recentpopularlog in

aries1988 : letter   10

十二世纪的中国和西欧的书信文化:一个比较
拉丁欧洲(Latin Europe)指的是西欧和北欧那些使用拉丁文作宗教和学术语言的地区。这并不包括拜占庭帝国,因为它使用的是希腊文,文化也有异于拉丁欧洲。【4】当时西班牙的一些地区处于伊斯兰统治之下,所以属于阿拉伯-伊斯兰世界,而非拉丁欧洲。拉丁欧洲统属于教皇,不过在政治上分属许多小政权。而文人的社会网络遍布整个拉丁欧洲,不为政治疆域所限。这段时期的社会、政治和军事都相当混乱,【5】但这大多是地区性的,没有发生能跟金人入侵宋朝相比的引起过极大范围影响的事件。

十二世纪的书信比那之前的书信数量多得多,留存下来的比例也有上升。知识精英在西欧起到的凝聚力,比其他政治和宗教结构所产生的都要多。这就是为什么中世纪史家索瑟恩爵士(Richard Southern)的重要著作以《学术人文主义和欧洲的统一》为题,表明了知识精英的影响力。【8】

十一世纪末,宋代参加解试的士子就有大约79,000人,这些人肯定起码具备进行通信的技能。【34】而欧洲方面,学校里老师和学生的总数不超过几千人。虽然这只是一种很概括的比较,但已能说明中欧书信文化规模大有差别。

欧洲和中国的书信文化对文人文化的重要性颇为不同。写信和编书信集子是欧洲文人从事的最重要的文化事业之一,宋代的著名文人却极少有自编书信集子的——也只有极少数文人的书信得到其他人单独编集,书札一般只作为文集的其中一部分内容。从宋人对他们作品的看法而言,书信以外的一些文体重要性高得多,例如散文、骈文、各类诗歌和奏议等。写信不属于科举的考核内容,也反映它在中国文化中的重要性没那么大。由于西欧文化里的表达体裁相对有限,因此欧洲对书写优美书简的技能给予更多重视。

欧洲对文体没有正式的区分,完全没有像“书”、“启”那样的分类。何况在各种书信文体以外,中国当时的其他文体也更加丰富,如奏议、赠序、碑志等,不一而足。

十二世纪拉丁欧洲的现存书信大约在几千之数。
现存的宋人手迹中不少是书札,从南宋流传至今的大约在一百通上下。
research  literature  intelligentsia  europe  song  comparison  letter  numbers 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
欧洲为人类带来了什么?
旅法学者、法兰西学院院士程抱一先生的对话,在这篇对话里,程先生提到了一个非常有见证意义的观点:一个人正是在与他者进行最高度的交流时,他身上最优良的部分也才发挥出来;
europe  love  letter 
november 2018 by aries1988
Romanticism’s Unruly Hero

At a time when we are grappling with doubts and diminishments in so many areas of our social, cultural, and political life, museumgoers may find themselves nonplussed by the bulldozer Romanticism of some of his work. Delacroix’s grandest canvases, along with Hector Berlioz’s operatic and symphonic works and Victor Hugo’s plays, novels, and poems, have a sweep and an insistence that can strike us as not so much authoritative as authoritarian.

During a career that spanned more than forty years, Delacroix explored a phenomenal range of subjects: Old Testament and New Testament stories; scenes from Dante, Shakespeare, and Goethe; several centuries of French history; North African life; the political upheavals of his own moment; portraits, landscapes, seascapes, nudes, and studies of animals and flowers.

Delacroix’s canvas has nothing to do with the softcore fantasies that finicky Orientalist painters served up in the salons. As scholars have pointed out in recent years, he himself made the distinction with his title, which locates these women “in their apartment”—not “in a harem.” While Jean-Léon Gérôme painted scenes in which women were often quite literally being groomed for sex, Delacroix’s women, with their easy languorous authority,

Shakespeare, who discovered the wonderfully organic shape of his plays amid the competing personalities and destinies of his heroes and heroines, may have emboldened Delacroix as he broke with the rigid structures celebrated by French Classicism.

it is fortunate that of all Delacroix’s efforts to go head to head with the masters of the Renaissance and the Baroque, the greatest remains the most accessible. Anyone can walk into the Church of Saint-Sulpice on the Left Bank and linger over his Jacob Wrestling with the Angel.
painting  art  artist  love  letter  leader  français 
november 2018 by aries1988
冯唐:大医
希波克拉底: 见信好。 1990年到1998年,我在协和医科大学认真学过八年医术,正经科班念到医学博士,从DNA、RNA到细胞到组织到大体解剖... http://www.instapaper.com/read/312203285
doctor  letter 
november 2011 by aries1988
南方周末:高考后的此刻,全然不同的你
读到本文时,相信你的笔已搁下,卷子已被密封,高考结束了。估分,填志愿,你和你的父母,已在谋划未来。倚靠在余温尚存的过往,朝向一个涵义无尽的未来,这便是时间本身,这便是你——九百多万高中毕业生的现在。
letter  college  china  gaokao 
june 2011 by aries1988
德国学者的公开信
2月24日,2.3万名德国高校博士生、学者和教授们联名向德国总理默克尔递交一封公开信,要求将德国现任国防部长古滕贝格解职,责成其对博士论文抄袭一事负责。
letter  german  phd  debate 
march 2011 by aries1988

Copy this bookmark:





to read