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Migrations : en parler autrement ?
A l'heure où Emmanuel Macron s'apprête à dévoiler son plan contre la radicalisation et parle de "séparatisme islamiste" à Mulhouse, François Héran, titulaire de la chaire Migrations et société au Collège de France, nous rappelle la différence entre communautarisme et séparatisme. Le communautarisme est un "indicateur très flou" qui se penche notamment sur les mariages au sein d'une communauté ou l'accueil de migrants par leur diaspora : elle semble, de fait, exister partout comme un phénomène ordinaire. 

Le séparatisme, en revanche, comme le souligne l'essai récent de Bernard Rougier, Les Territoires conquis de l'islamisme, correspond à "une situation où des groupes cherchent à subvertir les institutions pour développer une identité propre". Pour M. Héran, le problème vient notamment du fait que certains individus se retrouvent tellement vulnérabilisés par l'expérience de l'immigration qu'ils représentent des proies faciles pour des réseaux très organisés.   
immigration  polemic  debate  interview  expert  opinion  france  français 
3 days ago by aries1988
Twitter
RT : Na Na, médecin épidémiologiste : "Dans l'un des hôpitaux qui accueillent beaucoup de cas de nouveau , i…
coronavirus  interview  chinese  doctor  france  français  wuhan 
15 days ago by aries1988
farine t55, farine t45 : faire la différence entre les farines et quel type de farine utiliser pour chaque pâtisserie ? – Conseils CAP Pâtisserie
Commençons par le taux de cendres qui est la caractéristique la plus connue. La farine est soumise à une cuisson à plus de 600°c. Les cendres qui restent correspondent au son, l’enveloppe du blé. Plus le T, taux de cendres, est élevé, plus la farine contient du son et plus il est faible, plus elle est pure.
farine  français  france 
24 days ago by aries1988
Twitter
Les docteurs de satisfaits à 88% de leur emploi
numbers  poll  salary  doctorat  français 
28 days ago by aries1988
Val d'Isere: The doctor who hid a Jewish girl - and the resort that wants to forget - BBC News
The archives in Annecy, not far from Val d'Isère, are full of letters written to the authorities during the war, often anonymously, denouncing people for acts of resistance.
savoie  français  story  jew  isreal  ww2  holocaust  france  survive  hero  ski 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
Learning Korean with Duolingo, the Mercilessly Addictive Language App – BLARB

William Alexander’s Flirting with French, one of the French-learning memoirs I read for the aforementioned essay. In it Alexander, engaged in the project of picking up French again in middle age, relays a piece of wisdom offered to him by a teacher who refuses to use English in class:

French is not a translation of English, he says. It is not English that has been coded into French and needs to be back-coded into English to be understood. French is French. When French people say something in French, it is not that they really mean something in English; no, they mean something in French. You cannot simply replace a French word with an English word. To understand what a French word means, you have to understand les circonstances in which it is used.
français  learn  language  korean  app 
7 weeks ago by aries1988
Is Europe Christian? by Olivier Roy

The bulk of the book covers the story of secularisation in Europe following the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the wars of religion and ushered in the sovereign state as the arbiter of morals. Roy focuses on the Catholic Church, because, unlike Protestantism, it never submitted to political authority. He whizzes through the Enlightenment; the Catholic reaction to modernism; anticlericalism and the separation of church and state (most notably with the laïcité law of 1905 in France); the globalisation of religious movements (of which the Argentine Pope Francis is a symbol); and the rise of Islam, coupled with attempts to rein it in.
religion  europe  christianity  protestant  catholicism  book  today  question  français 
9 weeks ago by aries1988
对话的密码:为什么法国人爱说“不” - BBC 英伦网
迈耶怀疑导致这种表达差异的一个因素可以从数字中找到。根据她写的书,英语有50万个单词,而法语只有7万个。这意味着以英语为母语的人能有确切的单词来表达他们想要表达的意思,而法语为母语的人通常必须把一系列单词串在一起来传达他们的想法。这不仅迫使法国人在语言上要玩一些花招,也让他们习惯于模棱两可的表达。因此,说“不”在法国并不总是真的意味着“不”。
culture  français  british  communication 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
“The King” is a timely examination of the corrupting influence of power - Lenity and cruelty
The Agincourt battle remains the climax of the film, and Mr Michôd delivers a thrilling mix of mud and blood. But it is the duplicity in the cause of nationhood that makes “The King” feel so vital and challenging. Going to war on the basis of falsehoods calls forth the run-up to the second Iraq war, but “The King” goes further in suggesting that power is always based on lies. Henry V may be the poster boy for proud English triumph, but the paper is thin.
english  français  history  war  movie  nation  hero  king 
november 2019 by aries1988
"Histoire du monde au XVe siècle", sous la direction de Patrick Boucheron : et le monde se globalisa...

Depuis une trentaine d'années, ce qu'on appelle la "World History" a fait d'un monde décloisonné son objet d'étude privilégié, jouant des rapprochements et des comparaisons pour dépasser des récits nationaux au cadre souvent étriqué et surtout artificiel. Ainsi, en France, l'"histoire connectée" a été encouragée par les travaux de Serge Gruzinski et de Sanjay Subrahmanyam.

Ils y explorent les prémices de la mondialisation avant l'âge des empires coloniaux, considérant que le XVe siècle, "ample et large, complexe et divers", en constitue une étape décisive. Les auteurs parcourent donc les "territoires du monde", depuis la prise du pouvoir par le conquérant turco-mongol Tamerlan, dans les années 1370, jusqu'au passage du fameux détroit par Magellan en 1520.

Trente ans après Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme de Fernand Braudel, il s'agit ici de dépasser une "histoire totale" fondée sur une "grammaire des civilisations" aujourd'hui remise en question.

Au XVe siècle, le monde s'organise autour d'immenses territoires, unifiés ou en passe de l'être, tels la Chine des Ming ou l'Empire ottoman, les terres russes progressivement rassemblées autour de Moscou, les empires aztèque et inca. D'autres régions restent morcelées autour d'unités territoriales plus réduites, tels l'Inde et l'Asie du Sud-Est, les royaumes africains ou européens et leurs subdivisions internes. De vastes zones d'échange et de circulation relient déjà ces mondes, autour de la Méditerranée, de l'océan Indien ou des territoires musulmans.
15C  history  historiography  world  comparison  review  book  français  explained  moi 
october 2019 by aries1988
The Hidden Mystery of Hoops Diplomacy: France vs. China, 1966 - LARB

The story now had its backbone and musculature, but the larger questions, the “so what” aspect, remained allusive. For this, it was time to dive into the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ overseas archives in Nantes.  
The archival staff in Nantes were recruited and affirmed that I was looking in all of the correct files. But by the end of the day we were all wondering: what happened to those documents and why had any reference to the 1966 hoops trip seemingly disappeared from the official diplomatic record?  

Another possibility is that, given the press of events of late July and August 1966, the first months of the Cultural Revolution and traditionally vacation time for the French, embassy staff in Beijing didn’t have enough time or personnel to report as thoroughly on the basketball team’s trip or their observations of on-ground conditions as they traveled with the team.  Or perhaps something about this trip or something that occurred during it remains highly sensitive and not accessible to the public, with a notice of classification somehow overlooked in the archives.
sports  chinese  nantes  français  basketball  diplomacy  1960s 
october 2019 by aries1988
Une certaine idée de l'Europe - leçon magistrale Patrick Boucheron - YouTube
Dans le cadre du cycle de conferences Une certaine idée de l'Europe, organisé par le Groupe d'études geopolitiques, dans une leçon magistrale d’une heure, "Ce qui a manqué à l'Europe" Patrick Boucheron affronte la question européenne.
moi  conference  historian  français  france 
october 2019 by aries1988
Obituary: Jacques Chirac died on September 26th - Le Bulldozer

Abroad, he seemed to favour dictators over democrats. He told African strongmen not to worry about elections. He sold a nuclear reactor to Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. A Russian-speaker (as a student, he translated Pushkin’s “Eugene Onegin”), he proudly counted Vladimir Putin as a personal friend and loathed the “badly brought up” east Europeans with their high-minded talk and Atlanticist outlook.

At home, Jacques Chirac was better at campaigning than governing. His years in power bequeathed France higher unemployment, worse public finances and deeper social divisions.
He threw huge, lavish parties for his supporters, while cultural notables and other influential friends gained chic municipal apartments.
His chauffeur wrote a scabrously detailed book about the president’s energetic private life, for which he was dubbed: “trois minutes, douche comprise” (three minutes, shower included).
One puzzle was Japan: a keen Japanophile, Mr Chirac made dozens of private trips there. Nobody knew why. A son? A mistress? Perhaps both? Or several?

Unlike previous generations of public figures, he was personally untouched by the controversies of the second world war.
critic  français  leader  private  life  politics 
september 2019 by aries1988
The late Jacques Chirac wasn’t a great president, but we can still learn from him.

Instead, what almost every public figure in France seems to agree upon, regardless of their political family, is that Chirac was a “homme sympathique.” Not a great man, but a genial and often kind one. That the death of a man like Chirac has spurred the deep sense of loss and sorrow now felt by so many French is a damning statement of the state of politics not just in France, but in most of the Western world.

Acknowledging the critical work done by historians of Vichy France, Chirac put paid to this hollow claim: “On this day, France—the home of the Enlightenment and Rights of Man, land of welcome and asylum—committed an irreparable act. Failing to keep its word, France delivered those she should have protected to their executioners.” No less importantly, he warned that the “spirit of hate” and “racist crimes” again on the rise in France demanded the nation’s vigilance. “Nothing is insignificant,” he declared, “and nothing is banal.”

Though Chirac will never pass across the Pantheon’s threshold, over which are emblazoned the words “To our great men from a grateful nation,” he would be among the first to earn a place should it ever read “To our sympathetic men from a grateful nation.”
from:rss  français  leader  personality  comparison 
september 2019 by aries1988
“政治唐璜”还是“人民之友”?希拉克叱咤法国政坛的一生|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
希拉克被称为法国政坛的常青树,曾两度担任政府总理,并成功连任两届共和国总统,四十年处于权力巅峰。他不执迷意识形态,拒绝非左即右的两元政治对立,虽身为右派,但在移民或历史问题上却透露出左派党人的底色,是个十足的务实主义者;同时他善变、争强好斗且精于算计,被政敌戏称“政坛猛兽”或“变色龙”。
希拉克在不少国际事务上同美国分庭抗礼,为法国赢得不少声望,又因热爱原始文明、痴迷亚洲文化,在担任总统十二年间,留下别样的外交遗产,成为法国政治史上的一个异类。

在法国做总统,讲究姿态和仪表,必须时时刻刻要拿出一副深沉的精英范儿,显出几分威严,才能赢得尊重,太接地气容易招人笑话。法国大革命反对皇权,二百多年过去,君主制的影响仿佛依旧存在。希拉克打破了这一不成文的规矩,相比阳春白雪,他更喜欢下里巴人,给普罗大众留下一个“粗俗”、“反精英”的印象,比如人们都知道他爱看家长里短的喜剧片而不是艺术电影、爱听战歌而不是高雅的歌剧、爱喝啤酒而不是金贵的高档葡萄酒,吃饭时手上一定拿着一瓶墨西哥科罗娜啤酒,在镜头面前也照样大口吃猪腿肉和小牛头。

有意不在公众场合卖弄自己的学问。“他是那种拿着一本《花花公子》打掩护,内里夹着圣琼·佩斯(Saint-John Perse)诗集读诗的那种人”,曾经在希拉克手下担任部长的弗朗索瓦·基鲁(François Giroud)一语中的。

当时左翼人口学家埃马纽埃尔·陶德(Emmanuel Todd)发表了一份研究,首先提出“社会分化”这个词,指出欧洲一体化建设大背景下,法国精英和平民阶层分化日益严重:前者开放、拥抱全球化;后者保守、固步自封。希拉克倍受启发,以应对“社会分化”为自己的竞选要务,揭露“两个法国”这一现实,抨击法国社会模式,同极为建制派的其他候选人——爱德华·巴拉杜尔(Édouard Balladur)和利昂内尔·若斯潘(Lionel Jospin)形成鲜明对比。

希拉克与前人不同,他带头赎罪。那天,他身着深蓝色西装和灰色领带,讲话时依旧喜欢拉长尾音,说道:“这些黑暗的时刻将永远玷污我们的历史,侮辱我们的过往和传统。对,法国人和法国曾经协助入侵者犯下滔天罪行。”他无力改变历史,却重新书写了历史。

《世界报》则说,希拉克离世意味着一代人的消失。这代人经历过法兰西第四共和国,冷战政策,并目睹柏林墙的倒塌和冷战时代的意识形态的消亡——“希拉克是那个时代的最后一位总统”。
france  français  leader  obituary  president 
september 2019 by aries1988
Michel Houellebecq: Populism's Prophet - Quillette
Houellebecq reasons that the liberalisation of sexual relations, due both to changing societal attitudes and the invention of the birth control pill, have led to widespread sexual inequality; the attractive, more biologically fit elite have more sex than ever, while biological proletarians lead markedly less pleasurable lives, without even the consolation, as in previous eras, of a virtually guaranteed marriage supported by societal institutions. Rather than an isolated phenomenon, Houellebecq sees the sexual marketplace as a natural extension of the competition inherent in the capitalist market system, in which value is assigned to goods, services, and even people, to facilitate trade.

Houellebecq argues that the social structures which maintained Western hegemony by checking the societally harmful excesses of this competition, namely religion and the family unit, have been gradually lost to individualism and the market.
Houellebecq is sceptical that the social stabilising force of Christianity can be called upon anytime soon, and he accepts the decline of religion’s influence over society as a logical consequence of scientific progress.

For Houellebecq, nature is a term that can be used to sanction the most despicable behaviour.
This behaviour may be natural for select human beings, shaped by the right kind of society, but Houellebecq is certain this behaviour is not produced in nature.

humans to create a separate species of asexually reproducing proto-humans, thus freeing the species from the incessant sexual desire and competition that he believes will be the cause of societal collapse.

the old-fashioned institution of marriage did not alter the fact that some were born more physically attractive than others.
the intense pessimism of Houellebecq’s novels often leads one to wonder whether Houellebecq is merely a critic of modern society or, like his idol Schopenhauer, of life in general.

Houellebecq’s view of human nature implies that even if income inequality were reduced, human vanity would find other ways of using choice and taste to perpetuate differences. Natural competition, as a function of unchecked individualism, would continue to dominate, and we would still be left with an inequality of lived experience.

decisions we make in our personal lives, such as where we study, whom we marry and where we live, have an effect on public life and contribute to this inequality in lived experience.
Individually reflecting on the broader consequences of one’s actions, doing one’s best to be humble about the advantages one possesses, and having a genuine compassion for the suffering and insecurities of others may sound banal, but these points are also rarely discussed—possibly because they place a responsibility on all individuals, especially the most privileged among us.
from:rss  français  writer  populism  inequality  society  sex 
september 2019 by aries1988
Centraliens de l’étranger : de Centrale Lyon à l'Université de Penn State
Dès la première semaine à Penn State, j'ai réalisé que l'enseignement était radicalement différent par rapport à la France. Pour résumer : en France on fait de la théorie et on travaille le sens de l'analyse, alors qu’aux États-Unis Unis on fait de la pratique et on développe le sens physique. Indépendamment, les deux approches ont leurs avantages et leurs limites. En exagérant le trait : en France, on apprend plein de choses sans toujours savoir à quoi ça sert, alors qu'aux États Unis, on fait beaucoup d'applications sans toujours savoir d'où ça vient. 

S’il tu devais désigner une chose qui pourrait éventuellement te ferait revenir...
Je dirais les avantages sociaux, tels que la sécurité sociale, mais aussi la situation politique générale des US ou de la France/Europe. 
français  usa  phd  research  education  comparison 
september 2019 by aries1988
勒高夫与“长中世纪”
勒高夫选择从“历史分期”这个大问题入手思考。中国读者对历史分期问题不会感到陌生。在作为一门现代学科的中国史学走向形成的过程中,古史分期问题一度扮演了核心角色。共和国“十七年”史学的“五朵金花”中,分期问题居首,而且与另外两朵金花(“中国封建土地所有制形式问题”与“中国资本主义萌芽问题”)密切关联。

可能与他的盛期中世纪视角有关,在《分期》中,勒高夫没有论及与他的主题密切相关的另一项传统分期“晚期中世纪”(大致1350—1500年)及其当代学术史,我们不妨在这里简略地加以补充

给予“长15世纪”这个晚期中世纪与文艺复兴的重叠时段以专门的关注:并非因为期间发生了重大的历史断裂,而是这个时段自身或许具有某些区别于之前的盛期中世纪与之后的早期现代的独特历史气质。

他生平最富学术原创性的两大论断刚好反映了这种张力。一是“时间”的发现。勒高夫认为,中世纪欧洲的最大发明是一种在经济和思想的双重意义上支配和管理时间的意识,而这种意识构成了西方现代文明的基石。二是“民间文化”。在他看来,中世纪基督教文化的主流并非以规整的拉丁语著作和高深的神学思想为代表的高级“教士文化”,而是一种诉诸口头流传、缺乏严格的教义和仪程规范、充满怪力乱神的流行文化。

尽管这个概念本身极少被当代法国学者接受和使用(包括勒高夫)。如今,“早期现代”与“古代晚期”(Late Antiquity)一同构成了英美欧洲史学界最热门的两大领域。
history  historiography  middle-age  europe  early-modern  français  concept  debate  Renaissance  west  book  buy 
august 2019 by aries1988
The Absolute Originality of Georges Perec | The New Yorker

Perec was heir to the mighty Raymonds—Roussel and Queneau—and, like those grandmasters, he unlocks strange, convulsive worlds made of words, yet his severest formalism is inseparable from an acute sensitivity to human suffering.

If Perec took pride in not repeating himself, it did not stop him from returning, as if in an elliptical orbit, to the same obsessions: police states, citizens going missing, organized brutality, human fragility.
français  literature  writer  creativity  language 
july 2019 by aries1988
Les tics de langage
Fonction phatique de la langue
Phatic expressions
français  analysis  linguist  life  habit  language  learn  interview  fun  young  generation  explained  kid 
july 2019 by aries1988
Can Emmanuel Macron Stem the Populist Tide?
In an inversion of the anxieties that might have surrounded a relationship between a female student and a male teacher, Macron’s parents mourned the likelihood that their son wouldn’t have children.

At the terrifyingly prestigious Lycée Henri IV, whose alumni include Sartre, Weil, and Foucault, he was no longer the precocious boy wonder, just a distracted new kid from the provinces who wasn’t great at math. He twice fell short of the scores necessary to enter the illustrious École Normale Supérieure. Instead, he attended Sciences Po, the social-science university, and also got a master’s degree in philosophy.

With a few exceptions, its members were young, affluent white men, who were excited by Macron’s commitment to shaking up a status quo that had been established in the postwar era and hardly updated since.

Of all the lines the candidates slung at each other in the course of the election, the one that remains indelible for me is Macron saying very calmly to Le Pen, who had just confused two French companies, “One makes phones, the other makes turbines.”

Their activity has been particularly robust in France’s “empty diagonal,” a band of low-density settlement that stretches from the Massif Central, in the south, to Lorraine, in the northeast.

By the end of the tour, according to an official count, almost two million people had participated online; more than sixteen thousand grievance books were compiled, twenty-seven thousand letters and e-mails were written, and more than ten thousand meetings were held. Macron spent a total of ninety-two hours on the debate floor. By April, his popularity had rebounded to around thirty per cent, from a low of twenty-three in December—not good, but not nearly as bad as his predecessor’s at the same point in his tenure.

the strategy is to “identify the causes of the populist vote and respond methodically. If we succeed, we will dry it up.” When the input changes, so do the conclusions, but only to the precise degree that they need to.
politics  français  president  interview  2019  france  society  macron  democracy 
july 2019 by aries1988
Should You Be Able to Disinherit Your Child

Now Mr. Hallyday has prompted a new debate about disinheriting children. The French idea of forcibly breaking up estates originated after the French Revolution, among reformers who wanted to weaken the aristocracy and make sure that no single heir became too rich. That principle is now taken so much for granted that many French people were shocked to learn that Americans can simply cut some children off.

“We found this very violent, as if their very existence was being denied,” explained Ms. Pieau, who’s also editor of the French celebrity magazine Closer. The rock star Eddy Mitchell, Mr. Hallyday’s longtime friend, said, “In the U.S., you have the right to disinherit your children in favor of your cat or your dog, but we are not Americans.”
law  français  american  heritage 
may 2019 by aries1988
Why It’s So Hard to Learn French in Middle Age
I knew I’d never sound like a native. But shouldn’t I be much better than this?
middle-life  learn  français  vocabulary  language  brain  research 
april 2019 by aries1988
Gauls, gilets jaunes and the fight for French identity

# the roman national
The British used to read Our Island Story — the hoary best-seller whose chronicling of stirring events and great men and women from Albion to Queen Victoria introduced generations of schoolchildren to history. (David Cameron once claimed it was his favourite childhood reading.) Across the Channel, books like the so-called Petit Lavisse did much the same thing, recounting the whole great sweep of what the French term the roman national from the days of the Gaulish general Vercingetorix to the French Revolution and its aftermath.
Historians once found it natural to tell stories that were designed to imbue their countrymen with pride.
“Whatever your ancestors’ nationality, young Frenchmen and women, at the moment you become French, your ancestors are the Gauls and Vercingetorix.”

In 1987 historian Suzanne Citron published an important essay on “the national myth” in which she deconstructed the assumptions behind the traditional narratives then commonly taught in schools.
The purpose was to show how France’s past could not be understood except within a larger context — global, we might call it today — in which ideas and people and goods flowed across borders and shaped one another.

Alain Finkielkraut, self-appointed guardian of the old story, and himself recently on the receiving end of anti-Semitic abuse from gilets jaunes, denounced the authors as “gravediggers of the great French heritage”.

Gaul being — in a favourite nationalist phrase — the “eldest daughter” of Rome

Countries prosper, so the message runs, when they welcome strangers (like the Armenian refugees who gave France Charles Aznavour) and they suffer from the consequences of their own narrow-mindedness.

Now it is not the book’s gleeful dismantling of the récit national that is under attack, but rather its purported underplaying of a long history of inequality and its consequences.
there are real problems with reading globalisation back into the past, not least because trade in general, and foreign trade in particular, was simply far less important as a part of economic life in earlier times than it is today
a more militant, provincial and insurgent history of burdens and privileges.
separate communal and local activism from outright xenophobia

The limitations of the nationalist narrative have been exposed. But what is the alternative? To abandon narrative altogether, in favour of the episodic and the vignette?
is it best replaced by a multitude into which we can dip at will? The idea of a past that is shared may then slowly slip entirely from view.
historiography  debate  narrative  world  nationalism  français  france  history  2019  book  society  conflict  manif  macron  globalization  opinion 
april 2019 by aries1988
Notre Dame Is the Burning Heart of Paris

It’s partly that, at 856 years old, Notre Dame has witnessed much of French history. It’s where Henry VI was crowned, and Napoleon became emperor. A few hours into the fire, French TV news was running everything from clips of François Mitterrand’s funeral to scenes from a movie version of Victor Hugo’s “Hunchback of Notre Dame.”

In his address to the nation, Mr. Macron described what Parisians are feeling as a “tremblement intérieur” — an internal trembling.

A hundred years from now, people will still be talking about the fire of 2019.
2019  paris  france  architecture  patrimoine  fire  tragedy  accident  art  church  christianity  français 
april 2019 by aries1988
Les Enfoirés | WordReference Forums
Bastoune and Carnesecchi have it right, as well as David314 (but not exactly fitting this one).
Enfoirés is normally an insult (fuckers, assholes, dickheads ...) quite strong, but here it refers to Coluche (and what followed after him), who gave the word a different meaning. He even used to greet his audience with "salut les enfoirés !", a daring feat ...
explained  français  show  expression  humor  artist  charity 
april 2019 by aries1988
A Certain Idea of France | Peter Hitchens

Charles de Gaulle’s life would perhaps have been better lived in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, in times when personal courage, mystical imagination, chivalry, and religious fervor were more welcome than they are now. In this world of the United Nations, risk assessment, lawyers, Geneva Conventions, television and superpowers, there is not really enough room for such a man to swing his sword, just as there is no room for old-fashioned great powers in the shadow of superpowers. Had he not been so magnificent, he would have been ridiculous. He looked, more than anything else, like a camel, not least because of the superior expression on his face suggesting that he alone knew the secret One Hundredth Name of God, which camels are supposed to know.

It is a strange fact that the potentially attractive political combination of liberty, domestic socialism, well-armed patriotism, and social conservatism seldom exists in the advanced countries of the West.

François ­Mitterrand, his old rival, undid almost all of de Gaulle’s work. He wholly rejected the general’s belief in an enduring, sovereign France. ­Mitterrand had been decorated by Pétain’s collaborationist Vichy government, and like many intelligent Frenchmen, saw 1940 as a moment of truth that France could not thereafter ignore. It fell to people like him to implement Hector Dexter’s vision of a Europe whose common cultural bond was Coca-Cola, and ­McDonald’s, too.
leader  president  france  français  history  ww2  europe  eu  fail  politics  bio  american  anti 
march 2019 by aries1988
生姜炒饭,出乎意料的好吃
花生油 60ml(有鸡油更好)、蒜末 1tsp、姜末 1tsp、葱末 90g(葱白部分)、米饭 320g(长粒米更好)、鸡蛋 2 个、芝麻油 2tsp、酱油 2tsp、盐适量【两人份】
rice  français  recette 
february 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
#今日法语 Haut la main,字面意思为“手抬高”,引申为“轻而易举”,原指骑士骑马时抬高手拉紧缰绳从而牵制和控制马儿。有趣的是,英语里表达同样引申义的短语hands down,“手放下”,字面意思刚好相反,但也是来自于马…
comparison  fun  english  français  expression 
january 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
RT : "C'est un mur de l'argent" : des personnalités s'engagent contre la hausse des frais universitaires pour les non-Eu…
2019  university  français  fee  reform  gaijin  student 
january 2019 by aries1988
好文!旅法30多年翻译详述法国目前社会动乱“黄马甲运动”及法国的现状!

欧盟为各国制定的未来发展方向是: 法国和意大利是专门旅游国, 西班牙和葡萄牙种菜和水果, 德国荷兰丹麦养猪牛, 波兰种粮食; 东欧各小国按人口总额交纳的欧共体分摊金少, 但领取的补助因货币比值差距大而实际受益最多。

俄和前南诸国向西欧贩卖军火, 大量投资滨海房产, 黑社会势力强大, 东欧的蛇头、娼妓、少年惯偷群, 波兰的长途运输业+电工和建筑工, 北非转来的毒品, 大量新老移民轻易获得法国(和西欧其他各国) 经过历史长期斗争而获得的社会福利, 诸多头疼问题导致各国极右翼迅速发展。

美中俄的威胁

法国的税项门类和总额, 被"世界经济发展与合作组织"排名为欧洲最高额国家之一(丹麦第一, 德国第二, 法国第三)。 在至少十多种赋税和社会分摊金以及行业分摊金中, 增值税 1° 收益最大, 其次是社会保险税 2°, 然后依次为: 收入所得税 3°, 公司所得税 4°, 土地税 5°, 居住税 6°, 烟草税 7°, 社会奉献普及税 8° (法文缩写CSG), 以及颇有争议的 巨富团结税 9° (法文缩写 ISF)。

该税始创于1791年大革命时期, 1953年以法律形式正式确定。 几十年来, 法国所有城镇的基建和福利费用所需: 道路修缮, 垃圾清理, 街心花园, 体育中心, 图书馆, 幼儿园, 中小学交通和食堂等, 全指靠国家对此税收的反还款。

跟世界各地的都市布局和建筑艺术相比, 看来看去, 总觉得法国别具一格: 建筑群内临近楼房的风格一致,建筑物本身的外貌与内部功能一致, 内部装饰物的质地和颜色格调一致, 当时利用与未来的长远发展一致, 一句话, 各个市镇的规划设计, 体现出法国人对美的欣赏水平, 整体上高于其他国家。这正如法国人的穿衣习惯,当今世界生活普遍以务实为主, 不管出身是何层次, 穿着是否品牌, 法国人都注意上衣下裤鞋袜的式样搭配和颜色协调。 跟生活水平差距并不大的南欧北欧和德国相比, 法国人的这一点比较突出, 从旅游团的穿戴就能断定是否来自法国。

** 美国飞机向法国空投了3000台钢琴, 几万份爵士乐谱, 意在传播美国生活方式。

左翼上台后根据他们对"社会主义"理念的理解, 实施人人平等, 全民自由, 对犯罪分子从轻判决, 相信他们能自身改造思想, 实际是放纵坏人罪人。 他们主张"不要隔绝罪犯, 使他们远离生活现实, 不利出狱后再融入社会"。 这种对一小撮人的自由, 势必造成社会紊乱, 人身安全无保障, 更谈不上全民自由! 法国的传统左派应当对此负主要责任。

1986年6月我来到法国, 那时社会比现在稳定, 在"巴黎高等翻译学校"上课, 有时晚上11点乘公交车返回郊区住处, 毫无安全问题; 物价呢, 过去50法朗(折合现在7欧元)能买很多东西, 可现在100欧元(折合过去700法朗) 却买不到啥。 由此可见法国的物价涨幅, 人民的普遍购买力和生活水平下降多大, 我深有体会, 所以同情支持。

有位法国老知识分子曾对我说, 美国人称呼新闻媒介为"第四权力" (西方是"三权"鼎立), 此次法国的"黄马甲"运动, 我深有感触。
The derivation of the term fourth estate arises from the traditional European concept of the three estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The equivalent term fourth power is somewhat uncommon in English but is used in many European languages (see: es:Cuarto poder and fr:Quatrième pouvoir, for example) referring to the separation of powers in government into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.
analysis  france  anecdote  stereotype  media  2018  question  future  crisis  populism  history  français 
december 2018 by aries1988
The Woman Who Still Finds Louis C.K. Lovable
The French comedian Blanche Gardin is taking on all of feminism’s orthodoxies.
2018  female  feminism  français  movement  opinion  culture  comedy  artist 
november 2018 by aries1988
Romanticism’s Unruly Hero

At a time when we are grappling with doubts and diminishments in so many areas of our social, cultural, and political life, museumgoers may find themselves nonplussed by the bulldozer Romanticism of some of his work. Delacroix’s grandest canvases, along with Hector Berlioz’s operatic and symphonic works and Victor Hugo’s plays, novels, and poems, have a sweep and an insistence that can strike us as not so much authoritative as authoritarian.

During a career that spanned more than forty years, Delacroix explored a phenomenal range of subjects: Old Testament and New Testament stories; scenes from Dante, Shakespeare, and Goethe; several centuries of French history; North African life; the political upheavals of his own moment; portraits, landscapes, seascapes, nudes, and studies of animals and flowers.

Delacroix’s canvas has nothing to do with the softcore fantasies that finicky Orientalist painters served up in the salons. As scholars have pointed out in recent years, he himself made the distinction with his title, which locates these women “in their apartment”—not “in a harem.” While Jean-Léon Gérôme painted scenes in which women were often quite literally being groomed for sex, Delacroix’s women, with their easy languorous authority,

Shakespeare, who discovered the wonderfully organic shape of his plays amid the competing personalities and destinies of his heroes and heroines, may have emboldened Delacroix as he broke with the rigid structures celebrated by French Classicism.

it is fortunate that of all Delacroix’s efforts to go head to head with the masters of the Renaissance and the Baroque, the greatest remains the most accessible. Anyone can walk into the Church of Saint-Sulpice on the Left Bank and linger over his Jacob Wrestling with the Angel.
painting  art  artist  love  letter  leader  français 
november 2018 by aries1988
就士游 | 陈浩武:从启蒙运动到大革命——法国旅行手记(中续)
此为拿破仑主政法国期间制定的《法国民法典》,史称《拿破仑法典》。这是欧洲历史上第一部系统的民法法典。它分为“人法”“物法”和“所有权法”三大部份,共2200余条,极其详尽。

《拿破仑法典》主要借鉴了罗马法的传统,是恢复罗马法系的一次重大贡献。现在人类世界上主要有两大法系:一个是以法国为代表的大陆法系,一个是以英国为代表的海洋法系。大陆法系也称为“成文法系”,是法官根据成文的法律法规来判案;而海洋法系则没有规定的法律条文,而是根据历史过往的案例来判案,由陪审员决定罪与非罪。这也是英美国家和大陆国家的一项重大区别。
law  français  loire 
october 2018 by aries1988
Faut-il revoir l'enseignement de la guerre d'Algérie ?
Qu'est-ce qui justifie cet enseignement facultative ?
Pourquoi la crainte des enseignements
https://overcast.fm/+BDarWHBc/13:05
https://overcast.fm/+BDarWHBc/16:13

Traiter de la Guerre d'Algerie en classe
https://overcast.fm/+BDarWHBc/32:30
education  france  français  algerie  war  children  teaching 
october 2018 by aries1988
French windows: an expat’s view of Paris

The most striking thing about the city, of course, is the people who live here. After almost two years here I’ve concluded that three terms sum up the Parisian experience like no other: la terrasse, faire le pont and la rentrée.

If in London you’re defined by where you work and in New York you’re defined by how much you earn, in Paris you’re defined by your ability to converse on books, philosophy or art. The French can discuss ideas for hours but equally can respond to almost any question — how was Saint-Tropez? Will Macron manage to reform France? How will the feud over [late rock star] Johnny Hallyday’s inheritance conclude? — with a shrug of their shoulders and two words: c’est compliqué.

in France there are 11 jours fériés or public holidays each year. If a férié falls on a Tuesday, you skip work on Monday as well, and make a bridge from the weekend. This is such a national pastime that there is even a section dedicated to le pont on the French public administration website.

€1m A four-bedroom duplex apartment in the loft of a recent building in the 20th arrondissement near Père Lachaise

€2m A three-bedroom apartment in the 2nd arrondissement overlooking the Places des Victoires

€5.9m A four-bedroom 294 square metre apartment at Trocadéro in the 16th arrondissement, south-facing with views of the Seine and the Eiffel Tower
temoignage  paris  british  français  life  gaijin 
september 2018 by aries1988
任剑涛:现代法兰西文明的矛盾性由何造成?
政治理论上的后发性,使得法国很矛盾。要注意先发建立现代国家,但后发规范现代国家。法国的矛盾在启蒙运动时比较突出,尤其是当现代文明骨干要建构现代国家的时候。来自日内瓦的卢梭带着非常矛盾的现代文明建构体系,跑到法国搅动了一池春水。

只有立宪民主国家加民族国家才是真正意义上的现代文明国家,而法国一半领先一半滞后,所以它很矛盾。因而法国带给我们的现代文明建构是个矛盾体。这跟英格兰不一样,英格兰在1215-1688年的四百多年间渐进磨合出一个典范,其现代文明中没有介入太多情感因素,而经验主义进步也是一样。而法国不仅在建立现代国家过程中是分裂结构,理论上是情感跟理性战斗的结构,而且法国人期望通过理想建构——而不是经验磨合,要通过理性的设计,搞出美轮美奂的文明体。

笛卡尔就是建构理性主义的代表,他希图通过自己的设计而走出与培根经验道路完全不同的法国道路。笛卡尔理念跟卢梭理念结合,对法国政治产生了极大的推进作用。这样的矛盾结构在法兰西极为深刻,揭示出后发现代国家建立现代文明的不易。

一般而言,行政如果要追求效率就一定是实行单一首长制,但在法国却是双重首长制。中央派出的机构首长和本地选出行政官员共同执政。

一直到今天,法国对于建构现代政治的矛盾依然存在。一方面,热情万丈,想要建立完美政权的乌托邦主义一直延绵了下来。另一方面,法国的左右互搏没有引领法国走向现代文明的康庄大道,这种极端形态对构建现代文明的启示,是法国对后现代文明建设的贡献。
français  thinking  philosophy  civ  world 
september 2018 by aries1988
Homo sapiens devient-il homo informaticus ?
oisif, oisive

adjectif et nom
(ancien français oidif, avec l'influence de oiseux)

Qui n'exerce aucune activité permanente et dispose de nombreux loisirs, qui vit sans travailler.
human  workforce  future  book  français  opinion  work  self  ai  data 
september 2018 by aries1988
How Charles de Gaulle Rescued France
His life shows that right-wing politics needn’t bend toward absolutism, Adam Gopnik writes.
president  français  politics  history  france  bio  book  review 
august 2018 by aries1988
C'est une autre histoire
La chaîne youtube qui te parle d'histoire autrement. C'est de l'histoire. Mais en drôle. C'est de l'histoire drôle. Et c'est plus drôle que cette blague. Dan...
video  history  français  phd  fun  clisson 
august 2018 by aries1988
Delacroix: last of the Old Masters or first of the new?

Romanticism was a cultural movement that began in Britain and Germany in the late 18th century and soon spread to the rest of Europe. It prioritised inspiration and individual experience over the rational values of the Enlightenment.

Delacroix uses visible brushstrokes to convey dynamism: it’s as though he has frozen a single frame and the slaughter could resume at any second. Like “Chios”, “The Death of Sardanapalus” provokes conflicting emotions in the viewer. Do we recoil in disgust or marvel at the vividness?

While she bears her chest, she is not eroticised. Her combination of robust, earthly features and celestial radiance places her somewhere between a woman-of-the-people and a goddess. Delacroix modelled her form on the Venus de Milo, which was discovered in 1820 and arrived at the Louvre the following year.

The “Women of Algiers”, more restrained than his earlier paintings, is a sumptuous depiction of a harem.

Delacroix has been described as “the last Old Master”, his paintings a culmination of four centuries of European art.

Looking at this quickness of the brushstrokes in this painting, it’s clear how Delacroix, although he painted from memory rather than en plain air, laid the ground for the Impressionists.
painting  painter  story  art  XVIIII  leader  français  louvre  comparison 
may 2018 by aries1988
Ecarts segmentaux les plus fréquents - Enseignement/Apprentissage de la Prononciation du Français
Les consonnes
[p], [t], [k], [b], [d], [g]
Les sourdes ne sont pas distinguées des sonores (chinois, allemands,…)
list  français  gaijin  pronunciation 
may 2018 by aries1988
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