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Science Isn’t Broken
Instead, you can think of the p-value as an index of surprise. How surprising would these results be if you assumed your hypothesis was false?

Researchers often make these calls as they go, and often there’s no obviously correct way to proceed, which makes it tempting to try different things until you get the result you’re looking for.

They’re just falling prey to natural human biases that lead them to tip the scales and set up studies to produce false-positive results.

What makes science so powerful is that it’s self-correcting — sure, false findings get published, but eventually new studies come along to overturn them, and the truth is revealed. At least, that’s how it’s supposed to work.

Science is not a magic wand that turns everything it touches to truth. Instead, science operates as a procedure of uncertainty reduction, said Nosek, of the Center for Open Science. The goal is to get less wrong over time. This concept is fundamental — whatever we know now is only our best approximation of the truth. We can never presume to have everything right.

As a society, our stories about how science works are also prone to error. The standard way of thinking about the scientific method is: ask a question, do a study, get an answer. But this notion is vastly oversimplified. A more common path to truth looks like this: ask a question, do a study, get a partial or ambiguous answer, then do another study, and then do another to keep testing potential hypotheses and homing in on a more complete answer. Human fallibilities send the scientific process hurtling in fits, starts and misdirections instead of in a straight line from question to truth.

The uncertainty inherent in science doesn’t mean that we can’t use it to make important policies or decisions. It just means that we should remain cautious and adopt a mindset that’s open to changing course if new data arises. We should make the best decisions we can with the current evidence and take care not to lose sight of its strength and degree of certainty.
science  scientist  opinion  research  mind  human  people  truth  instapaper_favs 
august 2015 by aries1988
听王小波说对待知识的态度
“学习文史知识目的在于“温故”,有文史修养的人生活在从过去到现代一个漫长的时间段里。学习科学知识目的在于“知新”,有科学知识的人可以预见未来,他生活在从现在到广阔无垠的未来。假如你什么都不学习,那就只能生活在现实现世的一个小圈子里,狭窄的很。”
knowledge  learn  human  world  history 
august 2015 by aries1988
Human nature: Being epicurean - New Scientist
Then there's feasting. From sharing the spoils of a good hunt, to celebrating a special occasion, every society does it. And here you are more likely to find men cooking. We even see this in our own backyards, where they do most of the barbecuing. "My own thinking is it has something to do with establishing a reputation as being generous, in control of the high-quality food," says Wrangham.
human  behavior  animal  comparison  analysis  list 
august 2015 by aries1988
Chinese City Defends Dog Meat Festival, Despite Scorn
Yulin, whose lush subtropical surroundings are said to be the birthplace of the legendary imperial beauty Yang Guifei, has become the target of a fast-growing animal rights campaign, which has made its residents feel increasingly under siege and at times defensive.

Locals say the moral hypocrisy over the eating of animals is a bottomless grab bag. What about the consumption of beef when cows are considered sacred in India, they say, or guinea pigs in Latin America, or dogs in Korea or turkeys in the United States? What makes eating dog meat any different from eating the flesh of chickens or pigs, they ask?
debate  animal  human  ethic 
august 2015 by aries1988
人工智能:何时是“他们”,何时是“我们”? | 科学人 | 果壳网 科技有意思
这种种现象,背后的逻辑往往是8个字:非我族类,其心必异;因此,对于这些异类,就完全不必也不该采取和同类相同的道德标准,怎么狠就怎么来吧。

从以居住地为依据的诸侯国,扩展到以身份认同为主的民族国家(比如“炎黄子孙”就曾被用作与“夷狄”区分开来),人类对于“我的同类”的认定范围,不断的扩大开来,善待自己的同类,甚至可以为了保护自己的同类而作出自我牺牲,而这显然是不利于自己的基因延续的。

无论是出于何种原因,借用道金斯在《自私的基因》一书中的话来说就是: “只有人类,才能够反抗基因的暴政”。
ai  human  biology  mind  enemy  distinction 
june 2015 by aries1988
The Book of Barely Imagined Beings, by Caspar Henderson – review | Science | The Guardian
a gripping story of evolution that leaves us to ponder on the concept of “deep time”, the billions of years that life on Earth has evolved and of which humans are the merest fraction of a part. As Henderson puts it: “Human history with respect to life on Earth is as deep as the displacement of the smallest seabird floating on top of a wave over the deepest part of the ocean.”
book  review  biology  animal  human  evolution 
may 2015 by aries1988
‘My Enemy, My Brother’
In this short documentary, two survivors of a brutal war in the Middle East meet again years later under astonishing circumstances.
canada  human  war  middle-east  destiny 
may 2015 by aries1988
Alex Garland of ‘Ex Machina’ Talks About Artificial Intelligence

But there is a mistake here. The machines in question are not strong A.I.’s. They are weak. They have no motivation, no intention; they’re neutral. The thing with an agenda is us: consumers, who want to buy the machines, and manufacturers, who want to sell them. And looming over both, giant tech companies, whose growth only ever seems to be exponential, whose practices are opaque, and whose power is both massive and without true oversight. Combine all this with government surveillance and lotus-eating public acquiescence, and it’s not the machine component that scares me. It’s the human component.
movie  ai  future  human  society  industry  essay 
april 2015 by aries1988
BBC News - The myth of the eight-hour sleep
Much like the experience of Wehr's subjects, these references describe a first sleep which began about two hours after dusk, followed by waking period of one or two hours and then a second sleep.

During this waking period people were quite active. They often got up, went to the toilet or smoked tobacco and some even visited neighbours. Most people stayed in bed, read, wrote and often prayed. Countless prayer manuals from the late 15th Century offered special prayers for the hours in between sleeps.

Ekirch found that references to the first and second sleep started to disappear during the late 17th Century. This started among the urban upper classes in northern Europe and over the course of the next 200 years filtered down to the rest of Western society.

So the next time you wake up in the middle of the night, think of your pre-industrial ancestors and relax. Lying awake could be good for you.
sleep  history  human  explained 
february 2015 by aries1988
Tom The Dancing Bug Blog
"destroy without a twinge of guilt"
fun  ethic  human  explained 
december 2014 by aries1988
John Donoghue : « Osons interpréter les signaux du cerveau »
Il faut être certain qu’aucun fluide cérébral ne pénètre dans l’interface, d’où sortent une centaine de microfils connectés avec l’électrode implantée. Il faut ensuite s’assurer que l’interface communique en Wi-Fi avec une haute bande passante, car une quantité énorme d’informations doit être transmise vers l’extérieur. Pour cela, il faut des batteries durables, tant il est impensable de répéter souvent l’intervention chirurgicale pour en changer ; sur notre prototype, elles peuvent durer cinq ans. Ce dernier a pour l’heure la taille d’une boîte d’allumettes. Mais c’est aussi ce qui se fait de plus complexe au monde.
human  robot  future 
november 2014 by aries1988
The growing problem of Pablo Escobar’s hippos
Here, conditions for hippos are idyllic. The river is slow moving and has plenty of shallows, perfect for larger animals which don't actually swim but push themselves off banks, gliding through the water. Moreover, the region never experiences drought, which tends to act as a natural brake on the size of herds in Africa.

How much the hippos like Colombia can be judged from how much sex they are having. In Africa they usually become sexually active between the ages of seven and nine for males, and nine and 11 for females, but Pablo Escobar's hippos are becoming sexually active as young as three. All the fertile females are reported to be giving birth to a calf every year.

Colombian people, he believes, are more vulnerable than Africans because they see hippos as cuddly, "floppy" animals. The respected El Colombiano newspaper recently reported that children in a school near Hacienda Napoles are sharing a pond with the animals, and having direct contact with hippo calves at home.

"My father brought a little one home once," an unnamed girl told the paper. "I called him Luna (Moon) because he was very sweet - we fed him with just milk." Another child, a boy, told the paper: "My father has captured three. It is nice because you have a little animal at home. We bottle-feed them because they only drink milk. They have a very slippery skin, you pour water and they produce a kind of slime, you touch them and it's like soap."

But adult hippos are dangerous. Despite their ungainly appearance, they are very agile in the water and can charge on land at up to 18 mph (29km/h). It's often said that hippos are responsible for more human deaths in Africa than any other animal - though it may be more accurate to say they cause more deaths than any other wild mammal.

Another idea, favoured by David Echeverri of the local environmental authority, is to build a reserve with proper hippo-proof fences. But it would be a huge challenge to round up all the feral hippos of Antioquia, and would cost an estimated $500,000 (£290,000).

He isn't joking. During experiments with electric fences a while ago, he recalls, someone misjudged the voltage and electrocuted one of the Hacienda Napoles hippos. "What did the local people do? They took him, they chopped him up, they barbecued him and they ate him!" The animal is said to have tasted similar to pork.
animal  story  human  conflict 
october 2014 by aries1988
The Physical Exam as Refuge - NYTimes.com

Countless times, I have found that it is only during the physical exam that patients reveal what is truly on their mind. Whether it is the cough that they are reminded of now that I am listening to their lungs, or whether it is the domestic violence, the eating disorder or the genital symptoms that they feel comfortable revealing once we are in a more intimate setting — there is something about touch that changes the dynamic.

But then the doctor and patient move to the exam table, and everything changes. This is often the first moment that they can talk directly, without the impediment of technology. They are physically closer to each other, actually touching. This is an intimacy, albeit of the nonromantic type, but an intimacy nonetheless. And all intimacies have an effect of changing the dynamics of the interaction. Obviously, there is a risk of changing for the worse, but in my experience it is almost always a change for the better. Once a doctor and patient are at the exam table, touching, talking without the computer between them, conversation of a different sort is possible.
doctor  people  temoignage  body  medicine  opinion  psychology  human  communication  practice 
october 2014 by aries1988
The Woman Who Walked 10,000 Miles (No Exaggeration) in Three Years
In the taxonomy of travelers, the word “explorer” suggests a morally superior pioneer, a man or woman who braves the battle against nature to discover new terrain, expanding our species’ understanding of the world. “Adventurer,” by contrast, implies a self-indulgent adrenaline junkie, who scares loved ones by courting puerile risk. The former, obviously, is the far better title, but it’s tough to claim these days. The world is Google-mapped. Reaching the actual virgin territory of space or the deep ocean requires resources that few possess. In short, the noble fig leaf of terra incognita has fallen away and laid bare the peripatetic, outsize bravado of Scott’s kindred spirits. The resulting itineraries are pretty strange. We now have guys like Felix Baumgartner sky-diving from a balloon-borne capsule at 128,100 feet.

At age 8 she ran into the woods with her dog and spent the night in a cave. Marquis’s mother called the police, but when Marquis returned, her mother didn’t scold. Fighting Marquis’s wanderlust was hopeless. To prepare for the expedition, Marquis spent two years walking or snowshoeing 20 miles a day, wearing 75 pounds. On the trip itself, she carried, among other things, five pairs of underwear, a large pocketknife, wide-spectrum antibiotics, tea-tree oil for massaging her feet, a solar-powered charger, a beacon, a BlackBerry, a satellite phone, Crocs, a compass, a tiny emergency stash of amphetamines (“that’s the backup backup backup of the backup; in case you lose a foot and you need to get out and not feel a thing”) and pink merino-wool pajamas (“you put them on and you feel good, you feel gorgeous”).

she found being among people overwhelming, and her senses remained so acute that even just sitting in a cafeteria was grating. “You hear the dishwasher?” Marquis asked me, pointing toward an unseen kitchen. I shook my head. Marquis said, resigned, “There’s a radio playing back there, too.”
adventure  self  video  human  female 
october 2014 by aries1988
Pourquoi les zoos peuvent tuer leurs animaux
Mais le public danois est très différent du nôtre : c'est un peuple de fermiers, qui a une vision extrêmement rurale de la gestion des populations animales. De la même manière que les corridas ou la consommation de foie gras sont acceptées, globalement, par l'opinion française – ce qui est inimaginable dans les pays du Nord –, le zoo de Copenhague pratique depuis des années des euthanasies sur ses animaux en surnombre, et cela ne choque pas son public. Entre l'obligation morale que nous avons d'assurer la viabilité d'une population à long terme, celle de veiller au bien-être des animaux et la prise en compte de la sensibilité du public, nous nous retrouvons avec des objectifs qui ne sont pas forcément compatibles. Pour résoudre ces contradictions, il faudrait pouvoir agrandir l'espace des parcs zoologiques, ou créer des réserves spécifiquement dédiées à la gestion de ces populations. Mais ce projet n'est absolument pas dans les plans des gouvernements européens... La consanguinité n'est pas un problème chez les reptiles, ni chez les invertébrés. Mais chez les mammifères, elle constitue une réelle menace à la survie des populations.

Cela veut dire qu'on laisse la mère élever son petit, parce que cela contribue à sa qualité de vie. Cela veut dire aussi que le petit, jusqu'à sa mort, a été heureux avec sa mère... Par ailleurs, l'abattage est une méthode qui, si elle est correctement appliquée (et on parle ici de professionnels qui ne ratent pas leur coup), ne fait pas souffrir l'animal. Marius était en train de manger, il ne savait pas qu'il allait mourir, il n'a pas eu peur... Tout cela a un sens, c'est une logique tout à fait défendable. Mais une logique qu'on ne peut pas accepter en France, pour des raisons essentiellement affectives et irrationnelles.
animal  human 
august 2014 by aries1988
Faut-il encore des zoos ?
« La population humaine atteindra bientôt 8 milliards d’individus, la pression urbaine ne cesse d’augmenter : il est donc primordial de conserver un contact avec la nature. Quand on sait que les parcs zoologiques – tous lieux et qualités confondus – accueillent chaque année plus de 600 millions de personnes, on mesure le potentiel de sensibilisation à l’environnement que cela représente », renchérit Colomba de La Panouse-Turnbull, directrice générale déléguée du parc et château de Thoiry (Yvelines). Mais derrière ce nouveau décor, l’objectif reste le même : acquérir et présenter des animaux à un public prêt à payer pour satisfaire sa curiosité, son goût du beau et de l’exotisme. Or, force est de constater que, sur ce terrain, les réussites se comptent sur les doigts de la main. Il y eut celle du vautour fauve, dont les résultats en France, depuis les lâchers des années 1980, ont été remarquables. Celles du bison d’Amérique, du bison d’Europe, du cheval de Przewalski, le dernier cheval sauvage au monde… Et c’est à peu près tout.

Les zoos sauront-ils accomplir cette nouvelle mue ? Se faire les messagers d’un discours véritablement environnemental ? Renoncer à présenter tout ou partie du fameux « Big Five » – éléphant, rhinocéros, lion, léopard et buffle, les cinq animaux d’Afrique considérés comme les plus dangereux par les amateurs de safari – au profit d’espèces moins spectaculaires, mais écologiquement plus essentielles ? Certains ont en tout cas amorcé le virage.
animal  debate  human 
august 2014 by aries1988
外滩画报--文化--特写--真有宇宙创造者的话,也在科学范畴之内
铜钱外圆内方,外圆的意思是说我们的表现手法应该多种多样,灵活多变,适合读者不同的欣赏取向;内方就是我们对科幻应该有一个核心的理念,这个理念是一个底线,不能突破,它也是一种文学体裁存在的依据。

L:在科学的基础上,展开想象力。科学是科幻的灵魂。这不是每个人都承认的理念,很多作品也并不遵循这种理念,但我自己的创作和我喜欢的作品都是遵循这种理念的。

宗教和科学有某种共同的渊源,像西方的基督教文化中对上帝的敬畏感,也是催生出现代科学的一个原因,把这种敬畏感转移到宇宙上来,会使人们迫切要了解上帝的行为和意志,这就有了探讨宇宙秘密的精神力量,宗教和科学有这样一种复杂的关系。
scifi  interview  reading  cosmos  human  religion 
june 2014 by aries1988
不那么聪明的机器人,可能更惹人喜爱
他的艺术作品目前已受到一定关注,而且因为他的背景关系,其作品与科技仍然有非常深的关联。例如早前他展出的 Pulse Machine(脉搏机器),这件与雕刻家 Alicia Eggert 合作的展品,外形上只是一个平平无奇的鼓。不过 Reben 却赋予它 “生命”——Pulse Machine 每分钟敲击 60 次,就像人的心脏一样,当这部机器敲击数相当于 78 岁的时候就会停止运作。出乎意料的是,这款作品获得外界的共鸣,参观者观看这款作品时表示会感到难过。

Reben 后来又尝试了一个名为 BlabDroid 的机器人项目(上图),这部机器人的外形可以说是山寨版 Wall-E,它有这一双大眼睛和七岁孩子的声音,当这部机器出现在人群里,Reben 发现人们并不排斥和它说话。这位艺术家认为,人对机器有某种社会化投射。比如当我们暗暗咒骂死机的电脑、卡纸的打印机时,其实也是一种拟人化的情感投射。Reben 认为,人都是社交的动物,当我们身边一切都走向智能的时候,我们同样需要赋予这些物件社交的属性,来满足自身的需要。

这位艺术家认为,人对机器有某种社会化投射。比如当我们暗暗咒骂死机的电脑、卡纸的打印机时,其实也是一种拟人化的情感投射。Reben 认为,人都是社交的动物,当我们身边一切都走向智能的时候,我们同样需要赋予这些物件社交的属性,来满足自身的需要。
自身
art  human  robot 
april 2014 by aries1988
Why Making Technology Easier to Use Isn't Always Good : The New Yorker
There have always been groups, often outcasts, who have insisted on adhering to harder ways of doing some things. Compared to Camrys, motorcycles are unreliable, painful, and dangerous, yet some people cannot leave them alone. It may seem crazy to use command-line or plain-text editing software in an age of advanced user interfaces, but some people still do. In our times, D.I.Y. enthusiasts, hackers, and members of the maker movement are some of the people who intuitively understand the importance of demanding tools, without rejecting the idea that technology can improve the human condition. Derided for lacking a “political strategy,” they nonetheless realize that there are far more important agendas than the merely political. Whether they know it or not, they are trying to work out the future of what it means to be human, and, along the way, trying to find out how to make that existence worthwhile.
human  technology  philosophy  from:rss 
february 2014 by aries1988
Stewart Lee on the German sense of humour | World news | The Guardian
The German phenomenon of compound words also serves to confound the English sense of humour. In English there are many words that have double or even triple meanings, and whole sitcom plot structures have been built on the confusion that arises from deploying these words at choice moments. Once again, German denies us this easy option. There is less room for doubt in German because of the language's infinitely extendable compound words. In English we surround a noun with adjectives to try to clarify it. In German, they merely bolt more words on to an existing word. Thus a federal constitutional court, which in English exists as three weak fragments, becomes Bundesverfassungsgericht, a vast impregnable structure that is difficult to penetrate linguistically, like that Nazi castle in Where Eagles Dare. The German language provides fully functional clarity. English humour thrives on confusion.
language  humor  human  mind  comparison 
december 2013 by aries1988
一个没有性魅力的人,做什么事都不会成功
没人想和一具僵硬、胆怯、充满抵抗的身体做爱。那么我们想和什么样的身体做爱?人类数千年的文化艺术作品为我们提供了无数香艳的可视档案,象征画派莫罗描摹的在希律王面前跳舞的莎乐美、法国洛可可画家布歇尔笔下骄纵可爱的小贵妇、安格尔画笔下散发着奶味体香的大宫女、沃特豪斯画作中诱惑水手的海妖塞壬……或者当你直接面对那些描绘罗马人集体沐浴、全称狂欢的画作,直接就是一部古典主义版本的情色A片,画面中充溢着丰乳肥臀、肤若凝脂、自信与娇羞于一体的古代女人们,提醒着我们那是一个淫荡和纯真没有什么区别的时代。

在错误的教育与道德认知的限制之下,人群中的“性呆板”、“性僵硬”、“性冷淡”、比比皆是,在大多数情形之下,这是一个女性的命题。女孩一般都会受家庭以及社会观念影响而或多或少地限制了本身便该有的天然的性的吸引力,不懂得如何正确而快乐地使用它,从而使自己的人生缺乏了一种巨大的乐趣。而乐趣还只是其次,导致我们举手投足是否能呈现出强大气场,常常隐藏于一种难以言说的“吸引力”之中——那就是来自于力比多的魔力。当一个人从自己的身体开始,到自己的灵魂都能够刻骨热爱,毫不掩饰的时候,他(她)便具备了一种胜利意志的暗示,他(她)就算天生不美,却爱自己的每一寸肌肤,相信自己内在的巨大能量,谁会不爱他(她)呢?那便是一个所向披靡的人。
essay  sex  life  human  mind  success  self 
november 2013 by aries1988
What Our Telescopes Couldn't See - NYTimes.com
I left the world of professional astronomy some time ago. In the years since, I have often thought of how astronomy is seen as a benign, unbiased science. Its sole function is to increase our understanding of how the universe works: astronomers receive and record, but they do not experiment or perturb. They are not tainted by any application to, say, energy development or military technologies. Astronomy is, essentially, a passive science.

I remember realizing when I was a student that I could make a measurement of an object in the sky, and how extraordinary that felt to me, as if it were a way of reaching out and connecting with something so far away. But maybe I found distant galaxies easier to understand than the people around me, and I wonder if my work became a substitute for any true connection. I still look to the edge of the universe, but I try to remember always to keep one eye focused here on earth.
essay  astro  human  science  society  politics  telescope  astronomy  life  americas 
september 2013 by aries1988
Traveling Without Seeing
But I’m haunted by how tempting it was to stay put, by how easily a person these days can travel the globe, and travel through life, in a thoroughly customized cocoon.
travel  today  gadget  human  opinion  instapaper_favs 
september 2013 by aries1988
科学松鼠会 » 只羡鸳鸯不羡仙?记27期科学一课
有农村生活经验的人大概都知道,鸭子其实是一种特别没“品”的动物,有的时候它连鸡也乱搞,甚至把母鸡给弄死。从视频中可以看到,鸭子的交配非常暴力,甚至在同种之间,有时候雌鸭在交配过程中会被雄鸭给淹死。
鸳鸯也好,绿头鸭也好,南美硬尾鸭也好,它们的雌性和雄性差别非常大,这在生物学中被称为性二型。一般来说,如果你看到一个物种的雄性和雌性外形区别很大的话,你就基本可以断定,它们很难是那种忠贞的动物。
大猩猩的阴茎为什么不像它的外形不那么威猛呢?原来,为了维持它一夫多妻的家庭关系,为了维持领地不被其他捕食动物侵占,它需要和其它大猩猩以及别的动物打斗,很消耗体力。与此同时,它的家庭内部关系很和谐。妻子不会挑三拣四,他的阴茎也没有必要很大。
我们为什么讲两性投资啊、不同的婚配策略,是因为一个女性一生能够排卵的总数目,大概400~500之间。男性一次就至少有一个亿个精子,理论上讲,一个雄性可以拥有很多很多的后代,但雌性不一样。同时对于哺乳动物来说,孕育的过程很消耗体力,雌性更需要讲究婚配策略。
video  animal  human  fun  love 
july 2013 by aries1988
Review: Minecraft and the Secret to a Video-Game Phenomenon | MIT Technology Review
There is a certain Lego-like charm and blunt handsomeness to the rectangular clouds that throw shadows on the game’s pea-green hills and the dumpy sheep that roam them. But in an industry traditionally obsessed with chasing realism and authenticity, its kindergarten aesthetic at first appears anachronistic.

Minecraft places its players in the game’s world with few directives. There are almost no goals or commandments to guide or moderate behavior, apart from those of the players’ own making.
Its intelligent design reveals a watchmaker’s precision, while the elemental freedom it offers its inhabitants taps into some primal, irresistible human urges.

Last year this indie game overtook Activision’s blockbuster war game Call of Duty as the most played title on Microsoft’s Xbox Live. The implications of this feat are wide ranging. For one, it shows that a creation game rather than a shooting game can rise to dominance. It also confirms that contrary to big-publisher wisdom, players are more interested in expressive and interesting interactions than simple graphical prowess, whose charms are fleeting.

For a generation of young game makers, empowered by more accessible tools and ubiquitous platforms including mobile devices, the game provides commercial inspiration. In a medium that sprang from student endeavor and bedroom programming only to see the power inevitably shift to companies and, eventually, megacorporations, it’s again possible for the bedroom programmer to become a multimillionaire. Since Minecraft’s rise to prominence, hundreds of young players have been inspired to make their own games, either through structured learning in schools or by using free or cheap tools such as GameMaker on their own. Thanks to Minecraft’s example and the ease of self-publishing through channels such as the Apple App store, Google’s Play Store, and Steam, independent video-game studios are enjoying an unprecedented burst of success.
game  people  human  utopia  review 
july 2013 by aries1988
东亚人头发粗胸部小与古代基因变异有关 - 纽约时报中文网 国际纵览
人们有时假设东亚人曾在一个寒冷的环境里进化,因为他们的窄鼻孔可以保存热量、多余的眼皮脂肪可以防止眼部热量流失。但是博德团队估计,相关EDAR基因的变体大概在3.5万年前出现在中国的中部地区,而那时这一地区相对温暖、潮湿。更多的汗腺对当时生活在那里依靠狩猎和采集为生的人是有好处的。

但是,西雅图华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的遗传学家乔舒亚·阿基(Joshua Akey)说,他认为这种基因在东亚的传播更可能是由于性选择。粗毛发和小胸是肉眼可见的性信号,如果男性偏好这种特质,随着携带此特征的女性孕育更多孩子,这种特质就可以迅速变得更普遍。阿基博士说,决定显性特征的基因,如欧洲人中的蓝眼、金发,有着很强的选择信号。与汗腺相比,EDAR基因可见的吸引异性的影响很可能在自然选择上发挥了更大作用。

大概有93%的中国汉族人携带这种变异,大概有70%的日本人和泰国人、60%到90%的美洲印第安人携带这种变异。而美洲印第安人是东亚人的后裔。

每一个种族都有一系列不同的所选区域,这反映了一个事实:人类离开非洲以后散布各地,面临了不同的挑战,因而导致每一个大陆上基因适应环境的情况并不一样。大概其中140个受自然选择影响的位置在欧洲人身上,140个在东亚人身上,132个在非洲人身上,作者们在另外一篇于周四发表在《细胞》杂志上的文章里写道。
biology  human  evolution  asia  sex 
february 2013 by aries1988
Unintended lessons: do we learn from history? | Life and style | The Observer
To my mind the one thing that would unquestionably be worth learning would be the law of unintended consequences. It wouldn't even need to be as dramatic as the tragedy of thalidomide, or the fashion for drinking tea in the 18th century boosting the need for sugar, and thus slaves from Africa to cut the cane, or the understandable desire of 18th-century Americans for guns, to shoot game and the British, leading to the shooting-up of schools. Dr Beeching, thinking he was saving the railways and speeding travel by wiping out useless little stations, in fact destroyed the universal conviction that wherever you went you took the train; so everyone took to the road. For how many traffic jams and motorway pile-ups did he, honest fellow, pave the way? I would be glad if someone could remind me who said that any improvement that did not result in the exact opposite of what was intended should be counted a success.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/353295331
history  learn  human  future 
january 2013 by aries1988
Who killed Knut? The death of a beloved polar bear casts the logic of zoos in a cold light
The death of a beloved polar bear casts the logic of zoos in a cold light. Are they safe havens or places of sacrifice?
http://www.instapaper.com/read/339948624
story  animal  human  debate  death 
november 2012 by aries1988
Why We Can't Solve Big Problems | MIT Technology Review
July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. On July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. Kennedy’s words, spoken at Rice University in 1962, provide a better clue:  “But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? . . . Why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? . . . We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills . . .”
http://www.instapaper.com/read/338960349
question  future  nation  astro  human  usa  moon  today 
november 2012 by aries1988
Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying by Sönke Neitzel and Harald Welzer – review | Books | The Observer
Discovered in 2001 by the historian Sönke Neitzel, the transcripts of conversations between German prisoners of war, secretly recorded by the British and American intelligence services, offer a vivid and at times surprising insight into the mentality of the German military.

the decisive factor in making atrocities possible was "a general realignment from a civilian to a wartime frame of reference". For many of the recruits, war was simply the continuation of work by other means.
googlereader  war  ww2  enemy  human  behavior  killing  psychology  soldier  history 
october 2012 by aries1988
情书 » 牛校牛在哪
我在哈佛做一年博士后,这一年,除了领钱,基本也没有什么别的任务。为了防止自己整天缩在家里,把薄薄的那一沓钱翻来覆去地数,我决定去旁听几门课。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/320985671
showcase  human  education  usa 
september 2012 by aries1988
Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software - NYTimes.com
The sociological approach adds an inferential layer of analysis, mimicking the deductive powers of a human Sherlock Holmes. Engineers and linguists at Cataphora, an information-sifting company based in Silicon Valley, have their software mine documents for the activities and interactions of people — who did what when, and who talks to whom. The software seeks to visualize chains of events. It identifies discussions that might have taken place across e-mail, instant messages and telephone calls.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/318201092
ai  pattern  human  future 
september 2012 by aries1988
科学松鼠会 » [解惑系列]说“鲜”
酸甜苦辣咸,并称“五味”。可是,这个说法其实是有问题的。知情人士表示,“五味”之中有“充数”的混混,却少了一位很重要的成员——鲜味。菜好不好吃,很大程度上取决于它鲜不鲜。我们的身体是怎么界定“鲜”、如何爱上“鲜”的?“鲜”,究竟是什么?
googlereader  food  human  explained 
august 2012 by aries1988
人走路时为什么要甩手
作者:tuuuva 大家也许小时候都有过一个疑问:人们走路的时候为什么要甩手呢?为什么如果走顺拐了会感觉特别别扭呢?一个常见的解释是,为了保持身体平衡。这种解释了和没解释没什么区别的答案是永远正确的,
http://www.instapaper.com/read/215305583
human  robot 
august 2012 by aries1988
小错误也会引发大灾难
即使只是一个小到几乎可以完全原谅的错误,也可以引发一场大灾难。不相信么?来看看这四个著名的例子吧。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/257048763
accident  human 
august 2012 by aries1988
杀死一头领航鲸:道德与利益交织下的动物保护
这则谣言的写作者的用心大概是好的。他可能也知道,夸张描述最容易引发人们的关注。如果他只是写一些心灵鸡汤一类的无害文章,也就罢了;可是动物保护毕竟是一项现实的事业。也许法罗人会因为这则谣言而产生怨恨心理,也许大众会因此聚焦于并不濒危的领航鲸却忽视了那些真正濒危的物种,也许当人们发现真相之后会感到失望、破灭而对整个动物保护事业失去信心;无论哪一种可能性都是我们不愿看到的。 保护动物,不需要凭借谎言来增加力量;纵然夸大其词可以换来短期的转发数,长远看来却无异饮鸩止渴。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/215305021
animal  human  internet 
august 2012 by aries1988
What You Don't Know Can Kill You | Top Stories | DISCOVER Magazine
Humans have a perplexing 
tendency to fear rare threats such as shark attacks while blithely 
ignoring far greater risks like 
unsafe sex and an unhealthy diet. Those illusions are not just 
silly—they make the world a more dangerous place.

http://www.instapaper.com/read/245598229
risk  human  psychology  instapaper_favs 
august 2012 by aries1988
丹麦捕杀卡德龙海豚,到底什么情况?
行文到这里,我们可以判断捕杀领航鲸是法罗群岛人为了生存,按照传统进行的一项可持续的生产活动,而并非商业性或仪式性的屠杀。客观地说,它并不威胁长肢领航鲸这个物种(如果这是一个物种的话)的生存。这也并非是在为人们杀死野生动物寻找借口。有关动物权益的道德问题,以及动物保护者应该采取什么样的的态度,我们将在科技名博的文章《杀死一头领航鲸:道德与利益交织下的动物保护》中讨论。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/215305139
animal  human 
august 2012 by aries1988
The Innovation Needed Before eBooks Replace 'pBooks' - The Next Web
Digital books are here to stay and there is no doubt that within a few years we will look at paper books as relics from the past. They will still exist but will be expensive and only available for a small group of collectors. We will still see a lot of innovation in digital books. They will become more useful, personal, shareable and awesome. And I will keep buying and reading them.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/275537211
future  ebook  paper  human  reading  comparison 
august 2012 by aries1988
我的女神非你莫属?
单相思,让不少人纠结,这些人总想知道,如何追到心目中的“女神”。不过,在全身心地投入之前,有必要想想,她是真就那么好,还是仅仅因为她对你态度暧昧爱搭不理?下面这篇译文将提醒你,碰上这种情况请三思而后行。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/277217688
human  psychology  love 
august 2012 by aries1988
Why the cloud has me fearing Wall-E more than Skynet | Cloud Computing News
Everybody who has watched The Terminator knows about Skynet, the computing system that becomes self-aware and decides to destroy humanity. But I look at cloud computing and automated systems and I fear something much more depressing: the total leisure paradise of the movie Wall-E. http://www.instapaper.com/read/257995766
ai  iCloud  human  future  society 
august 2012 by aries1988
关野吉晴:伟大的旅行
这个旅行是我试图用自己的脚走,自己的眼睛看,自己的耳朵听,自己的头脑思考的结果—那些对人类来讲具有普遍性的“问题”:比如,“ 我们从哪里来”、“ 我们是谁”、“ 我们往哪里去”,每一个问题都是任何时代的人在一生中一定会思考的。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/262292445
human  travel  philosophy 
august 2012 by aries1988
Your Optimism Bias: One of the Best and Worst Tricks Your Brain Plays on You
By nature, we're optimistic. We think we're better than most people at virtually everything we do. We believe we'll beat the odds of getting cancer even when we smoke a pack of cigarettes a week. This is the result of our optimism bias, and it both helps us succeed and make some of the dumbest decisions of our lives. Here's how it works, and how you can make it work for you. More »
http://www.instapaper.com/read/288777571
optimism  fail  human  brain  bias 
may 2012 by aries1988
柏拉图版Facebook
如果有个水平比你更高的人恰巧看到甚至跟踪了你的所有电子足迹,对你的生活事无巨细地尽览眼底,他必将比你更了解真实的你自己。老于世故者只需要30秒就能对刚刚见到的人做出判断,因为他从无数细节——表情、谈吐、眼神、着装、姿势——获得信息,然后通过自己的经验快速处理这些信息并做出判断。记住,判断始终与信息紧密相关,而Facebook和Twitter正是把一个人的全部信息记录并释放的工具。
social  human  reality  web  social-network 
march 2011 by aries1988
文学三峰攀,英语四段读
这里回答网友提出的两个问题:一是关于读书;二是英文阅读。

收到一封信,问我:如果想深刻地了解人性,该读什么书?觉得这不牵涉到任何隐私,就在网上公开回答吧。
reading  book  english  human  moi 
march 2011 by aries1988

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