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颠覆认知:着凉到底会不会导致感冒? | 商周专栏
从1914年德国 Kruse 教授首次发现感冒能传染到现在,一百多年的时间过去了。在过去的一个世纪里,科学界对着凉与感冒的关系已经基本清楚:普通感冒是由感冒病毒导致的急性上呼吸道感染,冷的环境能促进感冒的发生(通过增强病毒在体外的生存时长、增加病毒感染的机会、降低呼吸道细胞对病毒的免疫力等),但着凉和普通感冒无关。
explained  research  medical  body  biology  daily  maladie 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
克里米亚战争:地缘与信仰的千年之战
19世纪时,欧洲的基督教国家与信奉伊斯兰教的奥斯曼帝国已经打了几百年的仗,是不共戴天的仇敌。然而在这场战争中,天主教国家法国和奥地利,联合新教国家英国,与信奉伊斯兰教的奥斯曼帝国携手,共同对抗东正教国家俄罗斯,这在过去是难以想象的。俄罗斯一直以东正教领袖自居,认为自己拥有上天赋予的神圣宗教使命,要把巴尔干地区同样信奉东正教的斯拉夫人从奥斯曼帝国手中“解放”出来。而在欧洲列强看来,虽然同属基督教家庭,一个野蛮、不开化、具有扩张性的俄罗斯所带来的威胁,甚至超过了已是奄奄一息的奥斯曼帝国。
origin  war  russia  uk  france  ukraine  medical 
january 2019 by aries1988
The Neuroscience of Pain

For scientists, pain has long presented an intractable problem: it is a physiological process, just like breathing or digestion, and yet it is inherently, stubbornly subjective—only you feel your pain. It is also a notoriously hard experience to convey accurately to others. Virginia Woolf bemoaned the fact that “the merest schoolgirl, when she falls in love, has Shakespeare or Keats to speak her mind for her; but let a sufferer try to describe a pain in his head to a doctor and language at once runs dry.” Elaine Scarry, in the 1985 book “The Body in Pain,” wrote, “Physical pain does not simply resist language but actively destroys it.”For scientists, pain has long presented an intractable problem: it is a physiological process, just like breathing or digestion, and yet it is inherently, stubbornly subjective—only you feel your pain. It is also a notoriously hard experience to convey accurately to others. Virginia Woolf bemoaned the fact that “the merest schoolgirl, when she falls in love, has Shakespeare or Keats to speak her mind for her; but let a sufferer try to describe a pain in his head to a doctor and language at once runs dry.” Elaine Scarry, in the 1985 book “The Body in Pain,” wrote, “Physical pain does not simply resist language but actively destroys it.”

“Things which all men know infallibly by their own perceptive experience, cannot be made plainer by words. Therefore, let Pain be spoken of simply as Pain.”

Meanwhile, as the historian Joanna Bourke has shown, in her book “The Story of Pain,” attempts to translate the McGill Pain Questionnaire into other languages have revealed the extent to which cultural context shapes language, which, in turn, shapes perception.

The self-reported nature of pain scores leads, inevitably, to their accuracy being challenged. “To have great pain is to have certainty,” Elaine Scarry wrote. “To hear that another person has pain is to have doubt.”

Pain was declared “the fifth vital sign” (alongside blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and temperature), and the numerical scoring of pain became a standard feature of U.S. medical records, billing codes, and best-practice guides.

“It was just one of those serendipitous conversations that you find yourself in, where this whole area is opened up to you,” she told me. “It was, like, ‘God, this is everything I’ve been looking for. It’s got clinical application, interesting philosophy, and we know absolutely nothing.’ I thought, Right, that’s it, pain is going to be my thing.”

as they figured out the rules of the game, the ominous light began triggering more and more blood flow to a couple of regions—the anterior insula and the prefrontal cortices. These areas, Tracey and Ploghaus concluded, must be responsible for the anticipation of pain.

a somewhat horrifying experiment conducted by Laure Mazzola, a neurologist at the Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, in France.

Chronic pain, Tracey said, is now understood as “something new, with a life of its own, with its own biology and its own mechanisms, most of which we really don’t understand at all.”
mri  research  medical  future  pain 
july 2018 by aries1988
There’s a big problem with AI: even its creators can’t explain how it works

In 2015, researchers at Google modified a deep-learning-based image recognition algorithm so that instead of spotting objects in photos, it would generate or modify them. By effectively running the algorithm in reverse, they could discover the features the program uses to recognize, say, a bird or building. The resulting images, produced by a project known as Deep Dream, showed grotesque, alien-like animals emerging from clouds and plants, and hallucinatory pagodas blooming across forests and mountain ranges.
ai  health  medical  cancer  problem  communication  today  human  google  art  visualization  algorithm 
april 2017 by aries1988
What caused the Black Death and could it strike again? | Aeon Essays
The earliest plague graves ever discovered, by the 19th-century Russian archaeologist Daniel Abramovich Chwolson in what is now Kyrgyzstan, dated to about 1339 – shortly before the Black Death exploded across Asia and Europe. Those graves lie in a Nestorian Christian cemetery near Lake Issyk-Kul, not far from what is now Xinjiang, or western China. There’s no reason to think that these quiet Christians in their remote habitation were the index cases of the Black Death, but they were surely among the early ones.
medical  study  history  pandemic 
october 2016 by aries1988

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