. Just as in the 19th century there was no going back to feudalism, there is no going back now to nationalism, not without courting disaster. As the great Russian intellectual Alexander Herzen observed, “History does not turn back … All reinstatements, all restorations have always been masquerades.”

Europe must now find some other way to dynamically incorporate the world of Islam without diluting its devotion to the rule-of-law-based system that arose in Europe’s north, a system in which individual rights and agency are uppermost in a hierarchy of needs.
europe  today  immigration  future  opinion  islam  mediterranean 
october 2018 by aries1988
为什么宋朝是一个幸福指数很高的时代?
在宫崎市定看来,所谓文艺复兴就是人类第一次表现出历史的自觉,具有重要意义。他说:“从古代到中世纪的变迁,是一个缓慢的自然过程,……进入中世纪以后,也几乎没有人会觉得自己生活在一个与古代不同的时代,他们感觉到的生活只是一如既往,与过去并没有什么不同。对中世纪长期的停滞不前感到厌恶,并认识到古代社会与中世纪社会的差异,就是文艺复兴式的觉醒。”

宫崎考察西方的文艺复兴,认为文艺复兴的主要表现在哲学的复古思想、文体的变革、印刷术的发达、科技的进步以及艺术的发达。
我们可以见到宋代独特的印刷术的发达,科技上火药和罗盘针的广泛应用,以及文体上的变革。始于晚唐韩愈的古文运动一直延续到宋体现一种文学上的复古,同时又出现了以戏剧脚本出现的白话文学,一直影响到后来的元杂剧和明清小说。

最能体现文艺复兴并且对中国文化影响最为深远的是儒教的自觉和复兴。
宋代的学者认识到古代和中世纪的移变,而且由于古代和现在的中间经过了中世纪一段很长的历史,他们大多不把儒家经书的内容视作可以适用现实社会的“礼”(制度)。他们试图去思考经书的真正意思,试图去复兴真实的部分。这即是一种否定中世纪、复归古代的文艺复兴思想。

内藤湖南强调从文化史的角度理解古代中国,认为“中世的外部异民族势力压迫中国,外来文化流行,到唐末和五代,外族势力达到鼎盛。宋代以后中国的固有文化复活,并取得新进展。

由于宋代生产部门的细化,人们的劳动价值可以从更多的途径实现,获取货币变得容易。如果攒了点小钱,人们也不会死藏着,可以借贷给商人获取利息,可以经营房屋租赁,也可以进行相应金额的土地投资。不光是有钱人,穷人也会适当地花些钱享受美食。在这样的情形下,人们更容易对生活产生喜悦,对日常琐事产生爱意。
song  middle-age  china  renaissance  comparison  europe  book 
october 2018 by aries1988
The Clash of Ignorance

Samuel Huntington’s article "The Clash of Civilizations?" appeared in the Summer 1993 issue of Foreign Affairs, where it immediately attracted a surprising amount of attention and reaction
to supply Americans with an original thesis about "a new phase" in world politics after the end of the cold war,

Certainly neither Huntington nor Lewis has much time to spare for the internal dynamics and plurality of every civilization, or for the fact that the major contest in most modern cultures concerns the definition or interpretation of each culture, or for the unattractive possibility that a great deal of demagogy and downright ignorance is involved in presuming to speak for a whole religion or civilization. No, the West is the West, and Islam Islam.

Instead of seeing it for what it is–the capture of big ideas (I use the word loosely) by a tiny band of crazed fanatics for criminal purposes–

what is so threatening about that presence? Buried in the collective culture are memories of the first great Arab-Islamic conquests, which began in the seventh century and which, as the celebrated Belgian historian Henri Pirenne wrote in his landmark book Mohammed and Charlemagne (1939), shattered once and for all the ancient unity of the Mediterranean, destroyed the Christian-Roman synthesis and gave rise to a new civilization dominated by northern powers (Germany and Carolingian France) whose mission, he seemed to be saying, is to resume defense of the "West" against its historical-cultural enemies.

These are tense times, but it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis
muslim  debate  islam  terrorism  power  community  civ  conflict  europe  population  theory  leader  instapaper_favs 
october 2018 by aries1988
The Modern Origins of the Early Middle Ages | Reviews in History
what part did the rise of Christianity and the Catholic Church play in the ending of Roman rule? Was the influence of Christianity baleful or liberating?
roman  empire  history  historian  christianity  europe  question  modernity 
september 2018 by aries1988
日本与沙俄之战:一战的东亚版本
为了鼓舞日本国民,从1968年开始,作家司马辽太郎在《产经新闻》发表连载小说《坂上之云》,以明治陆军“骑兵之父”秋山好古、被评为“智谋如涌”的海军参谋秋山真之、创作俳句《法隆寺》的诗人正冈子规为主人公,描绘了从明治维新到日俄战争的30余年历史,希望以一本“乐观主义者的故事”来唤醒日本国民对于重建战后日本的热情。“坂上之云”便比喻 当年的日本人一边追逐着“山坡上的云”一边前进,来自明治时代的昂扬感激励起战后日本人重新建设经济强国。

历史上被称为“第〇次世界大战”的战争有很多,如丘吉尔认为普鲁士同盟与法奥俄同盟之间的七年战争(1756-1763)是最早的世界大战,拿破仑战争(1803-1815)、普鲁士统一战争 (1864-1871)都有过类似称呼。相比之下,日俄战争(1904-1905)得获此名的逻辑更为直接:正如二战爆发由一战结束后的“分赃不均”及过度制裁德国而埋下种子,一战爆发的始源也来自于日俄战争后国际关系的变动。

随着日俄战争走向尾声,沙俄的实力进一步遭到削弱,不得不从中国东北与朝鲜半岛退出,英俄矛盾骤然减小;另一方面德奥同盟的力量愈发强大,法国在北非殖民地面临巨大挑战,只能寻求英国的支持,这也促使英国与法国的盟友——沙俄之间越走越近。

日俄战争本质上是英国与日本、沙俄与法国两大利益集团在远东的一次博弈,战争虽然以日本取胜、沙俄落败,但两大集团却成功形成相互认同,进而以互相认可势力范围、签订协约为基础,成立“协约国”集团。从这个角度讲,第一次世界大战并不是“三国协约”,而是包括日本在内的“四国协约”。

倒退回“三足鼎立”时代,如果没有沙俄与日本之间矛盾升级,欧洲的利益关系很可能出现另一种形态:事实上英德两国在1900年已经达成《扬子江协定》,规定双方在华利益范围;1901年德国甚至提出与英国、日本结为“三国同盟”。如果同盟成立,那么一战的对立形态就不再是“英法俄”对阵“德奥土”,而有可能变成“英德”对阵“俄法”,那无论一战的结果如何,20世纪乃至于现代历史的发展都会完全不同。
1900s  war  japan  russia  diplomacy  explained  ww1  europe  china 
september 2018 by aries1988
Histoire de la Guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648) (1/4) : Le grand entretien
Un grand entretien avec l'historien Hervé Drévillon, spécialiste d'histoire militaire pour inaugurer cette série de quatre émissions consacrée à un conflit terrible qui a ensanglanté l’Europe dans la première moitié du 17e siècle : la Guerre de Trente Ans.
europe  xvii  history  war  france  military 
september 2018 by aries1988
赵鼎新:加州学派与工业资本主义的兴起
笔者强调的是经济行动者的特性,以及与军事和经济竞争相关联的机制的重要性;笔者同时强调以私利为导向的工具理性成为可被正面价值观是工业资本主义兴起中的一个关键。

反事实思维在历史分析中按说是破坏目的论思想的利器,但实际上,它更多地被用来制造另一种奇思幻想的目的论,在其中,某一因素被无限地从历史情境中抽离、拔高,成为历史进程的主要推动力。

儒家学者则更多地将儒家思想视为道德体系而非超验真理。当李贽表达他的非正统的观点时,它引起的是李贽和与他交好的耿定理的哥哥耿定向之间带有私人性质的争论。主流儒生更感兴趣的是掌握理学经义以通过科举考试,而不是这种辩论。明朝中央政府甚至没有插手其间。

中国的城市仍有不同于欧洲城市的几个关键方面。最明显的是,中国的城市从来没有拥有过自治的政治和法律地位,并且它们也没有像中世纪一些获得特许状的城镇或自由城镇那样拥有属于自己的军队。因此,研究中国城市的学者都承认政治和行政命令对中国城市的命运有着决定性的影响。

面对国家的政治主宰和理学思想的统治地位,明清商人非常热衷于让他们的孩子接受儒家教育,取得科举功名并致仕。他们与地方官员建立密切的关系,并且与仕宦家族联姻。他们为政府征收税款,并且介入乡镇治理活动。他参与地方慈善活动,仿效士人的生活方式,旨在获取尊重与信任,并使得商业活动能更顺利开展。然而,这些经济行动者无法构建诸如自由主义或“看不见的手”这样的非正统的价值观来为他们的经营性行为正名,而且他们必须严格隶从官府。这些都显示了中国经济行动者的弱势,更进一步表明在西方到来之前工业资本主义很难在中国自发地崛起。

由于商业发展和繁荣,中国的富庶地区有着较高的生活水准,然而,明清时候的中国,技术创新并没有鼓励性的回报,理论/形式理性极不发达;最重要的是,新儒家意识形态没有面临重大的挑战,而商人无法利用他们的财富来获取政治、军事和意识形态方面的权力从而抗衡国家的权力。与欧洲情况不同的是,晚期中华帝国维持灿烂的商业的原因不是新儒家世界的衰弱和资产阶级力量的崛起,而是帝国庞大的领土和人口所带来的巨大市场和王朝中期特有的长期政治稳定。当欧洲人在19 世纪持着现代武器抵达中国时,中国并没有走向工业革命而是走向王朝的衰落。中国并非自发地迈入现代化,而是被西方和日本帝国主义拖入到工业化和现代化的历史进程当中。
debate  china  qing  ming  capitalism  modernity  society  state  question  europe  confucianism  to:pdf 
july 2018 by aries1988
历史的乱炖
历史太大,内容太多,一时不知从何讲起,就先来一碗乱炖,作为开篇吧。 一、人类的文明起点 言中国史,必以汉唐为骄傲,说西洋史,必云希腊罗马如何如何,所谓“光荣属于希腊,伟大属于罗马”。 说大汉,必云匈奴,言盛唐,岂能避开突厥?希腊再光荣,能不提马其顿?罗马再牛逼,也免不了北方蛮族的侵袭。

雅斯贝尔斯(1949年出版的《历史的起源与目标》)指出:公元前500年左右特别关键,因为人类精神的基础在那时奠定了,而且是同时、独立地在中国、印度、波斯、巴勒斯坦和希腊开始奠定(公元前800至公元前200年之间),这是人类文明精神的重大突破时期,因此叫做轴心时代,人类文明的轴心时代。

凯撒的侄子屋大维

罗马人不但控制生育,而且还杀婴,再加上连年的战争,人口不断递减,只能接受蛮族的大量迁入,令人口组成发生改变,进而影响了整个政治和社会结构。

博望侯张骞所开辟的,李希霍芬所命名的SILK ROAD。

伤寒,是伤寒,不是伤感。

彭慕兰就牛在了反其道而行之,他的发问是英格兰为什么没有成为江南?事实上,18世纪的英格兰无论在人口增长、劳动生产率、土地单位面积产量、生态压力、能源供应方面,面临比中国更大的压力。

英国的煤特好,水灵灵的,而山西的煤特别干。那又如何呢?估计很多朋友不理解,英国的煤很水,有啥好的,山西的煤都是干货,岂不美哉,烧起来多旺啊!是的,英国的煤很水,所在在开采时就需要不断抽水,这就促使了蒸汽机的发明。而山西的煤很干燥,常常会发生煤层自燃,这就需要通风技术来解决。

原来,就是中国煤炭的位置没放好,而且都是干货,这能怪谁呢?要怪就怪亿万年前,那些植物,你们为什么要埋在山西、还要干埋呢?青山处处埋忠骨,何不江南变煤炭。是啊,江南很不走运,经济就内卷化了,停滞不前了。
china  europe  comparison  narrative  history  humor  coal  england  modernization 
may 2018 by aries1988
Une histoire de la robe : contrainte ou liberté ?
La représentation de la femme, son rôle, son statut sont directement présents dans ses allures et dans son maintien, au cœur des sensibilités collectives. Entre pudeur et érotisme, entre fluidité et géométrie, entre contrainte et liberté, l’histoire de la robe informe au delà d'ell[...]
history  clothing  reform  europe  female  etiquette  culture  aesthetics  book 
february 2018 by aries1988
History of the calendar from Julius Caesar to Pope Gregory XIII to Colonial America - The Washington Post
Effectively, this was the beginning of verifiable time in the West. Historians can fix nearly exactly any event that occurred after Jan. 1, 45 B.C., after some adjustment calculations. Anything before demands a lot of guesswork.
history  calendar  europe  usa  culture  fun 
january 2018 by aries1988
Winds of change blow through renewable energy market

Developers who have made subsidy-free bids are relying on rises in wholesale power prices, further dramatic cost reductions in the industry and continued developments in wind turbine technology.

Turbines being installed today have a capacity of about 9 megawatts but by the middle of the next decade, developers are hoping to fit much taller, more powerful turbines of 13-15MW. This would mean fewer per project.

Gunnar Groebler, head of wind at Vattenfall, believes the risks of subsidy-free projects can be reduced by striking long-term power supply contracts with large companies, known in the industry as corporate power purchase agreements (PPA). These are growing in popularity in Europe, as large companies, including Microsoft, seek to reduce their carbon emissions and their energy bills. 
2017  energy  eolien  europe 
january 2018 by aries1988
L’industrie, histoire à hauteur d’hommes

Ainsi, d’un livre à l’autre, s’écrit une autre histoire industrielle, nourrie de l’observation des pratiques laborieuses, inscrite dans le temps long et dans des lieux qui, des vallées de Catalogne aux faubourgs de Gênes, sont dépaysants par rapport au textile flamand et aux fumées de Manchester. Ces travaux, en rouvrant le livre des facultés humaines, rendent à l’industrie ses sujets, les hommes et les femmes dont la peine a construit ce monde presque englouti qui fut le nôtre.
industry  history  europe  book 
december 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Friday, December 1, 2017: The Problem With Political Quarantines
In some countries, including France and Germany, mainstream political parties practice so-called “cordon sanitaire” politics, in which they agree to work together to keep far-right politicians in a sort of political quarantine. They won’t allow the far right into political coalitions, or work with it on joint legislation.
opinion  idea  politics  election  democracy  deutschland  france  europe  2017 
december 2017 by aries1988
Stalin’s Lengthening Shadow

The authoritarian streak, excused by nationalism. The accusations of anti-state activities against the opposition. The constant references to conservative cultural values — Roman Catholic in Poland, Orthodox in Russia — and enrollment of religious leaders in the political fight. The difficulty in accepting pluralism. The appetite to control the media and civil society.
poland  urss  russia  europe  crisis  value  politics 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Europe's far right fell in love with Australia's immigration policy
Conjuring an imaginary “queue” was a clever way to conflate two different sorts of refugees in the mind of the public: those who manage to reach UN camps and patiently wait for years to be resettled, and those who flee their homelands and attempt to claim asylum upon arrival in Australia. But there is no such queue, because countries are not obliged to take in refugees assigned for resettlement by the UN; if they do, it is purely good will. Signatories to the UN refugee convention are, however, obliged to assess the claims of asylum seekers reaching their shores. Australia is a society obsessed with rules and fairness, and the queue-jumping argument resonates perfectly with a population primed to think in terms of orderly regulations, most of whom have never faced state-sponsored violence or war crimes.

More than 51,000 asylum seekers arrived in Australia by sea between 2009 and 2013.

The EU has earmarked around $2bn in the past two years to address the drivers of migration.

Libya offers a worrying picture of what the future might hold if politicians like Espersen and Le Pen get their way, or if these sorts of outsourced solutions come to be seen as palatable by mainstream parties.

The EU has declared it a goal to “significantly reduce migratory flows by enabling the Libyan coast guard to ‘rescue’ a higher number of migrants and bring them back to Libya before they reach EU ships or EU territory”,

if the Australian model is adopted more fully in Europe, then there will be no hope for legitimate refugees to claim asylum through legal channels, and more of them will seek illegal paths to Europe.

The far right’s goal is to make European social benefits the exclusive property of native-born citizens, a hard-earned jackpot to be protected from the grasping hands of supposedly undeserving new arrivals.

“We are encumbered throughout ex-Christian Europe by the phenomenon of compassion,” he tells me, hinting at the logical endpoint of the policies his ideas have unleashed. “Compassion is fabulous … but it is obvious that without the use of force, we will never stop the invasion.”
far-right  australia  reportage  refugee  2010s  crisis  europe  politics  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
Le syndrome catalan | Le blog de Thomas Piketty
La crise catalane est-elle due à un excès de centralisation et à la brutalité du pouvoir madrilène ? Ou bien plutôt à une logique de mise en concurrence généralisée des territoires et des pays qui a déjà été beaucoup trop loin, en Espagne comme en Europe, et qui conduit à toujours plus de surenchère vers le chacun-pour-soi ?
europe  region  government  state  taxe  debate  crisis 
november 2017 by aries1988
La consommation de charcuterie nuit gravement à la santé

Selon les conclusions du CIRC, rappelle-t-il, le risque de cancer colorectal est accru de 18 % pour une consommation de seulement 50 grammes de viandes transformées par jour – soit à peine deux fines tranches de jambon. Et encore ne s’agit-il là que d’un seul type de cancer, celui qui est le plus étudié en relation avec la consommation de produits carnés transformés…

La toxicité des sels nitrés (à base de nitrate ou de nitrite) est connue depuis plus d’un siècle et la cancérogénicité de certains d’entre eux, depuis plus de 50 ans. Ce qui n’empêche nullement les charcutiers industriels d’en ajouter à la grande majorité de leurs produits.
food  europe  français  industry  scandal  health  book  journalism 
november 2017 by aries1988
Comment Martin Luther a inventé le buzz, 500 ans avant Internet

Il y a 500 ans, Martin Luther publiait ses 95 thèses pour dénoncer le trafic de l'Eglise catholique qui vendait littéralement des places au paradis. Mais le père de la réforme protestante ne s'attendait pas à un si grand succès médiatique. Un entretien avec son biographe en démonte les ressorts.

Beaucoup de laïcs, de gens moyennement cultivés mais qui pouvaient au moins écrire en allemand, se sont faits les diffuseurs des idées de Luther, parce qu’il leur avait apporté un message qui les réconfortait.

C’est aussi quelqu’un qui a su donner une réponse pastorale, apaisante, réconfortante, cohérente, au tourment de ses contemporains qui se demandaient vraiment : "Est-ce que je peux réussir ma mort ? Comment est-ce que ça va se passer pour moi dans l’au-delà ?"

Ce que Luther a compris, c’est qu’il y avait un certain nombre de questions que l’on pouvait traiter dans de petits écrits destinés à un large public et rédigés en allemand. Et cela, ses adversaires ne l’ont pas compris d’emblée.

un bon nombre de clercs et de laïcs se sont mis à leur tour à écrire, à publier ce qu’on appelle des feuilles volantes, des Flugschriften, de petits écrits imprimés, dans lesquels ils exprimaient la manière dont eux avaient compris les idées de Luther. Donc ils se sont faits en quelque sorte des démultiplicateurs des écrits de Luther, et ça, c’est tout à fait nouveau à cette époque.
deutsch  media  communication  mass  religion  zeitgeist  middle-age  leader  movement  europe  history  explained  mentality  question  death  life  bio  book  français 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Martin Luther Changed the World

If the Ninety-five Theses sprouted a myth, that is no surprise. Luther was one of those figures who touched off something much larger than himself; namely, the Reformation—the sundering of the Church and a fundamental revision of its theology. Once he had divided the Church, it could not be healed. His reforms survived to breed other reforms, many of which he disapproved of. His church splintered and splintered. To tote up the Protestant denominations discussed in Alec Ryrie’s new book, “Protestants” (Viking), is almost comical, there are so many of them. That means a lot of people, though. An eighth of the human race is now Protestant.

Indeed, the horrific Thirty Years’ War, in which, basically, Europe’s Roman Catholics killed all the Protestants they could, and vice versa, can in some measure be laid at Luther’s door. Although it did not begin until decades after his death, it arose in part because he had created no institutional structure to replace the one he walked away from.

The Reformation wasn’t led, exactly; it just spread, metastasized.

Why had God given his only begotten son? And why had the son died on the cross? Because that’s how much God loved the world. And that alone, Luther now reasoned, was sufficient for a person to be found “justified,” or worthy. From this thought, the Ninety-five Theses were born. Most of them were challenges to the sale of indulgences. And out of them came what would be the two guiding principles of Luther’s theology: sola fide and sola scriptura.

Luther’s collected writings come to a hundred and twenty volumes. In the first half of the sixteenth century, a third of all books published in German were written by him.

Luther very consciously sought a fresh, vigorous idiom. For his Bible’s vocabulary, he said, “we must ask the mother in the home, the children on the street,” and, like other writers with such aims—William Blake, for example—he ended up with something songlike. He loved alliteration—“Der Herr ist mein Hirte” (“The Lord is my shepherd”); “Dein Stecken und Stab” (“thy rod and thy staff”)—and he loved repetition and forceful rhythms. This made his texts easy and pleasing to read aloud, at home, to the children.

His goal was not to usher in modernity but simply to make religion religious again. Heinz Schilling writes, “Just when the lustre of religion threatened to be outdone by the atheistic and political brilliance of the secularized Renaissance papacy, the Wittenberg monk defined humankind’s relationship to God anew and gave back to religion its existential plausibility.” Lyndal Roper thinks much the same. She quotes Luther saying that the Church’s sacraments “are not fulfilled when they are taking place but when they are being believed.” All he asked for was sincerity, but this made a great difference.
book  bio  reform  leader  religion  history  europe  medieval  story  printing 
november 2017 by aries1988
Interview with Emmanuel Macron: 'We Need to Develop Political Heroism' - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International

Nothing here should become habitual, because routine lends one a deceptive feeling of security. You begin not noticing certain things and lose your focus on what's important. Uncertainty and change keep you attentive.

It is a place laden with history. The emperors spent time here, Napoleon I and Napoleon III. In the Fourth Republic, it was the palace of a president without powers. Only in the Fifth Republic did Charles de Gaulle move back in.

Germany is different from France. You are more Protestant, which results in a significant difference. Through the church, through Catholicism, French society was structured vertically, from top to bottom. I am convinced that it has remained so until today.

France is a country of regicidal monarchists. It is a paradox: The French want to elect a king, but they would like to be able to overthrow him whenever they want.

I am a strong believer that modern political life must rediscover a sense for symbolism. We need to develop a kind of political heroism. I don't mean that I want to play the hero. But we need to be amenable once again to creating grand narratives. If you like, post-modernism was the worst thing that could have happened to our democracy. The idea that you have to deconstruct and destroy all grand narratives is not a good one. Since then, trust has evaporated in everything and everyone.

I am putting an end to the cronyism between politics and the media. For a president, constantly speaking to journalists, constantly being surrounded by journalists, has nothing to do with closeness to the people. A president should keep the media at arm's length.
interview  français  deutschland  newspaper  2017  macron  democracy  europe  politics  france  state  president  opinion  comparison  protestant  society  hierarchy  narrative  post  modernity  trust  media  idea  reform  heroism 
october 2017 by aries1988
Warning of 'ecological Armageddon' after dramatic plunge in insect numbers
Three-quarters of flying insects in nature reserves across Germany have vanished in 25 years, with serious implications for all life on Earth, scientists say
environment  entomology  crisis  science  research  numbers  earth  europe 
october 2017 by aries1988
Red Famine by Anne Applebaum — enemies of the people
The famine was an instrument of targeted mass murder. As peasants were dying in the countryside, Stalin launched a brutal attack on the Ukrainian national idea itself. Since the 19th century, Moscow had been hostile towards national groups that challenged the unity of the Russian empire. In Ukraine, the Romanovs embarked upon a programme of accelerated Russification, suppressing local languages, gutting civil society, and depositing outsiders from remote parts of the empire into Ukraine’s towns and cities. Stalin’s “War on Ukraine” was the violent continuum of this quest for hegemony in Europe’s bloodlands. Along with the peasantry, it was directed at intellectuals, politicians, writers, priests and public officials — agents of the nation’s moral and political order.
book  russia  europe  history  1930s  disaster  politics  communism  death  debate 
october 2017 by aries1988
Cinq week-ends en Europe pour un « city break »
A peine rentré, voilà qu’on a déjà envie de repartir. Parce qu’un week-end suffit pour déconnecter, direction Rome, Lisbonne ou Reykjavik pour un « city break » sur mesure.
idea  moi  travel  europe  lisbon  iceland  rome 
september 2017 by aries1988
East Goes West

In the life of a Chinese tourist, guides play an especially prominent role—translator, raconteur, and field marshal—and Li projected a calm, seasoned air. He often referred to himself in the third person—Guide Li—and he prided himself on efficiency. Everyone, our watches should be synchronized, he said. It is now 7:16 P.M. He implored us to be five minutes early for every departure. We flew all the way here, he said. Let’s make the most of it.

We might think you could just make a fake card or manipulate the records—no big deal, Li said. But, if you get caught, the fine starts at eighty-eight hundred euros, and they take away your license! That’s the way Europe is. On the surface, it appears to rely on everyone’s self-discipline, but behind it all there are strict laws.

In Europe, he warned, tactfully, Throughout our trip, breakfast will rarely be more than bread, cold ham, milk, and coffee. The bus was silent for a moment.

some of his older travellers used to have a habit of hiding cash in the toilet tank or the ventilation ducts. The worst case I’ve had was a guest who sewed money into the hem of the curtains,

At a Malaysian casino hotel in 2005, some three hundred Chinese visitors were issued special meal coupons bearing cartoon pig faces. The hotel said that the illustrations were simply to differentiate Chinese guests from Muslims, who don’t eat pork, but the offended Chinese tourists staged a sit-in, singing the national anthem.

Handy and Karen kept an eye on every cent. Within a few days, they could tell me exactly how much we’d spent on each bottle of water in five countries.

On average, a Chinese tourist buys more than a thousand dollars’ worth of tax-free stuff abroad—more luxury bags, watches, and designer clothes than any other nationality, including the Japanese, according to Global Blue, the tax-free-shopping refund service. Chinese tourists abroad spend nearly twice as much on shopping as they do on hotel rooms. Several in our group told me how sorry they were that we weren’t stopping at a place called Aotelaise. The name baffled me. Someone explained that it’s a new Chinese word: outlets.

I didn’t sense overwhelming sympathy. The Chinese have been the world’s most abundant migrants, but these days many believe that they have better job prospects at home than abroad.

He was a sanitation specialist by training, and he couldn’t help but notice Milan’s abundant graffiti and overstuffed trash bins. As Li had explained it, The government wants to clean, but it doesn’t have enough money. Handy tried to be polite, but he said, If it was like this in Shanghai, old folks would be calling us all afternoon to complain.

I was struck that, for all his travels, Zhu saw an enduring philosophical divide between China and the West: two different ways of thinking, as he put it. We will use their tools and learn their methods. But, fundamentally, China will always maintain its own way, he said.
europe  china  tourist  story  youth  gaijin  reportage  travel  shopping  thinking  anecdote  world  work  stereotype  tourism 
august 2017 by aries1988
Nature interrupted: photographs by Claudius Schulze
Natural catastrophes of unbelievable scope have occurred around the world in the past couple of decades, worsened by global warming, erosion, deforestation and ocean acidification, and taking thousands of lives. The fact that Europe has largely been spared is not only due to its specific topography and climate. More than 250 people died in the Alps during the “avalanche winter” of 1951, and more than 300 people in the North Sea floods of 1962. Those were the last natural catastrophes of that scale in central Europe, and provided the impetus for gigantic protective building projects.
europe  flooding  engineering 
july 2017 by aries1988
BepiColombo, une mission dans le barbecue de Mercure
Selon Alvaro Gimenez, directeur scientifique de l’Agence spatiale européenne, BepiColombo « est probablement la mission scientifique la plus compliquée que l’ESA ait menée ».

Au bout du compte, BepiColombo, tout de blanc et d’argent vêtu, est un monstre de complexité. Ce qui explique les nombreux retards qu’il a subis, les 70 % d’innovations qui le composent et aussi un budget de 1,3 milliard d’euros.
astro  europe  planet  mercury 
july 2017 by aries1988
Tracing the Origins of Indo-European Languages
A study suggests that the Indo-European family of languages originated in Anatolia, or modern-day Turkey.
language  history  science  europe  infographics 
july 2017 by aries1988
学了多门外语之后,我认为英语有明显的缺陷
英国人安德鲁・罗伯茨《 英语为什么前所未有的重要? 》一文,令人感觉又好气又好笑。 有读者留言说此文是“某教育机构软广”,点评到位。语言是一种人类现象,安德鲁・罗伯茨的观察有很多局限,对国际通用语的发展历史更缺乏了解。 安德鲁・罗伯茨说:“在中国境外,很少有人把汉语普通话当作第二语言(因为它极其复杂)。”…
language  comparison  europe  chinese  vocabulary 
july 2017 by aries1988
L’Allemagne se trompe : « Il ne s’agit pas pour elle d’aider la France, mais de sauver l’Europe »
Sans nier les défis économiques, politiques et sociétaux auxquels le pays fait face depuis une dizaine d’années – ni les insuffisances des réponses apportées sous les deux précédents quinquennats –, la France va mieux et elle est désormais sur une bonne pente.

Du coup, l’idée que « l’aide » de l’Allemagne serait nécessaire au succès du nouveau président est non seulement un brin condescendante mais sans doute très éloignée de la disposition d’esprit qui est la sienne. Non seulement ce dernier est-il probablement persuadé de sa capacité à redresser le pays par ses propres moyens et confiant dans la vertu « transformatrice » de sa propre élection, mais on peut supposer que son analyse le conduit à estimer que la France, pour peu que les réformes nécessaires soient menées à bien, peut réussir durablement dans une zone euro dont les critères de stabilité seraient inchangés.

Une analyse que confirment les évolutions de longue durée : si « décrochage » franco-allemand il y a eu depuis 2009, ce n’est pas vraiment le cas à l’aune des vingt-cinq ou trente dernières années, le ratio économique entre les deux pays (mesuré en termes de PIB comparés) étant resté grosso modo équivalent depuis la réunification allemande.
france  deutschland  economy  europe  today  future  opinion  euro  germany 
may 2017 by aries1988
Comment le Sahara nourrit la Méditerranée
« A chaque arrêt, l’eau sera récupérée et mise dans des mésocosmes [réservoirs recréant les conditions d’un milieu naturel]. On augmentera la température de 2 degrés ainsi que la teneur en CO2 pour voir comment le phytoplancton réagit. De cette manière, nous recréons les conditions que nous aurons en 2100 », résume Karine ­Desboeufs. Malgré un appui ­météo au sol, le Pourquoi-Pas ? n’a aucune garantie de croiser la route d’une pluie de poussières sahariennes. En cas de malchance, la campagne ne sera pas vaine pour autant. Des appareils de ­mesure enregistreront simultanément les paramètres chimiques, physiques et biologiques de l’air et des eaux de surface. La comparaison des données permettra de ­rechercher les interactions.
mediterranean  europe  research  science  atmosphere  sea  biology 
may 2017 by aries1988
南方周末 - 统一文字是果,统一国家才是因
李俊慧
从语言还可以进一步推广到更深远的制度。欧元这种后天人为的货币,从一开始就没有实体国家的支持,可想而知除非统一出一个实体国家,其消亡不可阻挡!统一的国家,才是一切统一——无论是统一的文字,还是统一的货币——的原因与根源,我们不可倒果为因啊!当然,为什么中国比西方更早地出现统一的国家,有关的解释我在《贸易的真相》一书(中信出版社出版)的“重商主义”一章里有详细的讲解,这里就不再重复了。
language  nation  state  comparison  europe  china  chinese  latin  opinion 
may 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:為甚麼不嫌中菜吃得慢(中國人吃的閒情之二)

所以我覺得問題並不在於你真正花在一餐飯上的物理時間有多長,而在於你感受到的心理時間。就好比同樣兩公里的路程,如果是老胡同老巷弄,又或者歐洲古城的卵石小道,一路曲折,風光步步生變,你是不會覺得自己走了那麼多路的。若是換在洛杉磯那種通衢大道,抬望眼,兩側平房,除了棕櫚樹還是棕櫚樹,走路可就真是地獄裏的折磨了。

總而言之,這是種自由的狀態,吃東西的速度與節奏操之在我,決定於那天耍戲的需要,而非餐廳上菜的次序。

這是種非常中國的自由與閒情,是你在吃飯,而非飯在吃你,不會有種被食物壓倒的感受。猶如古人出外賞花,花固然可觀,卻也不必專注呆視,幾個人自己閒聊喝茶甚至唱闋小曲方是主要內容,以花為背景,間中隨興瞧它幾眼,更覺其可親解人。又像走路散步,路不是主角,要緊的是和誰在走,以及沿路的風光。
question  opinion  eating  restaurant  chinese  europe  time  comparison 
march 2017 by aries1988
« La Turquie a emprunté une voie qui rend impossible son adhésion à l’UE »

Cruelle ironie : l’Europe a permis à l’AKP, le parti islamo-conservateur arrivé au pouvoir en 2002, de saborder l’héritage de Mustafa Kemal dit Atatürk, autoritaire, souvent peu démocratique mais plus européo-compatible par de nombreux aspects.

Second choc, le néo-ottomanisme. Les mauvaises manières faites par Nicolas Sarkozy et Angela Merkel et le turcoscepticisme européen ont clairement découragé une population turque europhile. Amoureuse éconduite, l’opinion turque a laissé Erdogan enfourcher son combat nationaliste.
turkey  europe  history  european  politics 
march 2017 by aries1988
BBC Radio 4 - In Our Time, The Siege of Vienna
Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the 1683 siege of Vienna by the Ottoman Army.
podcast  europe  history  turkey  christendom  identity  war 
february 2017 by aries1988
The People Who Pass

Outside the Gare du Nord, there are people streaming from the Eurostar, tourists looking for a week’s pleasure, mingled with travellers recently arrived from Bulgaria and Romania, looking for a job or a new life. The kinds cross, with the French, permanently frowning and suspicious, among them, and the tension rises.

the usual conviction of the French police that the human comedy as it unfolds is so absorbing that to intervene and impose artificial order upon it would be inartistic.

The thieves, and their invisible directors, are perceived by the French public as exclusively Roma—what English speakers often call Gypsies, the nomadic people long idealized as romantic and, for just as long, pursued as petty criminals.

We are manifold and must be respected as individuals—and we are completely different from the rest of you, with our own culture and history, giving us a collective identity that allows us to belong to the larger world of nations, just as you do. It’s our being completely different from the rest of you that makes us like the rest of you.

If Hamidovic was the face of the predatory Roma, Leonarda was the face of their persecution.

The majority should return to their countries. . . . Our role is not to welcome all the world’s misery.

Valls’s words—widely taken both as a testament of no-nonsense enforcement and as a bid for eventual power as Prime Minister or even President

an exasperated account of how the old Republican idea of French identity, open to all through education but still very specific in its style (high-minded) and values (meritocratic to the max), has been demoralized by a slack and hasty pluralism.

They insist, with Finkielkraut, that this angelism is part of a larger, enforced cult of the Other, a compulsory act of celebrating difference that is undermining the French state, so that the defenders of little Leonarda insist on embracing the Other, even as the Other picks their pockets.

In a matter of years, representations of the tsiganes have shifted away from musical talents, bohème, and free spirit to a portrayal of Roma otherness. It is our decision to see kinds that makes us sort kinds.

My daughter, when she was ten, said to her friend, ‘I’d like to eat your belly!’ I was called into the school—the principal was shocked! Perhaps my daughter needed to see a psychiatrist.

On one subject, Carmona is categorical. France is the worst place for Roma to be born. It suffers from centuries of ‘Enlightenment,’ the many centuries that created this Jacobin so-called ‘universalist’ frame without any regard to subjugated knowledge or subjugated peoples. In France, ethnic minorities are not even recognized—there’s a process of negation of identity that leads to the absurd category of ‘gens du voyage.’

If an unashamed, de-complexed agenda of national order and national security is not made plausible, the argument goes, the middle classes will continue their flight to the far right.

Le Pen can be declawed, he thinks, only if mainstream politicians can learn to speak truths that seem obvious to the stressed middle class.

The big problem in France is one of authority. Where is the authority in France? There is no authority in France now. François Hollande is no authority. In the family, where is the authority? In school, where is the authority? The ‘regal’ state of France has become nonexistent.

This is the problem of integration. What you can say twenty years ago, you can’t say it now. It is this question of bien-pensants, of angelism, and the right wing and the left wing are together responsible.

Mobility, rootlessness, nomadism—these are the facts of the new Europe. We must read Victor Hugo. The happy face of nomadism is all the French gone to London to be bankers. The wretched face is the poor Roma in their camps. And, great surprise, the miserables of our time turn out to be poor immigrants in the cold who behave like poor immigrants in the cold. Behind it, beneath it, is the new fear of having no floor beneath one’s feet. Ordinary French people feel that a real fall is possible.
paris  france  immigrant  society  politics  debate  europe  history  identity  immigration  crime  culture  book  intelligentsia  rom 
february 2017 by aries1988
李约瑟对李约瑟难题的回答 -上海书评-东方早报网

曾经高度发达的中国科学为什么没有发展出现代科学,反倒是科学发展并不领先的欧洲取得了突破,发展出了现代科学?这就是李约瑟难题,也称李约瑟之问、李约瑟之谜。

“中国礼仪之争后,大多耶稣会士被驱逐出境,中欧文化交流的正式渠道被关闭”

FRD

所谓现代科学,最为重要的内核是把理性与经验结合起来,把经受住受控实验检验的关于外在世界的假说系统化(124页),简言之,数学假说与受控实验密切结合。

中国历史上公共工程(河流控制、灌溉、运河开凿)的空间范围一再超越了个体封建诸侯或原始封建诸侯的领地界限,水利社会总是倾向于中央集权,也就是用官僚制度来统治遍布各地的‘部落’乡村(189页)。中央集权虽然有助于对某些科学领域的发展提供国家支持,但是官僚主要由儒家知识精英充当,重义轻利的价值观不仅使逐利的商人处于边缘地位,君子不器的价值观也使科学家和工匠处于附属地位,中国文明中绝不可能出现一种以商业为主导的社会秩序(183页),其结果是即使是富商人家的孩子,其唯一志向也是做官,商人阶层显然不可能获得像欧洲文艺复兴时期的商人在国家中的那种权势和影响力(27页)。

正如尘世的君主颁布了实在法让人们遵守,天界至高的理性造物主也颁布了一系列的法让矿物、晶体、动植物和星辰遵守(280页),这一源自巴比伦和希伯来的自然法传统,为基督教神学所继承,启发了诸多基督教背景的科学家去寻找上帝赋予自然的法则,促成了牛顿范式的机械宇宙观的形成,进而对现代科学的兴起发挥了相当重要的作用。与此相对的,是传统中国几乎完全没有产生过机械宇宙观,而一直秉承有机宇宙观,万物之所以能够和谐并作,并不是因为有一个外在于它们的最高权威在发布命令,而是因为它们都属于一个等级分明的整体,各个部分形成了一种有机的宇宙样式,它们服从的乃是自身本性的内在命令(309页)。

道家在未奠定牛顿式世界图景的基础之前就在摸索一种爱因斯坦式的世界图景,而科学沿着这条道路是不可能发展的(294页)。
civ  china  comparison  europe  history  science  religion  book  critic  chinese  theory  research  question  debate 
january 2017 by aries1988
帝國興衰:西班牙哈布斯堡王朝的崛起與覆亡 | 故事
1517 年,教士馬丁.路德(Martin Luther)提出的《九十五條論綱(Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum)》,算是壓垮駱駝的最後一根草。對這篇振振有詞的論綱,歐洲社會回響極大,爆發了對教廷的抨擊和示威。神聖羅馬帝國境內很多領地也紛紛改信了新興的基督新教(Protestantism)。
history  europe  Hapsburg 
january 2017 by aries1988
What Nutmeg Can Tell Us About Nafta

neither cosmopolitanism nor parochialism is a virtue in itself. We need to ask: cosmopolitanism in the service of what? Protectionism to what end?

Cloves from around 1700 B.C. have been found at the site of a settlement in Tell Ashara, Syria. To get there, they would have had to travel more than 6,000 miles, through the ports of the Indian Ocean and overland through Mesopotamia.
human  history  world  globalization  commerce  spice  indonesia  europe  netherlands 
december 2016 by aries1988
France’s large share of low-achiever students
a large share of its students have low proficiency in maths, science or reading.
comparison  france  europe  japan  education  highschool 
december 2016 by aries1988
The search goes on | The Economist
The West has gained a lot from Christianity. There is still more to learn
The Christianisation of Europe, he says, was not a bunch of reactionary clerics trying to shut down a noble, free, secular ancient world, but a new idea of “a voluntary basis for human association in which people joined together through will and love rather than blood or shared material objectives”. Christianity declared that humans “have access to the deepest reality as individuals rather than merely as members of a group”.

Out of this, with a reinjection at the Reformation, came the origins of the modern world: a belief in equality of status as the proper basis for a legal system and the assertion of natural rights leading to individual liberty, as well as the notion that a society built on the assumption of moral equality should have a representative form of government.




The Evolution of the West: How Christianity Has Shaped Our Values. By Nick Spencer. SPCK; 190 pages; £9.99.
book  religion  christianity  europe  Renaissance  history  mentality  study  society  opinion  debate  middle-age  antiquity 
november 2016 by aries1988
Meet the IB, Europe’s version of America’s alt-right | The Economist
From France to Austria, the “identitarian movement” gives xenophobia a youthful edge
The movement has a deft way of making xenophobic causes seem palatable to moderates. Mr Sellner uses the Twitter hashtag #remigration to “encourage” African and Asian immigrants to reverse the brain drain by returning to their homelands. He frames insinuations that Muslim immigrants are chauvinists and rapists as a defence of women’s rights. An IB group in Paderborn, near Hanover, recently distributed cans of tear gas to female pedestrians; in the current political context, the message was clear: German women need protecting from those beastly foreigners.
youth  europe  politics  today  immigration 
november 2016 by aries1988
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