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利炳根日本记事 - OurCoders (我们程序员)
论坛里面一个兄弟去了日本,写了一个巨详细无比的登陆日本的过程和一些细节《利炳根日本记事》值得瞧瞧
expat  japan  howto  it  work  life 
28 days ago by aries1988
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小学校のときなぜかやっていたことを40個あつめました
japan  japanese  game  kid  school  fun  list 
10 weeks ago by aries1988
日本还会再次发动战争吗? 日经中文网

日本不可能侵略中国的原因之一还有就是无法获得现在日本国民的支持。在1930年代日本存在侵略中国的背景。当时陷入经济大萧条的美国限制日本的产品进口,依赖对美出口的日本经济跌落深渊。日本缺乏石油等资源,经济陷入绝境。当时的日本处于人口爆炸式增加的时期,国内充满失业者。在当时的日本国民之中,对于通过战争和侵略解决困难局面显示出理解的人也不在少数。因此趁着经济和社会的混乱,主张对外扩张的军人从文官政治家手中夺取了政权。

但是,现代的日本则完全相反。人口正在减少,经济也保持良好,几乎接近充分就业状态。失业率降至2%,正受到劳动力短缺的困扰。经常项目收支维持顺差,政府和民间均拥有丰富的外汇,必要的资源和农作物可以从外国购买。通过武力夺取他国资源和土地的理由完全不存在。在现代日本,贫富差距扩大和少子老龄化等社会问题虽大量存在,但并不存在像1930年代那样军人不断暗杀政治家的严重社会矛盾和对立。即使有极端的民族主义者煽动侵略中国,大部分的日本国民也不会配合。
opinion  china  japan  war  numbers  military 
11 weeks ago by aries1988
郑力轩:战争的昭和、暧昧的平成,曙光初露的令和|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
历经了战前超民族主义的狂热与破灭之后,战后昭和则是透过许多日本独特制度,展开了受到世界瞩目的高速发展,奠定了日本认同。在昭和时期“日本第一”的呼声下,日本成为兼顾成长与平等、品质与效率、传统与现代的代名词。到了平成时期,这些具日本特色的制度遇到种种危机,然而是否要引入国外制度,特别是美国的制度,又让日本在复杂的自尊与疑虑间持续纠结。

平成年间日本,就是处在这样的暧昧情境下,既没有墨守成规,但也很难说大刀阔斧的改变,而是在不同方向的拉扯中缓步向前。

昭和时期日本政治社会经济体制是以追赶欧美发展为核心,而有以下几个特征:在经济上,以大企业为中心的日本式资本主义,不仅促进了高速成长,也因其独特的运作型态受到全球广泛的注目;在政治上则是以1955年自由民主党结成时形成的55年体制,由民选议员、官僚与企业组组成的铁三角稳定控制日本政局,形成了民主国家中罕见的一党长期执政;在家庭上则形成所谓近代家族,也就是具有明确性别分工的核心家庭。

在雇用上采取长期雇用、不轻易裁员的制度。员工(通常限定在男性)在学校毕业后集体进入企业,到55岁前享受安定雇用的保障。其次,在企业治理上,日本企业主要由终身在同一公司工作的经理人所控制,许多董事会(取缔役会) 成为经理人升迁的一部份,而非欧美式股东利益的代表。也因此,日本企业的决策往往出现以“从业员福祉”而非“股东利润”为核心的运作型态。

在经济上,1985年的广场协定加上国内宽松的金融,导致许多日本企业放弃了之前众所称道的长期视野,转向操作财务技术以获取短期利润,带来严重的土地与股市泡沫。在社会上,对女性职涯的高度压抑,随着女性教育程度提高而形成严重扞格,带来少子化的现象。昭和时代的落幕,正是伴随着诸多过往体制积弊的爆发;而平成时代的序幕,正是由昭和时代所累积诸多问题的爆发所揭开。

2009年,民主党以“彻底改革”的诉求获得压倒性胜利上台,带来平成时期第二次政党轮替,但在内外失调以及311大地震处理的失败,在2012年底选举惨败,政党走向瓦解收场。

总体而言,相较于昭和时期日本主流社会以“追赶发展”为职志,平成时代的日本不仅必须面对各种昭和体制所遗留的问题,就社会发展方向,而言也呈现出更复杂、更多样的风貌。这个追赶完成以及面对未知后所产生的多元取向,是平成暧昧性的根源,也是日本社会将持续面临的问题。
analysis  history  japan  epoch  politics  economy  society  policy  comparison 
11 weeks ago by aries1988
不可理论 - 傅渥成
本期嘉宾傅老师(知乎/微博 @傅渥成)近年在日本生活,他发现,从并不悠长的历史中,就可以用一些理论解读日本人的行为、心智、民族性。为何日本是个有自组织特征的社会?为何错误的理论也可以正确地理解世界?
podcast  culture  japan  japanese 
april 2019 by aries1988
平成:日本第一位新式天皇的谢幕|大象公会

二战期间,日本让荷兰丧失了荷属东印度殖民地,拘捕十余万荷兰平民,结果战后荷兰社会长期对日本保持敌对情绪,1971年昭和天皇访欧途径荷兰期间,有大量愤怒民众高举「战犯」标语,要求审判天皇,甚至向迎宾车队投掷鸡蛋和保温瓶,酿成严重的外交风波。

2019年1月2日,明仁天皇出席了平成时代的最后一次「一般参贺」,向前来庆贺的国民致以新年问候,笔者也在现场。
与想象不同,现场除去十几名穿着国旗样式服装的日本右翼外,很少有人高喊「天皇陛下万岁」,更多人说的是「你好」、「这么多年辛苦了」、「谢谢您」、「祝身体健康」等问候语。
japan  emperor  ww2  netherlands  anecdote 
april 2019 by aries1988
东京大学入学致辞:年轻人,等着你的,是一个无论如何努力也得不到回报的社会|端傳媒 Initium Media
事实上,各类数据都证明女性考生的偏差值(注:偏差值=50+10×(个人成绩-平均值)/标准差,是日本大学录取考生时的重要标准)要高于男性考生。

回望女性学刚开始的时候,世间满是未解之谜。为什么男主外女主内?家庭主妇是什么?要做什么?在没有卫生巾和卫生棉的时代,女性月经时用什么?日本历史上有同性恋吗?……因为这些不曾有人调查,所以没有先行研究。也因此不管做什么,都是这个领域的开拓者,第一人。在今天的东京大学,不论是关于主妇的研究,还是少女漫画或性研究都可以取得学位。

你们是被选拔至此的。据说每一位东大生一年的国家财政负担是500万日元。在今后的4年间等待你们的是绝佳的教育学习环境。

请不要忘记,你们认为的努力之后的回报,实则并不是你们努力的结果,而是托了大环境的福罢了。

诞生女性学的摇篮是女权主义(feminism)这一女性运动,女权主义绝不是让女性像男性般行为举止,或是让弱者成为强者的思想。女权主义,是让弱者在原来的状态下被尊重的思想。

没有必要害怕不同的文化,人生在世,天涯可存。对你们而言,东大的标签即便是在陌生的世界,任何环境,任何世界,即便成为难民,也能为你的生存提供必要的知识。我相信在大学学习的价值,不在获得已知的知识,而是获得为了产生至今从未有人知晓的知识的能力。
gender  speech  university  tokyo  japan  equality  society 
april 2019 by aries1988
明治维新的记忆

固然,在中国也会有对乡土历史的倾向,但这种“历史记忆地方化”的现象之所以在日本特别明显,当然也是因为在日本延续数百年的幕藩体制带有某种“联邦制”的特性,人们高度认同的是“本藩”而不是整个日本,战后的地方自治制度可说是它的历史延续。这样,历史记忆势必立足于当地,用以支撑和强化地方认同,呈现出纷繁复杂的面貌,正如美国南方对内战的纪念至今带有悲情。由于目光聚焦在地方,这些展览中即便提到明治维新对日本的意义,大体也是“我们曾在推动日本变革中起到巨大作用”这样一种视角。毫无疑问,这样的取向中不会提到明治维新对日本境外的影响——但这确实曾实实在在地影响了亚洲很多国家。不仅是戊戌变法,孙中山当年在日本避难时也曾说:“明治维新是中国革命的第一步,中国革命是明治维新的第二步。”《剑桥东南亚史》也曾提到,明治维新曾“鼓舞了大批东南亚的政治活动家,尤其是越南和菲律宾的政治活动家”。
region  meiji  anniversary  travel  japan  history  photo  leader 
december 2018 by aries1988
日本的傲慢与梦想

日本人将当时的“世界”分为“化内”与“化外”。“化内”当然是指日本,“化外”分为三等:“邻国”、“番国”与“夷狄”。“邻国”是第一等,专指大唐一国。“番国”是第二等,指以新罗为首的朝鲜半岛诸国。而位于日本列岛南北端的虾夷、隼人、耽罗、舍卫,以及多褂岛等南岛人等,则被视为不受天皇恩泽感化的“夷狄”,位于世界边缘。在佛教传入并普及之后,日本人又形成了“三国(中国、印度、日本)世界说”,认为世界由中国(震旦)、印度(天竺)、以及日本三个中心国家构成,三国之下各有自己的藩属小国,世界秩序当然由这三国共同建构。

“天朝有兴战之策,小邦亦有御敌之图。论文有孔孟道德之文章,论武有孙吴韬略之兵法。又闻陛下选股肱之将,起精锐之兵,来侵臣境,水泽之地,山海之洲,自有其备!岂有跪途而奉之乎?”[8]
朱元璋清楚地记得忽必烈的惨痛教训。《明史·日本列传》说:“帝得表愠甚,终鉴蒙古之辙,不加兵也。” 他只好以大人不计小人过的样子宣布不与这个小国一般计较,并从此把日本列为不征之国,告诫子孙后代永远不要征伐日本。
japan  history  world 
october 2018 by aries1988
Pokemon Go Is Still a Thing?
In the parking lot, I spotted license plates from surrounding prefectures and one that read 仙台 (Sendai), which is a two-day drive from here at best. While the most likely explanation is that the driver of the car just happened to be in the area for a different reason and wanted to take part, the amount of dedication and pre-planning people did to arrive at the park before the 12 o'clock event start is quite impressive. I can understand young people wanting to spend their time playing a game in the park, but not entire families. There is clearly a lot more to Pokémon Go than I ever gave it credit for.
game  park  japan 
october 2018 by aries1988
陈浩武:两个美国人与日本的两部宪法——日本明治维新150周年研讨会(2)
《明治宪法》的核心,是确立了天皇在日本政治权力中的核心地位,有极强的帝国特色。按照秦晖教授的观点,这是从“周制”走向“秦制”。秦老师所说的“周制”,是指的诸侯分封制;而“秦制”则是大一统的极权专制。1875年,木户孝允、大久保利通和伊藤博文在大阪举行了立宪会议,会议决定设立贵族组成的元老院,由元老院提供提案,授予天皇至高无上的绝对权力。按照历史学家的说法:比罗马元老院授予尼禄、凯撒和奥古斯都的权力还要绝对。正是普鲁士宪法中的强烈国家主义倾向,给日本未来的发展留下了潜在的专制政治病毒。

麦克阿瑟将军在给宪法起草小组的信件中,明确提出制宪三项原则:
第一,天皇处于国家元首地位,世袭,但天皇仅仅为国家的象征存在,天皇的职务和权能基于宪法行使;
第二,废止作为国家主权的战争权力,不批准成立日本陆海空军,日本军队不授予交战权;
第三,日本封建制度将终结,贵族的权利除天皇外,以现存一代为限,华族不再享有国民之外的政治权力,预算模式仿照英国。

1946年元旦,天皇发表《人间宣言》,在这个宣言中,天皇表示:
“维系朕与国民之纽带,为相互信赖与仲爱,非以野史神话为凭,亦非植根于天皇即神及日本民族优于异族而命定统治世界之虚伪观念”。
constitution  japan  american  history 
october 2018 by aries1988
Naomi Osaka, a New Governor and Me

When we moved back to California two years later, I entered fourth grade and suddenly, I was the Asian kid. Ching chong chang chong ching! boys chanted on the playground, tugging at the corners of their eyes. Classmates scrunched their noses at the onigiri — rice balls wrapped in dried seaweed — that my mother packed in my lunch bag. When our teacher mentioned Japan during a social studies lesson, every head in the class swiveled to stare at me.

Here we are known as hafu, which comes from the English word half, and our existence challenges the strain in Japanese society that conflates national identity with pure-blooded ethnicity.

Ms. Osaka delivered the best possible reply: I’m just me.

When I have been reserved or less assertive than people think a situation calls for, they have attributed it to my Japanese side.

when colleagues have mistaken me for another Asian employee in the newsroom, I realize some people still instinctively want to pigeonhole me as one, but not both.
japan  japanese  identity  gaijin  anecdote  society  self  conflict 
october 2018 by aries1988
Japan on a budget: readers’ travel tips | Travel | The Guardian
The perception that Japan is an expensive destination is challenged by our tipsters, who find 70p sushi delivered by robot, cheap internal flights, all-you-can-drink-deals and friendly hostels
tips  travel  japan  moi 
september 2018 by aries1988
內亞海洋與帝國秩序(四):羅馬時刻 – Zhongjing Liu | 劉仲敬 – Medium
你能夠征服,然後你的後代才能夠享受征服者留下的紅利,體現為福利形式。

勤奮是被征服者的美德,而勇敢是征服者的美德。

像孫恩(東晉五斗米教領袖,海寇頭領)那些人,或者像張角(東漢太平教教主,黃巾軍領袖)那些人,為什麼他出現在歷史記錄中的時候已經是連州跨省,擁有數十萬人馬,佔據了幾十個州的地方?

廬山會議實際上是他自己性格中小文人一面的體現,這種人比較容易幻想自己已經搞定了局面,他沈迷在自己的幻覺中,然後突然發現外在的形勢跟他的幻想不一樣,然後在這個幻想破滅的一瞬間會突然陷入人格崩潰的狀態,做出很多錯亂的事情來。

《大義覺迷錄》應該也是雍正在被他自己營造的環境所欺騙的一種產物。

日本人的問題是,他做事比較拘謹,也就是在有機會的時候,他沒有充分利用自己的機會,然後等機會喪失了以後他又後悔,來硬搶。這是極大的錯誤。在辛亥革命時,如果他當時就把東北整個吃下去,或者把愛新覺羅皇室遷到瀋陽的話,基本上沒有哪個列強會認真反對它,孫中山也不會反對,恐怕還會高興得不得了呢。

國民黨就是這樣完蛋的,它一定要冒充一個西方國家,也就是說要同時做獅子和蟑螂,於是它的成本太高而收效太低;而共產黨呢,效果雖然還不如他,但他至少把成本給壓到蟑螂的水平了,所以反而勝利了。

我見過很多次,被很多人認為是觀念的東西,到最後真的一查,結果都是跟當時的社會背景有非常密切的關係的。
japan  china  civ  today  idea  nation  qing 
september 2018 by aries1988
湯禎兆:日本已成移民大國!實習生謊言與西川口祕技|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

据2017年数字,显示最近五年(由2012年开始统计)的日本移民(下不加引号)中,越南增加了18万多,总数已达23万多人;中国增加了5.8万多,在日总数达71万多人;黎巴嫩增加了5万人,总数达7.4万多人;菲律宾增加了4.8万多,总数达25万多人;台湾则增加了3万多,总数达5.4多人──以上正是移民日本最多人口的输出国。
numbers  immigration  japan 
september 2018 by aries1988
History of Japan : Episode 248 - Family Matters
This week we take on the history of the von Siebold family -- father Philip Franz, son Alexander, and daughter Kusumoto Ine. How does the story of this unusual family fit in to the story of 19th century Japan?
family  japanese  japan  netherlands  history  medicine  study  gaijin 
september 2018 by aries1988
日本与沙俄之战:一战的东亚版本
为了鼓舞日本国民,从1968年开始,作家司马辽太郎在《产经新闻》发表连载小说《坂上之云》,以明治陆军“骑兵之父”秋山好古、被评为“智谋如涌”的海军参谋秋山真之、创作俳句《法隆寺》的诗人正冈子规为主人公,描绘了从明治维新到日俄战争的30余年历史,希望以一本“乐观主义者的故事”来唤醒日本国民对于重建战后日本的热情。“坂上之云”便比喻 当年的日本人一边追逐着“山坡上的云”一边前进,来自明治时代的昂扬感激励起战后日本人重新建设经济强国。

历史上被称为“第〇次世界大战”的战争有很多,如丘吉尔认为普鲁士同盟与法奥俄同盟之间的七年战争(1756-1763)是最早的世界大战,拿破仑战争(1803-1815)、普鲁士统一战争 (1864-1871)都有过类似称呼。相比之下,日俄战争(1904-1905)得获此名的逻辑更为直接:正如二战爆发由一战结束后的“分赃不均”及过度制裁德国而埋下种子,一战爆发的始源也来自于日俄战争后国际关系的变动。

随着日俄战争走向尾声,沙俄的实力进一步遭到削弱,不得不从中国东北与朝鲜半岛退出,英俄矛盾骤然减小;另一方面德奥同盟的力量愈发强大,法国在北非殖民地面临巨大挑战,只能寻求英国的支持,这也促使英国与法国的盟友——沙俄之间越走越近。

日俄战争本质上是英国与日本、沙俄与法国两大利益集团在远东的一次博弈,战争虽然以日本取胜、沙俄落败,但两大集团却成功形成相互认同,进而以互相认可势力范围、签订协约为基础,成立“协约国”集团。从这个角度讲,第一次世界大战并不是“三国协约”,而是包括日本在内的“四国协约”。

倒退回“三足鼎立”时代,如果没有沙俄与日本之间矛盾升级,欧洲的利益关系很可能出现另一种形态:事实上英德两国在1900年已经达成《扬子江协定》,规定双方在华利益范围;1901年德国甚至提出与英国、日本结为“三国同盟”。如果同盟成立,那么一战的对立形态就不再是“英法俄”对阵“德奥土”,而有可能变成“英德”对阵“俄法”,那无论一战的结果如何,20世纪乃至于现代历史的发展都会完全不同。
1900s  war  japan  russia  diplomacy  explained  ww1  europe  china 
september 2018 by aries1988
The Best Books on Modern Japanese Literature | Five Books Expert Recommendations
Make Your Own List recommended by Linda Flores To the western eye, Japan often appears as a surprising combination of very advanced development, and extreme…
list  reading  japan  youth  today  book  bestof 
september 2018 by aries1988
我在日本见天皇、入狱、生娃
简单说,分娩呼吸法基本上分三种,在剧痛时用蝴蝶法,从嘴巴快速浅呼吸,目的在分散注意力并保持体力;在微痛时用一般呼吸法,用鼻子吸气嘴巴呼气,放松全身肌肉;在不痛时则用悠长呼吸法,用鼻子深呼吸。用对呼吸法,能避免在错误的时刻不自觉地过早“推”。同时,由于孕妇在阵痛时可能情绪紧张,陪产的丈夫适时提醒该用哪一种呼吸法,能起到很好的效果。
japan  baby 
august 2018 by aries1988
Japan’s Vegetable-Eating Men

Japanese men were spending about an hour a week on childcare and household duties, while women were spending 30 to 40 hours a week, numbers that had not shifted as the country had become more dependent on women’s labor outside the home. Japanese men were spending about an hour a week on childcare and household duties, while women were spending 30 to 40 hours a week, numbers that had not shifted as the country had become more dependent on women’s labor outside the home.

Not only are such men a large part of what has enabled Japan to dramatically increase the workforce participation of women in recent years (after lagging behind most developed countries since 2000, Japan shot past the US last year, with 76 percent of women now part of the labor force), but domestic bliss is increasingly becoming a viable alternative for those men who find themselves unable to secure a high-paying full-time job.

Just as the culture was expecting women to simply add work on top of full-time childcare and housework duties, men were being asked to just add involved parenting to an already-long—60 hours, in some cases—workweek.

Enter the IkuBoss. In 2015, the government launched a program targeted at shifting the workaholic mind-set of employers and bosses. Emerging alongside Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s “work-style reform” proposal—which aims to decouple employees’ salaries from the number of hours they work, put a cap on overtime hours at 720 hours a year, and require companies to pay “regular” and “irregular” employees the same rate for the same work—IkuBoss intends to change the culture of work from the top down.
numbers  change  japan  workforce  female  father  home  childcare 
july 2018 by aries1988
What Wes Anderson’s “Isle of Dogs” Gets Right About Japan | The New Yorker
Anderson is a white, non-Japanese director, but had he not been interested in the power dynamics behind translation, and instead made a twee fever dream imitating Japanese aesthetics, “Isle of Dogs” would have looked and sounded a lot different. His commitment to showing the daily rhythms of a living, breathing Japanese people reveals itself not only in his cast of twenty-three Japanese actors but in his depictions of how exactly a Japanese TV-news anchor transitions to a new topic (“This is the next news”), what milk cartons for elementary schools look like (labelled “extra-thick”), or how a couple of scientists might celebrate—with a clink, “Yo—oh!,” and a clap. The film invites a kinship with a viewer who will find these banalities familiar, and lets these moments flow by, unnoticed, for those who do not.
movie  japan  culture  language  translation  debate  power 
may 2018 by aries1988
Is Japanese Culture Traumatized By Centuries of Natural Disaster? - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus
The stress of social interaction has caused a flight from human intimacy. You cannot open your mouth to say a word without considering your relationship with the people around you—your place in the hierarchy. And if you say something wrong you risk grievously offending people.
society  psychology  disaster  japan 
may 2018 by aries1988
Twitter
RT : 'Labor shortage and low productivity were threatening the future of the Kato farm, on the Japanese island of Hokkai…
ai  video  japan  farming  population  crisis  youth  workforce  research  reportage  fromage  milk  robot  children  family 
may 2018 by aries1988
Bright Lights, Big Shoulder Pads: A Timid Japan Recalls Its Bubble Era - The New York Times
She performs in a pop-music duo called Bed In that borrows heavily from the keyboard lines, electric drums and power chords of the ’80s. They dress ’80s, too: The shoulder pads are big, the skirts are mini and the hues are Day-Glo when they aren’t just plain shiny.

That era came to an abrupt end. Japan’s stock market crashed in 1990, and property prices plummeted. The period that followed is often called the Lost Decade, as Japan grappled with falling prices, slow growth and burdensome debt.

“I feel like back then, people weren’t afraid to be noticed,” said one dancer, Nanako Meguro, 18, who recently graduated from Tomioka High School in Osaka, about 250 miles southwest of Tokyo. “They wanted to be No. 1. I think that compared to people nowadays, everyone seemed to have a lot more confidence.”
1980s  japan  japanese  music  today  economy  mentality  future  youth  dance 
april 2018 by aries1988
After 150 years, why does the Meiji restoration matter? - The Economist explains
It all went to Japan’s head. There was no clear break, as there was in Germany with Hitler’s rise to power, between the enlightened Japan that the Meiji reformers built and the militarist one that in 1937 launched into total war. The seeds of Japanese aggression and atrocities were sown in the emperor worship and glorification of the armed forces that were essential elements of the Meiji world.
japan  history  modernity  today 
february 2018 by aries1988
Kazuo Ishiguro - Nobel Lecture: My Twentieth Century Evening – and Other Small Breakthroughs
As the only foreign boy in the neighbourhood, a kind of local fame followed me around. Other children knew who I was before I met them. Adults who were total strangers to me sometimes addressed me by name in the street or in the local store.

When I look back to this period, and remember it was less than twenty years from the end of a world war in which the Japanese had been their bitter enemies, I'm amazed by the openness and instinctive generosity with which our family was accepted by this ordinary English community. The affection, respect and curiosity I retain to this day for that generation of Britons who came through the Second World War, and built a remarkable new welfare state in its aftermath, derive significantly from my personal experiences from those years.
japan  immigration  gaijin  story  childhood  children  uk  literature  writer  memory  politics  today  world  human  future  manifesto 
february 2018 by aries1988
Japan's Endless Search for Modernity - The Atlantic
The government captured religion, creating a centralized State-Shinto apparatus that glorified the emperor and subordinated his subjects to a mission civilisatrice that pulled the rest of Asia into a Japanese-dominated modernity.
summary  japan  history  modernization 
january 2018 by aries1988
元清非中國論 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

至明朝末期,「中國」一詞已經有著約三千年的使用歷史,最早只是作為一種地域專屬名稱,專指中原地區,此「國」意為「地域」,同「南國」、「北國」用法。後來隨著大一統思想的發展和鞏固[註 1],「中國」逐漸成為正統朝代的標誌性稱呼,例如宋金對峙時期,金國為表示正統,往往自稱「中國」。

清朝以前,「中國」兩字并不曾被作為任何某一個朝代的專屬名稱。自清入主中原、代明而立以來,清政府以中華正朔自居,開始以「中國」自稱其全部統治區域[11]。

1689年,中俄兩國簽訂《尼布楚條約》,國體意義上的「中國」首次正式出現在國際法條約文件上[13]。《尼布楚條約》是中國第一次與歐洲國家按照國際法原則、以對等方式談判達成的平等條約,該條約也被指是最早明確使用「中國」一詞來指代大清的國際法文件。條約中的「中國」指蒙古和中國東北在內的整個清帝國[14]。

矢野仁一認為,中國不能稱為所謂的民族國家,又宣稱滿、蒙、藏等原來就非中國領土,表示如果要維持大中國的同一性,那就根本沒有必要推翻清王朝,如果要建立民族國家,則應當放棄邊疆地區的控制,包括政治上的領屬和歷史上的敍述[5]。

徐明旭亦表示把國家與民族混為一談的觀點不見於國際法上,指出“蒙古民族”與“中國”是兩個概念,根據國際公法,民族與國家是完全不同的兩個概念,又引用比喻駁斥相關論調:「假如有人在美國聲稱:美國的愛爾蘭、猶太人等都不是美國人,只有盎格魯-撒克遜裔才是美國人,他一定會遇到麻煩,甚至被斥為種族主義者。中國像美國一樣,也是個多民族國家,有五十六個民族,為什麼漢族以外的民族就不算中國人呢?」[37]

1912年,清政府發布《大清國皇帝退位詔書》,宣布:「總期人民安堵,海宇乂安,仍合滿、漢、蒙、回、藏五族完全領土,為一大中華民國」,簡稱「中國」的中華民國繼承了大清國的全部領土、主權,以及自《尼布楚條約》以來,多個邊界條約規定的國界。二次大戰後,中華民國根據《開羅宣言》和《波茨坦公告》收復了被日本佔領的中國東北、台灣、澎湖以及南海諸島,同時外蒙古獨立。後來中華人民共和國在習慣線與條約線的基礎上,與其鄰國簽訂了一系列的邊界條約,確立了現在的領土範圍[66]。
debate  historiography  china  history  mongolia  manchuria  today  japan  historian  ethnic  state 
january 2018 by aries1988
Why KFC Is Christmas Dinner In Japan

The official explanation from KFC is that a Christian kindergarten in Japan wanted to order KFC for its kiddy Christmas party. The school reportedly ask the KFC shop manager to dress up as Santa Claus for the party. He agreed, appearing at the party in full Santa gear, saying, “Merry Christmas” to the children’s delight. According to KFC, gradually, more and more schools ordered KFC for their holiday parties, and in 1974, KFC held its first special Christmas meal campaign. Decades later, KFC’s Christmas has become an annual mainstay, with people growing up eating the fried chicken during the holidays and naturally associating it with Christmas.
christmas  kfc  japan  japanese  food  festival 
december 2017 by aries1988
刘仲敬:大清是如何输给日本的
从宏观角度来看,我们可以说当时世界存在的不只一种世界体系,欧洲的世界体系在签订了威斯特伐利亚条约,解构了教皇和皇帝在基督教世界最高权力以后,渐渐的创造了民族国家实体概念,由民族国家实体比较平稳地组成一个没有确定权威的国际关系网络,取代了教皇和皇帝领导的基督教文明共同体这个有最高权力体系的概念。然后这个体系随着时间推移,逐渐扩散到全世界。

与此同时,中国或者说是大清承袭了中国自古以来的天下国家或者说宇宙国家的体系,同时又加上了满蒙部族联盟这个统治核心的特点。天下国家的根本特点是它没有确定的行为主体,也没有确定的边界和主权的。

首善之区就是京师,离皇恩最近,所以它的道德水平是最高的,甚至皇帝作为天下的领袖,他的道德是最高的,他主要凭他的道德感召力量而不是凭他的赤裸裸的武力来迫使各地屈服。内环到外环的道德程度和管控能力都要相应的削弱,最后的“化外之地”蛮夷肯定是像没有长大的小孩一样,是完全不听话、捣乱的。

如果你承认英国跟清国是平行的国家,那么你肯定是大逆不道的,因为普天之下莫非王土,英国这些人虽然是不懂中文而且是蛮夷,毫无疑问也是皇上的臣民,你说它是跟皇上独立的国家,那你就是大逆不道。割地赔款反倒不是,因为割地赔款是一种犒赏性的行动,是教育小孩子懂得教化的一种贿赂性的做法,而且在天下国家体系当中没有入侵这件事情,因为没有在皇权之外存在着同等的权力,只有叛乱这回事,

所以撤换林则徐非但不是丧权辱国的行动,反而是皇帝遵守儒家教化和宪法原则的结果,因为英国人上X访是到皇帝面前鸣冤告状,因为林总督没有公正的对待他们,所以皇上在弄清是非曲直之前,一定要各打五十大板,首先要把主管官员撤掉,就好像说是某个地方有访X民到中央告状,中央处理问题一定是要回避,处理这个问题的官员先让他停职审X查,要不然有他在那里从中作梗的话,访X民绝对不可能得到公正待遇。道光皇帝当时就是这样的思维。

清廷人有双面性,他在面对内地的时候仍然要坚持他的德教原则和文治的原则,也就是说不能使用武力,或者说是不能过度的使用武力,只能维持一个极小规模的政府和军X队

一个共X产X党的政X权,你应该是不承认民主国家的原则,就像苏联一样,它和整个无产阶级世界处在战争状态,只有在共X产主义实现以后才能够按照共X产主义兄弟原则处理内部关系,对外的关系应该是一种永恒的无限制的战争,像列宁说的那样,是根本不受任何法律和规则约束的战争。事实上这个做不到。你要和占据绝对优势的西方国家打交道的话,你想完全拒绝接受西方的游戏规则和国际惯例的话,你将会陷入极其被动甚至有亡国之祸的情况下,所以你必须部分接受。

英国人要代表西方教会清国怎样在西方的游戏规则中作为一个普通国家生存而玩这种游戏

内地的保守派包括满族亲贵来允许它进行有限改革,因此它加入国际体系是半心半意的,这个强大的集团是隐性的,没有出现李鸿章这样杰出的首领,实际上他们的权X势要比李鸿章这方面要强大得多。而英国这一方面过高的估计了李鸿章这一系在清廷内部体制内的影响力,觉得他们的课业是很快就会成功的,因此在外交上往往是比较袒护清政府的。

清廷内部有强烈的声音说疏远的外藩我们本来就不在乎,但朝鲜不是,朝鲜是关系密切的内藩,我们如果再也维护不了大清的权威的话,那实在是说不过去

凡尔登大战死了几十万人,但是意义还没有攻占冬宫来得重要,攻占冬宫那次战役中间,其实列宁和克伦斯基双方的损失都是非常少的,但是严重的影响了历史路径

甲午战争这件事情,它的意义不在于它当时死了几个人,也不在于当时赔了点钱,其实从长期来看,这点钱其实也是无所谓的,关键在于它把日本推上了它渴望已久的地位,而清政府方面却根本没有意识到自己丧失了什么东西,它丧失的是机会。如果你丧失的是具体的钱和人,你知道你死了多少人,亏了多少钱,但是你丧失了机会的时候,如果你知识结构不完整的话,很可能你意识不到。而对于人或者对于国家来说,无形的机会才是最宝贵的,你丧失机会造成的损失远比你丧失钱或者丧失具体物品来得重要。

这条没有出路的道路从根本上讲就是清室无法割舍他自身维持的那个国际体系的结果,这一点不单单是清室自己的昏聩,应该说维持这种体系,在清廷内部应该是一个占据主流地位的舆论,清政府如果根据李鸿章的思路进行改革的话,反倒是非常不得人心、不得军心的。
japan  china  history  war  qing  19C  theory  civ  politics  state  comparison 
december 2017 by aries1988
Martin Scorsese’s Strained “Silence” | The New Yorker

They hail from Portugal, although you might not immediately guess as much from their speech; should you wish to be charitable (and the movie is designed to kindle the conscience), you would describe Rodrigues’s accent as itinerant—it wanders freely between, say, Amsterdam and Trieste, seeking sanctuary where it may.

Of the two movies, Scorsese’s is infinitely the subtler and more elegantly wrought, patient and pensive where Gibson opts for pugnacity, yet Hacksaw Ridge exerts something—a basic grip on the audience, tugging at our nerves and our desire to forge ahead—that Silence cannot quite muster.

The image is doubly devotional. Scorsese is insisting on the lifelong urge to keep faith with God, but, equally, no film director can delve into a conflagration to find a single object—trusted and mislaid, though never forgotten—and not pay tribute to the end of Citizen Kane, where the sled once belonging to the young Charlie Kane is casually tossed into a furnace
movie  japan  critic  religion  director  moi 
december 2017 by aries1988
专访王柯:极端的民族主义,一定是与世界为敌|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
实际上,本身中华文化是多重的,其最早就是由不同的异民族创造,并不是汉人自己创造的文化,而是来自于异民族向这个地方的移动。他们到达之后,为了说明自己建立政权的正当性,用神话来解释自己的历史,才导致了“权威的产生”。

夏商周三代,都是异民族开始的政权,他们到中原来建立政权的时候,就一定要对中原的人说他们建立政权的正当性。说明正当性的方法是什么呢?就是天命,我们应天命而来。

所以在清朝,北京叫顺天,南京叫应天,满洲就叫奉天。

所谓的天,日本说的“天无私照”,这就是日本的大神──“天照大神”的来源。所以实际上,向心力不是别的东西,其实就是一种对公平正义平等的向往。

最后,我对民族主义深恶痛绝。

也许从小的方面来看,对一个民族或有好处,但从整体来看,民族主义一定是需要敌人的。这个角度来看,我对中国过去通过民族主义来建国这条路,是深恶痛绝的。
opinion  research  politics  history  china  chinese  japan  nation  state  religion  ethnic  crisis  bio 
november 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Friday, November 3, 2017
To me, jazz isn’t so different from other forms of Japanese pop culture. If you’ve ever read a Haruki Murakami novel or watched one of the famous Studio Ghibli movies, you will never forget their impressionistic surrealism. Their mood and structure can be jazz-like in their abstraction, intricacy and embrace of dissonance.
japan  japanese  jazz  music  supermarket  fun  story 
november 2017 by aries1988
Japan: the next big quake
The government’s figures put the odds of a magnitude 8.0-plus Nankai Trough earthquake at 50 per cent in the next 20 years, 70 per cent in the next 30 years and 90 per cent in the next half century.

In the worst case of a magnitude 9.0 quake, close to land, Tokyo puts losses at ¥220tn ($2tn) for the first year alone. The amount is hard to imagine: 40 per cent of Japan’s GDP, equal to the market capitalisation of Apple, Microsoft, Berkshire Hathaway, ExxonMobil and Facebook combined. Around three-quarters of that is property damage, most of it privately owned, and the rest is lost economic activity.

The worst fatality rates in Tohoku towns were about 10 per cent, whereas historic records suggest fatality rates of half or two-thirds for unprepared fishing villages after a similar tsunami in 1896. In total, 97 per cent of people in the Tohoku inundation area survived.

That reflects the benefits of engineering, early warning and evacuation.
japan  gis  government  planning  disaster  state  policy  manufacturing  infographics  earthquake 
october 2017 by aries1988
Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond? - The Atlantic
De Beers proved to be the most successful cartel arrangement in the annals of modern commerce. While other commodities, such as gold, silver, copper, rubber, and grains, fluctuated wildly in response to economic conditions, diamonds have continued, with few exceptions, to advance upward in price every year since the Depression. Indeed, the cartel seemed so superbly in control of prices -- and unassailable -- that, in the late 1970s, even speculators began buying diamonds as a guard against the vagaries of inflation and recession.

To stabilize the market, De Beers had to endow these stones with a sentiment that would inhibit the public from ever reselling them. The illusion had to be created that diamonds were forever -- "forever" in the sense that they should never be resold.

Specifically, the Ayer study stressed the need to strengthen the association in the public's mind of diamonds with romance. Since "young men buy over 90% of all engagement rings" it would be crucial to inculcate in them the idea that diamonds were a gift of love: the larger and finer the diamond, the greater the expression of love. Similarly, young women had to be encouraged to view diamonds as an integral part of any romantic courtship.

"We spread the word of diamonds worn by stars of screen and stage, by wives and daughters of political leaders, by any woman who can make the grocer's wife and the mechanic's sweetheart say 'I wish I had what she has.'"

N. W. Ayer proposed to apply to the diamond market Thorstein Veblen's idea, stated in The Theory of the Leisure Class, that Americans were motivated in their purchases not by utility but by "conspicuous consumption."

The message was clear: diamonds represent a sharp break with the Oriental past and a sign of entry into modern life.

DeBeers devised the "eternity ring," made up of as many as twenty-five tiny Soviet diamonds, which could be sold to an entirely new market of older married women. The advertising campaign was based on the theme of recaptured love. Again, sentiments were born out of necessity: older American women received a ring of miniature diamonds because of the needs of a South African corporation to accommodate the Soviet Union.
business  advertising  jewelry  diamond  marriage  tv  marketing  usa  japan  mentality  psychology  story  success 
october 2017 by aries1988
Are We Ready for Intimacy with Robots?

Hiroshi Ishi­guro builds robots. Beautiful, realistic, uncannily convincing human replicas. His quest? Untangle the ineffable nature of human connection.

in Japan: the Advanced Telecommuni­cations Research Institute International in Nara and the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory on the campus of Osaka University.

Hiroshi Ishi­guro

the capacity to imbue such a machine with humanness—that ineffable presence the Japanese call sonzai-kan.

Ishi­guro believes that since we’re hardwired to interact with and place our faith in humans, the more humanlike we can make a robot appear, the more open we’ll be to sharing our lives with it.

He is convinced that human emotions, whether empathy or romantic love, are nothing more than responses to stimuli, subject to manipulation. Through the fluid interplay of its pneumatic joints, the arch of its mechanical brow, the tilt of its plastic skull, the many subtle movements achieved through years of research studying the human template, the android becomes more able to span that gap, to form a perfectly engineered bond with us. An elaborate metaphysical trick, perhaps—but what does that matter, if it fills a need? If it feels real?

Designed with the physical proportions that its human owner prefers, the preferred voice timbre and eye color and personality type, and the ability to recall and riff on its owner’s personal stories and little jokes, android will captivate human.

someone would be left alone in their advanced age to relive the joy of having a child through the cradling of a robot with stunted limbs.

The countless ways in which we judge someone based on their appearance all evaporate in the face of this neutral appearance, as Hiroshi calls the Telenoid’s blank, abstract body. And what is left in its place is that ineffable thing he has been trying to define: a distinctly human presence, free of the uncanny. It is an outsider, like its maker—but one who manages to trigger our affection. While holding the android, it hardly matters that this humanness is emitting from something that barely resembles a human at all.
human  body  android  idea  research  thinking  history  japan  japanese  reportage  interview  invention  story  emotion  office  journalism 
october 2017 by aries1988
The school beneath the wave: the unimaginable tragedy of Japan’s tsunami
The trick is to preserve compassion without bearing each individual tragedy as your own;

In ancient times, this region of Japan, known as Tōhoku, was a notorious frontier realm of barbarians, goblins and bitter cold. Even today, it remains a remote, marginal, faintly melancholy place, the symbol of a rural tradition that, for city-dwellers, is no more than a folk memory.

Then darkness overcame him. Everyone who experienced the tsunami saw, heard and smelled something subtly different. Much depended upon where you were, and the obstacles that the water had to overcome to reach you. Some described a waterfall, cascading over sea wall and embankment. For others, it was a fast-rising flood between houses, deceptively slight at first, tugging trippingly at the feet and ankles, but quickly sucking and battering at legs and chests and shoulders. In colour, it was described as brown, grey, black, white.

A clock in a second-floor classroom at Okawa elementary school, which stopped at 3.36pm, about 50 minutes after the earthquake.
japan  earthquake  tsunami  school  human  error  children  death  japanese  2011  instapaper_favs  management  fail  2011/3/11 
october 2017 by aries1988
哆啦 A 梦开心地说:「日本战败了」
而另一点和之前版本不同的是,在这个版本中,大象挽救了军官的生命,并且让军官重获良知。完成了大象对于军官的救赎,同时也从另一方面,表现出了日本的战争对于人性的摧残,从而在更大的立意程度上否定了日本的二战。

这就要说到日本的当下国情。在战后的一段时间,日本的反战情绪大多数可以分析归纳成两种:

1 反思日本在二战时为什么会战败?

2 旗帜鲜明地反对所有战争。

在这两种思维中,缺少的其实是另一种旗帜鲜明的观点:日本在二战时的所作所为是错误的,这个行为本身的错误导致了日本的战败。
japan  2017  animation  opinion  japanese 
august 2017 by aries1988
The ocean: Rinko Kawauchi reflects on the long summers of her childhood

Every time I go to the ocean, memories of days at the sea come back to me. When I go to see the summer fireworks, I am reminded of my family from days long past — their presence, the feeling of them around me.

I wonder why memories of summer always feel so vivid compared to those of other seasons. Perhaps it’s because of how lucidly one can see the breath of life — how the fireflies fly about, their lights flickering, how the cicadas rise from the earth, chirping through the entirety of their ephemeral lifespans.
summer  childhood  memory  beach  japan 
august 2017 by aries1988
冯学荣:1937,历史的陷阱-墙外楼
1937年的夏天,是个不平凡的夏天。 这一年的7月8日,蒋介石在庐山接到卢沟桥事变(七七事变)爆发的消息,他陷入沉思,不理解日本人到底想干什么,是想趁我准备尚未完成及时发动战争?还是只想加速华北脱离中央?(参《蒋介石日记》),他手中所掌握的日方军事情报非常有限,他实在是不知道,日本人脑子里想的是什么。

依照帝国宪法,帝国政府无法指挥帝国的军队(此说虽荒唐,但确属实情,当时依据《日本帝国宪法》,日本皇军直属天皇管辖,政府无权指挥军队,而天皇又在一定程度上被架空,所以实际上日本军队是受日本军阀指挥)。

12月5日,赤俄反悔,回电国民政府,说必须等九国公约大多数国家同意共同对付日本侵略时,苏联才会出兵,而且就算是出兵,也要经过最高苏维埃会议批准,该会议最快要一个半月举行,蒋介石接电,面如死灰

12月27日,最高国防会议,讨论日本提出的追加条件,会上多数主和,蒋介石说日本信不过,他力排众议,坚持抗战
1937  japan  china  war  history 
may 2017 by aries1988
How Japan is preparing for a nuclear attack

One of the US’s biggest business groups, for example, polls its members each quarter about how company executives perceive geopolitical risks. Until very recently, a minute proportion of companies considered North Korea to be the most serious threat; instead, the dominant focus for concern was so-called Islamic State.

Yet the pattern is changing. In the most recent survey, compiled this month, North Korea is ranked as the number one threat, above Isis. But most voters still know little about the country, and few realise that American troops in Japan or California might be a target.

Confronting a possible missile threat looks scary but it’s not necessarily any more frightening than the knowledge that more than 33,000 people are killed by gunfire each year in the US. Cultural perceptions of danger vary.
story  japan  usa  korea  war  nuclear  perception  world 
may 2017 by aries1988
REVERSE CULTURE SHOCK
All’s been silent on the blog front of late as I’ve gotten a little caught up in the post-Japan transition, doing things like ...
japan 
may 2017 by aries1988
HOW JAPAN HAS RUINED ME FOR LIFE
A lot of people have asked what I'll miss most about Japan.  Topping the list is the sense of adventure.  My students are a close second.  I...
japan  story 
may 2017 by aries1988
Saying Goodbye To Japan : Japan Subculture Research Center

The longer you’re in Japan, the more jaded one tends to become about the things that make being here so interesting in the first place.
teenager  japan  story  school  japanese  etiquette  american 
may 2017 by aries1988
Lunch with the FT: Donald Keene
as an 18-year-old, he came across a translation of The Tale of Genji in the Astor Hotel in New York.

worst of all, there were troops of Chinese children being led through. I was just so heartbroken by that. They deliberately inculcated hatred. These terrible things happened, yes. But you must get on with it.” These are sensitive matters, that still dog Asian politics. I could ask why Keene seems more troubled by Chinese propaganda than by Japanese atrocities.

while men were writing in classical Chinese, women more or less took over a whole new Japanese syllabary, hiragana, sometimes known as “women’s script”.
japan  japanese  american  literature  story  bio  china  war  gaijin  immigrant 
may 2017 by aries1988
BBC Radio 4 - A History of the World in 100 Objects, Mass Production, Mass Persuasion (1780 - 1914 AD), Hokusai's The Great Wave - Episode Transcript – Episode 93 - Hokusai's The Great Wave
This was text-book gun-boat diplomacy, and it worked. Japanese resistance melted in the face of Commodore Perry's threats, and very quickly the Japanese embraced the new economic model. They became energetic players in the international markets they had been forced to join, and they began to think differently about the sea that surrounded them, and about the opportunities that their new role in the world offered.

A new trend of interest in the world, breaking down the classical barriers, begins to emerge about half way through this period. I think that the interest in waves suggested the allure of going elsewhere, the world around Japan, the possibility of finding new treasures outside Japan.
japan  podcast 
may 2017 by aries1988
德川日本的中国想象 - 图书
德川日本的中国想象豆瓣评分:0.0 简介:《德川日本的中国想象:传说、儒典及词汇的在地化诠释》从历史人物、儒学经典及历史词汇为切入点,探讨日本如何将中国文化据为己用。德川日本的文化在形成的过程中不断与中国互动。中国对德川日本的作用从来不是单...
book  japan  china  culture 
march 2017 by aries1988
日本春天有哪些看樱花好去处?
欢迎收听徐静波频道的声音,在线收听【日本春天有哪些看樱花好去处?】,下载分享【日本春天有哪些看樱花好去处?】.喜马拉雅,听我想听.
tips  japan  sakura 
march 2017 by aries1988
An elderly man dedicates himself to saving lives at Japan’s ‘suicide cliffs’ | Aeon Videos
‘Their cries, their wishes, their hopes... I feel a sense of duty towards them.’
With about 70 suicides per day in 2015, Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the developed world. At Tojinbo in Fukui Prefecture – notorious for its ‘suicide cliffs’, where numerous people have ended their lives – the retired policeman Yukio Shige has taken a hands-on approach to addressing the social issue. Alongside volunteers at his Tojinbo Nonprofit Organisation Support Center, Shige patrols the cliffs for anyone who looks distraught, and invites them to his nearby café, where he offers food, an opportunity to talk over their problems and longer-term support if necessary. Over the past 12 years, Shige’s organisation has been credited with saving some 550 lives, even as more and more people have flocked to the cliffs, which have become something of a morbid tourist attraction.
story  japan  japanese  sea 
march 2017 by aries1988
A Geographer’s Notebook: the world’s biggest snowfall
Measuring snowfall is a challenge for meteorologists because it settles and melts and is moved about by the wind. Most precipitation gauges catch less than the “true” amount of falling snow because wind reduces the number of snowflakes entering the gauge’s opening. Drifting can make selecting the best site to measure depth an arbitrary process.
japan  snow  record  world 
february 2017 by aries1988
Le Japon, nouvel eldorado blanc

Une texture inégalable qu’analyse le Suisse ­Samuel Anthamatten, guide de haute mon­tagne et skieur professionnel : « La qualité de la neige japonaise est unique. Humide, puisque ­proche de l’océan, elle reste pourtant très agré­able à skier car il fait froid. » En station, l’hiver, les thermomètres oscillent entre – 5 °C et – 20 °C. « Pour imager, poursuit-il, si je com­parais la neige de chez nous à du yaourt, alors celle du Japon se rapprocherait de la crème ­chantilly ! »

L’Archipel, qui détient le ­record (méconnu) mondial du nombre de stations de ski (573), bénéficie de forts vents froids en provenance de la Sibérie et de la Chine qui soufflent sur la mer chaude du Japon. De leur ­rencontre naissent les précipitations responsables de ces impressionnantes chutes de neige.

La neige promise se savoure dans les innombrables ­forêts, plus ou moins denses, offrant l’occasion de skier entre les pousses de bambou. « Ce ne sont pas les terrains les plus techniques que j’aie connus, mais le ski entre les arbres reste très joueur », analyse Slemett. Sur les pistes, les distributeurs automatiques de canettes chaudes et les télésièges monoplaces ou démunis de garde-corps peuvent surprendre les Occidentaux.

L’esprit freeride des pionniers japonais semble de nouveau planer sur les montagnes blanches du pays du Soleil-Levant.
ski  japan  meteo  geography  snow 
february 2017 by aries1988
La dérobade des jeunes Japonais « sans genre »

Le genre, très normé au Japon, est devenu secondaire pour ces jeunes garçons : ils cherchent ce qui leur plaît sans se soucier de ce qui est masculin ou féminin. Ils ne veulent pas devenir fille mais être beau. Une aspiration qu’ils partagent avec les filles qui, elles aussi, cherchent à plaire et se disent si tel genderless danshi réussit à s’embellir, je le peux aussi. C’est pourquoi ils suscitent un tel engouement chez elles.

Pourquoi la vogue des genderless danshi ? Toman Sasaki rit et reconnaît que lui-même ne comprend pas. Il ne conteste pas l’appellation mais n’en fait pas un étendard.

« Depuis les années 1980, les jeunes Japonais sont en quête d’une identité indépendante du monde du travail où se forgeait la personnalité de leur père. Mes étudiants me disent qu’ils envient les filles pour leur façon libre d’exprimer leur individualité, par le biais de leur apparence », explique Junki Mitsuhashi.

Du kabuki, où des hommes interprètent des rôles de femmes, à la troupe théâtrale moderne Takarazuka où c’est le contraire : des femmes jouent des hommes.
japan  youth  2017 
february 2017 by aries1988
波尔图和大阪:忍辱负重的第二城市 - BBC 主页

整座城市都充斥着意想不到的美景。这里有横跨杜罗河的路易一世双层拱形大桥,还有堪称建筑奇迹的Casa da Música音乐厅(据说它看起来像一个巨大的节拍器),处处令人流连忘返。难怪年轻时的JK·罗琳(JK Rowling)在这里找到了创作哈利·波特(Harry Potter)的灵感。那是20世纪90年代初,当时还在当英语老师的罗琳经常光顾Livraria Lello书店。这里蜿蜒美丽的楼梯和12世纪的新哥特式建筑的确很容易让人想起霍格沃兹魔法学校。最近几年,这里已经成了哈利·波特迷的圣地,从早到晚都排着长长的队伍。

一位冰岛人曾经对我说,倘若你无法确定自己真正的故乡是哪里,那就问自己一个问题:"你想死在哪里?"
from:rss  comparison  portugal  japan  travel  idea  moi 
february 2017 by aries1988
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