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aries1988 : medicine   29

疾病王国:超越中与西|端傳媒 Initium Media
在传统中医的思想影响之下,许多人认为以消炎抗菌等功效为主的西药,大多很散,必然会为人体带来副作用,有些甚至会影响肝肾。

所谓得散,实质就是指人的精气变散。气,是中国文化体系中的主轴。天人合一的中国哲学认为,天地之气是宇宙自然的根本,人是气之聚,而人的阴阳之气则是安生立命之基础,只有当阴阳之气达到平衡,顺应天地之气的规律变化,才能保持天人和谐,从而生生不息。我们得祖先正是通过气的观念来审视自己,了解宇宙,建立社会秩序。在传统医学中,气血与经络、阴阳五行等共同建构形成身体经验的知识。正是由于这种气论身体观主导了汉人对身体的认知。
tradition  medicine  canton  chinese  opinion  health 
march 2019 by aries1988
We may finally know what causes Alzheimer’s – and how to stop it

Multiple teams have been researching Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main bacterium involved in gum disease, which is a known risk factor for Alzheimer’s. So far, teams have found that P. gingivalis invades and inflames brain regions affected by Alzheimer’s; that gum infections can worsen symptoms in mice genetically engineered to have Alzheimer’s; and that it can cause Alzheimer’s-like brain inflammation, neural damage and amyloid plaques in healthy mice.
teeth  inflammation  brain  alzheimer  research  medicine  pharma  future  health  science  senior  bacteria 
february 2019 by aries1988
History of Japan : Episode 248 - Family Matters
This week we take on the history of the von Siebold family -- father Philip Franz, son Alexander, and daughter Kusumoto Ine. How does the story of this unusual family fit in to the story of 19th century Japan?
family  japanese  japan  netherlands  history  medicine  study  gaijin 
september 2018 by aries1988
从小吃到大的消炎药,直到学医了之后才看清它的真面目
“消炎”和“抗感染”是两个相关、但不能等同的概念。临床上的炎症许多是由微生物感染导致的,比如急性前列腺炎。这种情况下,抗菌可以起到消炎的作用。但有很多的、非常多的炎症和感染不直接相关,比如慢性无菌性前列腺炎,腰椎间盘突出引起的神经根炎,抗生素就不能“消炎”。这个时候把抗生素混作“消炎药”,会误导患者。
而抗生素的概念是一个舶来品。英文 Antibiotic,由“anti-”(对抗)、“bio”(生物)、“tic”(与什么有关的东西)组成,从语义和语序上完全对应“抗”“生”“素”三个字。顾名思义,它的作用是“对抗生物”,对抗什么生物?引起疾病的微生物,最常见的就是细菌。
除了之前提到的复方新诺明名字特别,其他的抗生素比较好区分,药名中带有 ** 霉素、头孢 **、** 沙星,全是抗生素。

医学上真正的消炎药,是一类以解热镇痛、缓解炎症反应为目的的药物,比如糖皮质激素、塞来昔布,还有缓解感冒症状的泰诺、百服宁等等。
explained  medicine 
august 2018 by aries1988
Cancer’s Invasion Equation | The New Yorker
Rather than viewing invasiveness as a quality intrinsic to a cancer, researchers needed to consider invasiveness as a pathological relationship between an organism and an environment. “Together, cancer cells and host cells form an ecosystem,” Pienta reminded the audience. “Initially, the cancer cells are an invasive species to a new niche or environment. Eventually, the cancer-cell-host-cell interactions create a new environment.” Ask not just what the cancer is doing to you, Pienta was saying. Ask what you are doing to the cancer.

There are important consequences of taking soil as well as seed into account. Among the most successful recent innovations in cancer therapeutics is immunotherapy, in which a patient’s own immune system is activated to target cancer cells.

This is medicine’s “denominator problem.” The numerator is you—the person who gets ill. The denominator is everyone at risk, including all the other passengers who were exposed. Numerators are easy to study. Denominators are hard. Numerators come to the doctor’s office, congested and miserable. They get blood tests and prescriptions. Denominators go home from the subway station, heat up dinner, and watch “The Strain.” The numerator persists. The denominator vanishes.

We err toward risk aversion, even at the cost of bodily damage; we don’t learn what would happen if we did nothing. It was a classic “denominator” problem, but my response seemed supremely unsatisfactory.

Perhaps we all gave up. Considering the limitations of our knowledge, methods, and resources, our field may have had no choice but to submit to the lacerations of Occam’s razor, at least for a while. It was only natural that many cancer biologists, confronting the sheer complexity of the whole organism, trained their attention exclusively on our “pathogen”: the cancer cell.

we physicians have been drawn to the toggle-switch model of disease and health: the biopsy was positive; the blood test was negative; the scans find “no evidence of disease.” Good germs, bad germs. Ecologists, meanwhile, talk about webs of nutrition, predation, climate, topography, all subject to complex feedback loops, all context-dependent. To them, invasion is an equation, even a set of simultaneous equations.

the true meaning of “holistic”: to take the body, the organism, its anatomy, its physiology—this infuriatingly intricate web—as a whole
cancer  medicine  health  research 
july 2018 by aries1988
Medicine’s Burning Question
“Inflammation is the final common pathway for pretty much all chronic diseases,” he told me. His recommended solution is an “anti-inflammatory diet”—omitting sugar, caffeine, beans, dairy, gluten, and processed foods, as well as taking a variety of supplements, including probiotics, fish oil, Vitamins C and D, and curcumin, a key molecule in turmeric.
question  medicine  research  theory  body  cancer 
december 2017 by aries1988
“上火”、病毒与中毒
    疱疹病毒则采用一种温和得多的方式来与宿主共处。它们在感染细胞后,会让自己的遗传物质注入到细胞核,潜伏在那里,有的疱疹病毒甚至能把自己的遗传物质结合到细胞染色体中,变成染色体的一部分,随着染色体复制、细胞分裂而一代代地传给了新的细胞。所以一旦被疱疹病毒感染上,它就变成了永远潜伏在人体细胞中的敌人,不可能彻底把它清除掉了。这些潜伏的敌人有可能会导致癌变,不过一般来说是无害的。但是在某些情况下(例如精神压力大、生了某种疾病),由于某种未知的因素,潜伏的病毒遗传物质会突然被激活,开始复制新的病毒,让细胞死亡、破裂,去感染新的细胞。这时候你就觉得你“上火”了。不过,这个过程一般持续一周左右,然后又恢复正常了。然而,以后病毒还可能再次被激活。目前没有任何药物可以用以去除在细胞核中潜伏的病毒,以后也不太可能,所以“上火”是不可能根除的。最先进的药物只能做到抑制住病毒的复制,不让它爆发。
medicine  chinese  health  opinion  moi 
november 2017 by aries1988
Automédication : 60 millions de consommateurs dresse une liste noire des médicaments à éviter

« Il y a un problème d’information, le public ne connaît les médicaments que par la publicité, or elle n’est pas véritablement informative », déplore le pharmacologue. Plus généralement, « si le risque zéro n’existe pas, malheureusement l’efficacité zéro, elle, est indiscutable pour plus de 55 % des médicaments d’automédication » disponibles sur le marché, s’indigne le spécialiste.
list  medicine  medicament 
november 2017 by aries1988
The epidemiologist who helped fight Ebola and Aids
He also conducted a blood sampling programme that provided solid evidence, in contradiction of medical orthodoxy, that the so-called “gay disease” — Aids — could infect anyone. Why would a virus care about someone’s sexual orientation? “From the virus’ perspective, sex between humans is just a way of finding another host.”

During the depths of the Aids epidemic, a colleague told him of a Malian initiation rite in which adolescent boys are given a chameleon to observe and learn from. “The chameleon changes colour — he is adaptive.” Yet, the creative always faces forward, scanning its environment and keeping to its goal. “When I’m in a difficult situation, I sometimes ask myself, ‘What would the chameleon do?’”
epidemic  virus  research  medicine 
july 2017 by aries1988
Return of the White Death: the threat of new strains of TB | Aeon Ideas
TB deaths fell dramatically during this time, as did all other infectious diseases. From 1860 to 1950, deaths from infectious diseases fell by nearly 90 per cent in England and Wales, and by similar amounts in other industrialised countries. This decline occurred prior to the general availability of antibiotics. It can confidently be attributed to the implementation of public-health measures, principally the provision of clean water and food, and the development of vaccines. We know how to prevent the spread of infectious disease, a comforting thought in a world in which antibiotics are beginning to lose their invincibility.
epidemic  history  biology  medicine 
december 2016 by aries1988
The ecstasy and the agony | The Economist
Opioids are tricky. Take too much, or mix them with alcohol or sleeping pills, and you may stop breathing. Long-term patients often need more and more. But for much acute pain, and certainly for the terminally ill, they are often the best treatment. And they are cheap: enough morphine to soothe a cancer patient for a month should cost just $2-5
drug  medicine 
may 2016 by aries1988
孩子不打疫苗行不行,哪些疫苗必须打? - 健康 - 知乎
一类疫苗目前包括5种,一类疫苗是由国家支付疫苗费用,全部儿童都要注射,所以又被称作“计划免疫类疫苗”,目前包括5类疫苗,覆盖7种疾病,就是大家常说的“五苗七病”:卡介苗、脊髓灰质炎疫苗、麻疹疫苗、百白破疫苗、乙肝疫苗5种疫苗,用于防治结核病、小儿麻痹症(脊髓灰质炎)、麻疹、百日咳、白喉、破伤风和乙肝等7种疾病。这类疫苗的特点是使用历史悠久、疫苗效果好,我国都能生产,价格便宜。这7类疾病传染力强、危害严重,但是通过预防接种能够提高儿童免疫力,以达到预防疾病的目的。

二类疫苗也很重要,二类疫苗是由家长支付疫苗费用的,又称“计划免疫外疫苗”,包括风疹、麻腮风三联、水痘、肺炎球菌、流感、甲肝疫苗等,约有30—40种。
list  moi  medicine  health 
march 2016 by aries1988
Staying Healthy While Traveling the Globe
Drink bottled water, take Pepto-Bismol preventively and avoid hungry lions.
list  medicine  travel 
february 2016 by aries1988
One Small Step - The New Yorker
The only decoration in Raisman’s corridor at University College is a Chinese translation of a Turkish proverb: “May our enemies not prosper.”

The human sense of smell is not very acute, so the olfactory bulb is relatively small—about the size of a sunflower seed. (A goat’s is larger.)

Of all the neurons in the body, only those in the central nervous system—the ones situated in the brain and the spinal cord—seem incapable of this trick. Broken backs do not heal, and, with few exceptions, brain cells do not regenerate. Perhaps it is an artifact of biology: central-nervous-system injuries were so rare in our prehistory that there was no reason for evolution to expend energy devising strategies to fix them.

Our nasal passages are exposed to a lot of abuse—from pollution to viruses—and the neurons within them die and are reborn constantly. This regrowth is managed by supporting cells, called olfactory ensheathing cells, which form tunnels that neurons thread their way through.
story  medicine  neuroscience 
february 2016 by aries1988
A Dying Young Woman’s Hope in Cryonics and a Future
Cancer claimed Kim Suozzi at age 23, but she chose to have her brain preserved with the dream that neuroscience might one day revive her mind.
death  brain  science  medicine  future  mind 
september 2015 by aries1988
科学松鼠会 » 阿胶真的又如何
当然,对于“相信”阿胶神效的人来说,阿胶的主要成分并不重要。他们相信其中含有现代科学无法检测到的神秘物质,能够带来神奇的作用。从逻辑上,现代科学无法否认这样的“可能性”。我们只能说,用来解释“阿胶神效”的那些理由都站不住脚。比如,有人说阿胶中含有铁,而人体缺铁会导致贫血,所以阿胶可以补血。但是古人说的“血”跟我们现在说的“缺铁性贫血”的血根本就不是一回事而且,通过阿胶来补铁也并不高效。其他的解释也大致如此,堆砌一些科学术语和名词,基本上是牵强附会。

从现实角度说,能否从科学机理上解释阿胶的“神效”都可以不去追究。它是否“有用”,首先应该由可靠的实验证据来说话。遗憾的是,迄今为止,除了没有科学意义的“自我感觉”,能够用来证明“阿胶神效”的可靠证据,还没有出现。
medicine  chinese 
november 2014 by aries1988
The Physical Exam as Refuge - NYTimes.com

Countless times, I have found that it is only during the physical exam that patients reveal what is truly on their mind. Whether it is the cough that they are reminded of now that I am listening to their lungs, or whether it is the domestic violence, the eating disorder or the genital symptoms that they feel comfortable revealing once we are in a more intimate setting — there is something about touch that changes the dynamic.

But then the doctor and patient move to the exam table, and everything changes. This is often the first moment that they can talk directly, without the impediment of technology. They are physically closer to each other, actually touching. This is an intimacy, albeit of the nonromantic type, but an intimacy nonetheless. And all intimacies have an effect of changing the dynamics of the interaction. Obviously, there is a risk of changing for the worse, but in my experience it is almost always a change for the better. Once a doctor and patient are at the exam table, touching, talking without the computer between them, conversation of a different sort is possible.
doctor  people  temoignage  body  medicine  opinion  psychology  human  communication  practice 
october 2014 by aries1988
‘Idiotic’ Name for Dementia Sparks China Doctors’ Protest - Bloomberg
Japan’s government in 2004 backed a publicity campaign to encourage people to avoid the commonly used word for dementia, “chiho,” which incorporates the Chinese characters and means “disease of cognition associated with idiocy,” and to instead use “Ninchi-Sho,” which translates to “cognition disorder.” Afterward, more dementia patients began talking about their experiences in public, suggesting improvements in public perception of the illness, according to a 2011 report. The transcription is pronounced “a er zi hai mo bing” in Hanyu Pinyin, which converts Chinese characters into Roman letters. In China, it’s rarely used because it’s just too hard to pronounce and remember, especially for older people, said Yu, the Beijing psychiatrist. “Many elderly patients who come to me can’t get the word out of their mouths, so they call it the ‘ah ah ah disease.’”
language  medicine  future  aging  chinese 
may 2014 by aries1988
I'd rather be dissected
My body, I learned, could help improve safety belts in a car or seats in a train. My brain might help designers make helmets that mitigate the traumatic brain injuries an American football player sustains in a rough tackle, or a soldier gets from the shockwave of a bomb blast. When the research is done, if my family wishes, they can have my cremated remains (in which case, I wouldn’t mind if my ashes are spread somewhere I once loved). If not, I might be honoured alongside other unclaimed donors by a plaque, a tree, or a solemn annual ceremony
death  life  medicine 
september 2013 by aries1988
Beta blockers are busted – what happens next? - opinion - 12 November 2012 - New Scientist
To understand what is going on, consider how they work. Like many drugs, beta blockers target receptors embedded in the surface of cells. Receptors are "molecular switches" - when a specific molecule binds to them, they change shape and send a signal to the cell to perform a certain function. Beta blockers target beta receptors, which respond to the "fight or flight" hormones adrenalin and noradrenalin. In humans, there are two principle types of beta-receptor - beta-1, primarily found in the heart, and beta-2, located at multiple sites, including the smooth-muscle cells of the bronchial tubes and in veins. When adrenalin and noradrenalin bind to beta-1 receptors, they signal the heart to beat faster and pump harder. Binding to beta-2 receptors causes smooth muscle relaxation, especially in the airways, explaining why beta-2 activators are used as asthma drugs. Beta blockers bind to both types of receptor, but do not activate the cellular response. This blocks adrenalin and noradrenalin from reaching their target and activating the response. By preventing the normal hormone-receptor interaction, the beta blockers slow the heart and cause it to pump less forcefully, lowering blood pressure. The premise of beta-blocker therapy has been that giving the heart a rest will diminish the frequency of heart attacks. In the light of the two new studies, it is clearly time to question this. Damaged hearts are more prone to fatal irregular beats, and beta blockers are useful in controlling this. But with the advent of reperfusion therapy, people who survived heart attacks suffered less cardiac damage, so the frequency of fatal arrhythmias was lower. Put simply, the beta blocker effect was significant before the advent of this improved treatment, but the beneficial effect has since disappeared. Additionally, newer and better drugs such as anticoagulants, statins and antihypertensives are now routinely used in heart disease. These more effective therapies swamp any smaller benefit that the beta blockers might provide, minimising any measurable effect. What comes next is impossible to predict, but we may well be seeing a rare case of medical wisdom being overturned almost overnight. Beta blockers are not dangerous and have been in use for such a long time that it is unlikely that we will see an immediate cessation. But these results are hard to ignore, and cardiologists will be paying careful attention.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/337408531
medicine  health  explained  hypertension 
november 2012 by aries1988
科学松鼠会 » 概说阿尔茨海默症
最近给家里打电话,爸妈感叹说一年一年过得真快。我也感觉出来,已过花甲的他们渐渐有了一些“老人心态”,偶尔开始担忧起一些老人病。妈妈抱怨自己的健忘更明显了,即使记在纸上有时也会连纸条一起忘记,然后忧心忡忡地说,希望不要得老年痴呆症啊。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/325672410
science  china  medicine 
september 2012 by aries1988
Quack medicine in the military: Acupuncture, cupping, and moxibustion are endangering troops.
In this modern era, we should be looking at the best science, not reverting to anecdotal evidence and pre-scientific belief systems. We should be looking at comparative effectiveness and evidence-based treatments and ways to reduce costs. The adoption of acupuncture by military medicine is a step backward. But with strong advocates of alternative medicine on both sides of the aisle, we’re not likely to see changes any time soon.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/314667221
opinion  medicine  usa 
august 2012 by aries1988

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