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aries1988 : mao   48

A history of China in 8m objects - Chaguan

the Cultural Revolution, the decade after 1966 when Mao Zedong unleashed terror on his own country, pitting neighbour against neighbour, students against teachers, children against parents and Red Guard mobs against officials whom Mao despised. More than a million lives were lost, and many more ruined. Centuries-old temples and libraries were smashed to so much rubble and firewood.

Other exhibits recall hardships. One museum in Anren is devoted to the nearly 18m urban youngsters who were banished to the countryside for years of ploughing, hauling manure and digging ditches instead of being educated.

Drawing the wrong lessons about the past can prompt charges of “historical nihilism”, an offence that sees museums punished and careers blighted.
history  today  museum  entrepreneurial  project  sichuan  artefact  mao 
december 2018 by aries1988
徐賁:「強制說服」下的羊群變異──五七幹校與中國知識分子|深度|探索學院|端傳媒 Initium Media
思想改造是一種 「強制說服」(coercive persuasion),在各國普遍存在於一些強制社會化程序中(如罪犯改造、戒毒、反邪教、心理治療等)。而在中國語境裏,強制說服則是一種意識形態主導的大規模思想改造,其涉及面之廣、強制手段之發達是其他國家難以相比的。



德熱拉斯(M. Djilas)在著名的《新階級》一書裏指出,無論為意識形態的思想改造投入多少人力物力,「這一切手段所收穫的效果並不大。在任何情況下,效果與所花費的力量及方法都不相稱」,它之所以還在繼續,不是因為它真能改變人們的思想和信念,而是因為它能「使一切與官方不同的意識都不可能表現出來」。
opinion  history  china  mao  intelligentsia  mind  education 
june 2018 by aries1988
Who Killed More: Hitler, Stalin, or Mao? | by Ian Johnson | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books

Their most prominent spokesperson is Sun Jingxian, a mathematician at Shandong University and Jiangsu Normal University. He attributes changes in China’s population during this period as due to faulty statistics, changes in how households were registered, and a series of other obfuscatory factors. His conclusion: famine killed only 3.66 million people. This contradicts almost every other serious effort at accounting for the effects of Mao’s changes.

According to Chang, Mao was responsible for 70 million deaths in peacetime—more than any other twentieth-century leader.

The peacetime adjective is significant because it gets Hitler out of the picture. But is starting a war of aggression less of a crime than launching economic policies that cause a famine?

How, finally, does Mao’s record compare to those of Hitler or Stalin? Snyder estimates that Hitler was responsible for between 11 million and 12 million noncombatant deaths, while Stalin was responsible for at least 6 million, and as many as 9 million if foreseeable deaths caused by deportation, starvation, and incarceration in concentration camps are included.

If one includes the combatant deaths, and the deaths due to war-related famine and disease, the numbers shoot up astronomically. The Soviet Union suffered upward of 8 million combatant deaths and many more due to famine and disease—perhaps about 20 million.

As for Hitler, should his deaths include the hundreds of thousands who died in the aerial bombardments of Germans cities? After all, it was his decision to strip German cities of anti-aircraft batteries to replace lost artillery following the debacle at Stalingrad.

Mao didn’t order people to their deaths in the same way that Hitler did, so it’s fair to say that Mao’s famine deaths were not genocide—in contrast, arguably, to Stalin’s Holodomor in the Ukraine, the terror-famine described by journalist and historian Anne Applebaum in Red Famine (2017). One can argue that by closing down discussion in 1959, Mao sealed the fate of tens of millions, but almost every legal system in the world recognizes the difference between murder in the first degree and manslaughter or negligence. Shouldn’t the same standards apply to dictators?

By contrast, Mao himself and his successors have always realized that he was both China’s Lenin and its Stalin.

In Xi’s way of looking at China, the country had roughly thirty years of Maoism and thirty years of Deng Xiaoping’s economic liberalization and rapid growth. Xi has warned that neither era can negate the other; they are inseparable.
comparison  dictator  leader  china  soviet  nazi  history  today  death  disaster  famine  numbers  research  narrative  mao  debate  ethic 
february 2018 by aries1988
嚴薔:削減文革的教材,卻為何擴充了改革開放?|端傳媒 Initium Media
january 2018 by aries1988
The Thoughts of Chairman Xi - BBC News
“Tell China’s story well,” he urges people with Chinese roots, wherever they are in the world. He insists that they should “identify with China’s interests” whether or not they are Chinese nationals.

Beijing’s embassies encourage the growing Chinese student bodies on campuses in the West to silence competing narratives.

Under Xi Jinping, dwelling on inconvenient facts of history or insulting revolutionary heroes and martyrs is now a punishable offence called “historical nihilism”.

He wants his citizens to identify with “the motherland, the Chinese nation or race, Chinese culture, and the Chinese socialist road”. He calls these the “four identifications” and has distilled them into two key slogans - the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the Chinese dream.

Richard Nixon had argued: “Taking the long view, we simply cannot afford to leave China forever outside the family of nations, there to nurture its fantasies, cherish its hates and threaten its neighbours.”

When the door to the West inched open a decade later, some princelings of Xi’s generation took the opportunity to leave.
portrait  mao  2017  china  politics  leader  photo  story 
october 2017 by aries1988
Rocket Man Knows Better - The New York Times
It is a criminal enterprise focused on long-term survival, far more adept at enslaving its people than fighting big-boy wars.

Sadly, the United States has largely forgotten the lessons of the Korean War, even though that conflict cost the lives of more than 33,000 American combatants. The causes of this collective amnesia are varied: The Korean War ended in an inglorious tie that was impossible to celebrate. It produced no Greatest Generation myths and few memorable movies. Then came Vietnam — the first war to be truly televised, a war that is still being parsed on public television. Vietnam seared itself into our literary and cinematic culture, blotting out Korea, the Forgotten War.

After a halting and discouraging start that cost the lives of thousands of G.I.s, the American war machine became a murderous, unstoppable force. Using bombs and napalm, the United States Air Force blew up and burned down virtually every population center in North Korea. Gen. Curtis LeMay, head of the Strategic Air Command during the Korean War, estimated that “over a period of three years or so, we killed off — what — 20 percent of the population.” That’s about 1.9 million people.

Vast numbers of Chinese troops died to save North Korea from Kim’s bloody mistake; they kept his regime from becoming a footnote in Asian history.
history  korea  war  1950s  mao  usa  2017 
september 2017 by aries1988



china  ethic  killing  crime  ideology  mao  revolution  communism 
september 2017 by aries1988

mao  quotes 
august 2017 by aries1988
How Class in China Became Politically Incorrect - BLARB
Research by the University of Sydney’s David Goodman has found that around 84% of today’s elite are direct descendants of the elite from pre-1949. This suggests that six decades of Communism may not have a dramatic impact upon the elites, who have the advantage of decades of capital accumulation — including economic, cultural and social capital — which have apparently continued to benefit them under the party-state system.
class  china  mao  today  comparison  history 
august 2017 by aries1988
The Killing Wind by Tan Hecheng — anatomy of a massacre
By contrast, Tan’s investigation rarely mentions Red Guards or the destruction of the “Four Olds” (old customs, habits, culture and thinking) that wiped out so much of Chinese culture. In his reading, the Daoxian killings cannot be understood solely as a consequence of the fervour of the Cultural Revolution; rather, they were the culmination of a much longer sequence of events, with origins in the violent early years of Maoist rule.

After the Communist party came to power in 1949, it instigated the deaths of about 1m “landlords”, the majority of them small farmers with a few hired hands. Their families became a caste of outcasts.
book  hunan  mao 
february 2017 by aries1988
Sometimes the People Need to Call the Experts

The government about to take over in Washington has more billionaires than the Boston of Buckley’s time, but it seems willing to test the theory that academics can be dispensed with for the most part.

experts. They understand the importance of applying expertise to complex problems, and they realize many issues do not respond well to common-sense fixes. The citizenry usually cannot make good decisions, or for that matter expert appointments, when technocracy is required.

Very few citizens understand such basic concepts as how inflation rates are calculated, the differences between real and nominal rates of interest, or how the shadow banking system is supposed to work, much less tripartite repurchase agreements or the Basel capital standards. The complexities increase every year, and it is no accident that the last two Fed chairs have been drawn from the highest ranks of academic economists.

each stands a chance of being right in some particular circumstances, and the populist approach doesn’t have any way to differentiate. For that you have to call in someone who specializes in monetary economics, a field with many counterintuitive conclusions.

There is a time and place for populist sentiment, but an excess can be counterproductive on its own terms. As expertise is pushed out the door, the citizenry itself gets a bad name, precisely when we most need it to step up to the plate and demand some excellence.
intelligentsia  mao  government  usa  public  opinion  expert  choice  populism  instapaper_favs 
january 2017 by aries1988


mao  hongkong 
january 2017 by aries1988
真正有《十万个为什么》色彩的“问答体”书面作品,是 16 世纪宗教改革运动以来的基督教要理(Catechism),即用来教导学生学习基本教义和圣礼的纲要性文件。1529 年,马丁·路德发表《大要理》和《小要理》,前者是针对牧师、教师和成人信众的教学手册,后者则面向被他们教导的群众,用问答形式宣传教义。

history  china  book  children  encyclopedia  kid  1960s  mao  chinese  science  education  moi 
october 2016 by aries1988
The Cultural Revolution: A People’s History 1962-1976 by Frank Dikötter – review
Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution also had a darker side. It was necessary to destroy the bourgeois past, and this involved the wholesale looting of shrines, the destruction of books and parchment, the smashing of ornaments and the pillaging of homes belonging to the wealthy.
mao  1960s  china  disaster  culture  book 
may 2016 by aries1988
Meet the American Who Joined Mao’s Revolution — War Is Boring
But after the outbreak of World War II, he was drafted into the Army and sent to Stanford's Army Far Eastern Language and Area School to learn Japanese. When he arrived, he chose to learn Chinese instead  —  believing that learning Japanese would mean serving in the lengthy post-war occupation.

He wanted to return to the United States  —  and his labor activism  —  as soon as he possibly could. He thought China would be a nice short adventure. He wouldn't return to America for more than three decades.

More importantly, Mao had a knack for making everyone around him feel like they brought something important to the table. "He was one of the best listeners I've ever met," Rittenberg adds.

Rittenberg believes that American officials' perception of communism as monolithic led to major miscalculations throughout the Cold War. The United States had a golden opportunity to exploit the factionalization of communist governments and movements  —  and failed to take it.

Instead, the Americans' refusal to negotiate sent the Chinese communists down the path of not just closer ties with Stalin's Russia, but toward Stalinist ideas and governance. "History could have been very, very different."

"I had been a true Leninist," he says, which meant he believed that to establish a perfect democracy one had to first create a perfect dictatorship. But his years in China led him to believe that dictatorship only leads to dictatorship, and that Mao's ascendance to power is more than enough evidence for it.
story  mao  american  communism  gaijin 
august 2015 by aries1988
Les mille et une vies du Grand Timonier
Si Mao Zedong est aujourd'hui considéré comme l'une des plus grandes figures historiques du XXe siècle, et si son nom est universellement connu, même d'un public qui ne sait à peu près rien de la Chine, c'est, en effet, essentiellement à deux choses qu'il le doit : sa victoire sur Tchang Kaï-chek et la démesure des bouleversements qu'il imposa ensuite au peuple chinois.
book  mao 
december 2014 by aries1988
南方周末 - 大街上全是群众演员 法国摄影师街拍中国1970年代
当时的中国人,哪一个没有受到“文革”的冲击呢?就算他本人没有受到影响,他总有一两个家人是受到影响的。这一点我自己是深有体会的,因为我是经历过二战的,战争开始的时候我7岁,战争结束我12岁,整场战争期间我几乎没有见过我的母亲。1944年7月的某一天,我在学校的花园里听到有人叫我的名字:“于格,你好吗?”我回头看见一位中年妇女,我回答:“您好,女士。” 她对我说:“你不认得我了?我是妈妈。”虽然“文革”不是一场战争,但是人们的恐惧、与亲朋好友分别的滋味,我都能感觉到。



français  photography  story  china  mao  history 
november 2014 by aries1988
mao  restaurant  today  beijing 
september 2014 by aries1988
Nixon in China (The Film)
video  china  usa  history  documentary  mao 
september 2014 by aries1988
徘徊的幽灵 - 评论 - FT中文网
mao  from:rss 
december 2013 by aries1988
mao  story  intelligentsia  choice  death  china  writer 
october 2013 by aries1988
mao  opinion  politics 
july 2013 by aries1988
july 2013 by aries1988
video  mao  propaganda 
march 2013 by aries1988
China: Millennial madness | The Economist
Only as China opened up in the 1980s did Mr Yang start to question what he had been told. The killing of demonstrators in Beijing in 1989 was a rude awakening. “The blood of those young students cleansed my brain of all the lies I had accepted over the previous decades.” And so he set out to shake off the deception and shake up the system that he had spent his life supporting. And so he set out to shake off the deception and shake up the system that he had spent his life supporting.

“Tombstone” is meticulous in its research and exhaustive in the detail it accumulates for the reader: of villages strewn with corpses, of widespread cannibalism, and of the violence that exploded as one man’s millennial vision was unleashed. It also stands as a warning to modern supporters of the one-party state, who praise the ability of an autocracy to get things done. Even if today’s policies are less harsh, Mr Yang shows, the possibility of unchecked brutality is ever present. Nowadays the Communist Party is not causing widespread famine. But the same kiss-up, kick-down hierarchy persists, where every official is slave to his immediate superior and a dictator to his subordinates. Targets of the one-child policy, for instance, must be met, regardless of the human toll and future danger. Conversely, the truth about big problems around the country, such as the environment or corruption or food safety, must be covered up.
mao  cpp 
november 2012 by aries1988


zeitgeist  history  journalism  china  story  future  debate  mao  intelligentsia 
november 2012 by aries1988
南风窗网 - 中华文化复兴? - 2009年26期
  中国人社会的结构,本来一向稳定和谐,有一个地主阶级,地主养了一批士大夫,本有一套自足的文化生态,承传千百年,直到民初,西潮东渐。只要不拆房子,不斗地主,文化就不会沦亡,徐志摩从剑桥回来,游杭州六和塔,逛常州承天寺,灵感贯达中西,思绪澈通幽冥,胡适、蒋梦麟、梁启超,都是博达古今中外的通人,王世襄成为传统文化的守墓人。   我国的建筑,是大家庭之所系,中国的富贵家庭,又是精致文化之所依。把中华文化的大家庭和旧建筑载体毁灭殆尽,就等同把水抽干,把缸砸毁,锦鲤金鱼,何能生存?加上中华精致文化,戏曲书画,围棋对联,像广东人的汤水,都要慢工细活。今日国人的下一代,经麦当劳的快餐脱胎,手机短信的高科技洗脑,生活的节奏早已由美国人来重新定义。只嫌自己的传统文化沉闷,只觉美国的文化爽快,即使电影《2012》再给中国人脸上贴金,中华文化有什么前途?
mao  society  china  tradition  culture  future 
november 2012 by aries1988
instapaper_favs  mao  legacy  china  taiwan  communism 
september 2012 by aries1988
chinese  story  mao 
september 2012 by aries1988
中国周刊:中南海旧事 » 新闻理想档案馆
2011年11月17日,一场小雨让深秋北京笼罩在薄薄的水雾里,这让府右街边红墙的颜色变得更加深沉。 墙的那一边,便是中南海,中共中央、国务院所在地,全国的政治枢纽。透过一座有士兵守卫的大门,目力所及,能看到的只有延伸至远处的行道树。
mao  googlereader  beijing  history 
september 2012 by aries1988
china  mao  story 
august 2012 by aries1988
对于由‘文化大革命’引起的大混乱而言,这次会面只带来一点点‘有序’。尽管如此,或许它以一种很有限的方式表示,在人所固有的在自然界寻求对称的渴望与他对社会的要求之间存在一种关联,二者同样是有意义的,而且也是均衡的。 ”
story  scientist  mao  chinese  pencil 
july 2012 by aries1988

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