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“七五”事件十周年:为何“发展”与“开明”没能解决新疆问题?|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
从2000年到2010年,维吾尔族农业人口的比例从80.35%上升到了82.74%。与此同时,其产业工人所占的人口比例却从1990年的6.15%一路下降到2010年的4.55%。从1990年代后期到2010年,中国整体上正在经历迅速而普遍的工业化、城市化浪潮,维吾尔的这种逆向变化趋势显得极其不同寻常。联系到南疆地区较高的生育率,以及很难大幅提升的可耕种土地和水资源,农业人口比例的增加意味着同样的土地承载人口增加,而其中大量的年轻人很可能处于隐形失业的状态。

当人们还沉浸在新疆前现代的“自然”生活绿色、无污染,多产长寿老人的神话时,冷冰冰的人口普查数字显示,在2000年,新疆汉族的婴儿死亡率是千分之13.1,而维吾尔婴儿死亡率则高达千分之101.7;同时,新疆汉族的人均预期寿命为73.34岁,维吾尔人则只有63岁,足足少了10年之多。

肩负众望,新官上任不到一个月,就力主新疆的互联网服务全面恢复,甚至在两会时对记者表示,“关闭网络”等被动维稳手段“恐怕不是根本”;他开通了微博,“七五”周年时去夜市喝啤酒、吃烤肉;在斋月结束时,张书记戴着维吾尔花帽与宗教界人士共进开斋饭、致辞祝穆斯林开斋节快乐,他同时表示,“伊斯兰教是倡导和平、团结的宗教”,之后还引用了一段古兰经经文——这种开放、开明的姿态不仅在先前时代闻所未闻,恐怕今后可预见的时间内也不会发生。

张春贤时代从2000年到2010年,维吾尔族农业人口的比例从80.35%上升到了82.74%。与此同时,其产业工人所占的人口比例却从1990年的6.15%一路下降到2010年的4.55%。从1990年代后期到2010年,中国整体上正在经历迅速而普遍的工业化、城市化浪潮,维吾尔的这种逆向变化趋势显得极其不同寻常。联系到南疆地区较高的生育率,以及很难大幅提升的可耕种土地和水资源,农业人口比例的增加意味着同样的土地承载人口增加,而其中大量的年轻人很可能处于隐形失业的状态。

当人们还沉浸在新疆前现代的“自然”生活绿色、无污染,多产长寿老人的神话时,冷冰冰的人口普查数字显示,在2000年,新疆汉族的婴儿死亡率是千分之13.1,而维吾尔婴儿死亡率则高达千分之101.7;同时,新疆汉族的人均预期寿命为73.34岁,维吾尔人则只有63岁,足足少了10年之多。

张春贤时代
肩负众望,新官上任不到一个月,就力主新疆的互联网服务全面恢复,甚至在两会时对记者表示,“关闭网络”等被动维稳手段“恐怕不是根本”;他开通了微博,“七五”周年时去夜市喝啤酒、吃烤肉;在斋月结束时,张书记戴着维吾尔花帽与宗教界人士共进开斋饭、致辞祝穆斯林开斋节快乐,他同时表示,“伊斯兰教是倡导和平、团结的宗教”,之后还引用了一段古兰经经文——这种开放、开明的姿态不仅在先前时代闻所未闻,恐怕今后可预见的时间内也不会发生。

维吾尔社会整体的发展溃败、“七五”之后的政治高压、以及人们对“老教”的失望情绪,都导致了“新教”的迅速崛起。“新教”倡导一种类似清教徒式的俭朴生活,反对复杂仪式和铺张浪费,这让很多穷苦的维吾尔农民有自然的吸引力。

张春贤在两会期间谈到这起暴恐事件时,哽咽说道,“我曾一个人在房子里,静静考虑这件事,究竟为什么这些人会丧尽天良?”

此时,不论官方还是民间,人们对张春贤“维新”的耐心已经到了耗尽的边缘,“柔性治疆”的思路开始受到了广泛质疑。在张离任后,有汉人朋友与笔者聊天时对张表示极其不满,“出了暴恐的事居然还哭!哭有个屁用,软蛋!”

如果张春贤能够得到更坚定的支持,能够将“用民生求稳定”的策略坚持推广,在长期来看结果如何,也未可知。毕竟,2010到2015年间,新疆交出了GDP年均增长11.1%的亮眼经济成绩单。但历史不容假设,2016年8月,新的党委书记陈全国从西藏来到新疆,铁腕手段和“学习班”政策很快蜚声天下,“柔性治疆”思路黯然离场。
xinjiang  2009  2014  policy  ethnic  muslim  analysis  numbers 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
就士游 | 陈浩武:从启蒙运动到大革命——法国旅行手记(上)
此次随团学者刘军宁研究员,是中国政治哲学界领军人物之一,近年来积极倡导保守主义,有极大影响。此次法国旅行的确值得期待。

十二世纪时,拥有这块富饶土地的是美丽的女人埃莉诺公爵,她先嫁给法王路易七世,因为无子而离婚,后嫁给英国金雀花王朝的享利二世,却一下子生了四个男孩!亨利二世后来加冕为英国国王,他们的儿子亦继承英国王位,那就是著名的“狮心王”理查一世和“失地王”约翰。其中约翰王就是那位在1215年被迫与诸侯签订《大宪章》的那位阁下。

普瓦提埃大学,是法国历史上最负盛名的大学之一,仅次于巴黎大学,创立于十五世纪,培养的学生可以说星光灿烂,包括笛卡尔、居里夫人等。我们围坐在普瓦提埃大学参天古树荫蔽的草地,开讲普瓦提埃大战。
poitiers  history  europe  muslim  christianity  bordeaux  leader  france 
october 2018 by aries1988
北京牛街:改造后,穆斯林聚居区已快变成小吃街|少数族群|深度|一周精选|端传媒 Initium Media
买完肉,祖孙俩通常会去牛街宝记豆汁店来碗豆汁。豆汁不是豆浆,是经绿豆发酵出的灰白色浓稠浆汁,通常还冒着泡沫,味道酸臭。除了老北京人,极少有人喜欢这口儿。喝了豆汁,去羊肉胡同来个香喷喷的羊肉大包子,再一拐弯儿,买块儿甑儿糕。回家之后,穆娜炖上一锅牛尾,炸上一盘松肉(一种混合了牛肉馅和土豆泥的食品),玛玉大快朵颐,堪称“童年完美一日”。
beijing  quartier  muslim  history 
october 2018 by aries1988
北京回族家庭三代:信仰是怎样走向真空的?|少数族群|深度|一周精选|端传媒 Initium Media
饮食亦是维系家族传承的纽带之一。姥姥穆娜烹饪的菜肴,是玛玉从小的美食启蒙。逢年过节,一大家子人围桌而坐,姥姥和大姨掌勺:一盆羊蝎子,一锅炖牛尾,一盘子炸松肉(由牛肉馅和土豆泥混合制成的小吃)……牛肉味道醇厚,羊肉毫不腥膻,吃下去,满口都是油脂的香气。饭后,姥爷做的桂花糕、玫瑰糕清甜绵润。如今,连玛玉的汉族老公也知道,她口中的“好吃的”,特指牛尾牛舌牛蹄筋,羊蝎子羊排羊头肉,饭后必须吃点甜的才算满足。

除此之外,穆斯林禁酒的文化也早已荡然无存。特别是入了官场的回族人,哪一次仕途的攀登能脱离酒桌文化?这是一个奇怪的场,喝醉是一张入场券,酒后吐露些秘密就更好了,这样彼此都攥住了对方的把柄,同盟就形成了。在酒桌上保持清醒的那个人,是最危险、最不可信、最不会被重用的。
muslim  china  reportage 
october 2018 by aries1988
The Clash of Ignorance

Samuel Huntington’s article "The Clash of Civilizations?" appeared in the Summer 1993 issue of Foreign Affairs, where it immediately attracted a surprising amount of attention and reaction
to supply Americans with an original thesis about "a new phase" in world politics after the end of the cold war,

Certainly neither Huntington nor Lewis has much time to spare for the internal dynamics and plurality of every civilization, or for the fact that the major contest in most modern cultures concerns the definition or interpretation of each culture, or for the unattractive possibility that a great deal of demagogy and downright ignorance is involved in presuming to speak for a whole religion or civilization. No, the West is the West, and Islam Islam.

Instead of seeing it for what it is–the capture of big ideas (I use the word loosely) by a tiny band of crazed fanatics for criminal purposes–

what is so threatening about that presence? Buried in the collective culture are memories of the first great Arab-Islamic conquests, which began in the seventh century and which, as the celebrated Belgian historian Henri Pirenne wrote in his landmark book Mohammed and Charlemagne (1939), shattered once and for all the ancient unity of the Mediterranean, destroyed the Christian-Roman synthesis and gave rise to a new civilization dominated by northern powers (Germany and Carolingian France) whose mission, he seemed to be saying, is to resume defense of the "West" against its historical-cultural enemies.

These are tense times, but it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis
muslim  debate  islam  terrorism  power  community  civ  conflict  europe  population  theory  leader  instapaper_favs 
october 2018 by aries1988
Why fake miniatures depicting Islamic science are everywhere | Aeon Essays
With these ideals in mind, do the ends justify the means? Using a reproduction or fake to draw attention to the rich and oft-overlooked intellectual legacy of the Middle East and South Asia might be a small price to pay for widening the circle of cross-cultural curiosity. If the material remains of the science do not exist, or don’t fit the narrative we wish to construct, then maybe it’s acceptable to imaginatively reconstruct them. Faced with the gap between our scant knowledge of the actual intellectual endeavours of bygone Muslims, and the imagined Islamic past upon which we’ve laid our weighty expectations, we indulge in the ‘freedom’ to recreate.
museum  fake  muslim  science  history  opinion 
october 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:魯什迪這個名字(摩爾人的最後嘆息之八)
在他備受爭議的眾多觀點當中,最可怕的是他居然認定世界的永恆存在。換句話說,他認為早在神創造天地之前,那個將要被創造的天地,其實就已經以某種形式在那兒了。世界不可能從虛無之中被創造出來,物質和時間都是永恆的,真主幹的事情無非就是讓整個過程開始運轉,並且透過普遍的自然律則去管理這個世界。如果想要弄清楚上蒼的意圖,就該透過哲學和科學去掌握那些自然律。這種觀點,歐洲人本來不應該覺得陌生,因為他的靈感就來自於亞里士多德。但是比起早已忘記了亞里士多德的歐洲人,阿拉伯世界這幾百年間所產生的思想家才算是古希臘智慧的真正傳人。正是伊本.魯世德詳盡周密的註釋重新打開了西方天主教徒的眼界,受他影響甚深的阿奎那甚至尊稱他為「詮釋者」。他對力學和自然律的理解,也影響了後來歐洲科學的進展。他反對從字面意義理解可蘭經以及先知的聖訓,推崇理性的論辯,是巴黎索邦大學哲學家終於打破神學霸權的間接助力。
muslim  thinker  espagna  philosophy 
july 2018 by aries1988
The French Origins of “You Will Not Replace Us”

He sees immigration as one aspect of a nefarious global process that renders obsolete everything from cuisine to landscapes. “The very essence of modernity is the fact that everything—and really everything—can be replaced by something else, which is absolutely monstrous,” he said.

When Benoist writes that “humanity is irreducibly plural” and that “diversity is part of its very essence,” he is not supporting the idea of a melting pot but of diversity in isolation

These disciples, instead of calling for an “Islamic holocaust,” can argue that rootedness in one’s homeland matters, and that immigration, miscegenation, and the homogenizing forces of neoliberal market economies collude to obliterate identities that have taken shape over hundreds of years—just as relentless development has decimated the environment. Benoist’s romantic-sounding ideas can be cherry-picked and applied to local political resentments.

Faye, like Renaud Camus, is appalled by the dictates of modern statecraft, which define nationality in legal rather than ethnic terms.

Camus lamenting that “a veiled woman speaking our language badly, completely ignorant of our culture” could declare that she is just as French as an “indigenous” man who is “passionate for Roman churches, and for the verbal and syntactic delicacies of Montaigne and Rousseau, for Burgundy wines, for Proust, and whose family has lived for generations in the same valley.” What appalls Camus, Polakow-Suransky notes, is that “legally, if she has French nationality, she is completely correct.”

This is true, but there is always a threshold at which a quantitative change becomes qualitative; migration was far less extensive in the Middle Ages than it is today. French liberals can surely make a case for immigration without pretending that nothing has changed: a country that in 1900 was almost uniformly Catholic now has more than six million Muslims.

Yet feminism, Starbucks, the smartphone, the L.G.B.T.Q. movement, the global domination of English, EasyJet, Paris’s loss of centrality in Western cultural life—all of these developments have disrupted what it means “to be French.” The problem with identitarianism isn’t simply that it is nostalgic; it’s that it fixates on ethnicity to the exclusion of all else.
interview  usa  islam  muslim  france  français  intelligentsia  book  debate  population  race  altright  culture  identity  liberalism 
november 2017 by aries1988
The True Believers: Sam Harris
# Instapaper (2017/02/24)
## Added on Saturday, February 24-25

What I’m arguing for in the piece is not to discard either type of explanation but to remember the latter one and take the words of these ISIS people seriously. Even though at various points in the past we’ve ignored political or material causes, this doesn’t mean that ideology plays no role, or that we should ignore the plain meaning of words.

that’s really one of the things that social sciences have triumphed in doing: explaining that within certain boundaries, rationalities lie behind what at first looks like mere craziness or barbarity. Just calling behavior craziness is a trap that a lot of ISIS-watchers have fallen into. If you see members of the Islamic State as thrill-kill nihilists, then you’re not giving them enough credit.

There’s also a deep urge to deny agency to the Islamic State, and I think it’s fundamentally connected to a reluctance to see non-Western people as fully developed and capable of having intelligent beliefs and enough self-knowledge to express them. These people articulate well-thought-out reasons for what they do. And yet ignoring what they say somehow gets camouflaged in the minds of liberals as speaking up for them. It’s delusional.

although the Islamic State wants a civilizational war, of Muslims versus Crusaders, I think they’re consciously avoiding terrorist attacks on Western targets that would provoke too strong a response too soon. If they bombed the Super Bowl, they’d probably be looking at a ground invasion within weeks. They want the invasion, but on their own schedule.

I think we might be in a situation analogous to seeing someone writhing around on the ground in front of us, showing every symptom of having appendicitis. But instead of being surgeons, armed with sterile scalpels, we are just laymen who once read a first aid manual and have no tools other than a rusty soup can. There’s no good option, even though we recognize the problem. The overwhelming probability is that the patient will die a terrible death, and we will have to watch.

it’s abundantly clear that we are not good at massive occupations of countries we poorly understand. Not only that, we just don’t have the appetite for it.

The point of all propaganda is to create narratives about the world. Their view—and the view of jihadis everywhere, really—is that Muslims are under attack by a Crusader West.

confirm their narrative for other Muslims who are already inclined to believe that the West is at war with Islam. That’s not a view I would like to encourage.

The idea is that if we don’t walk on eggshells until the end of history as we fight jihadis, taking great pains to deny any link between the chaos they cause and the doctrine of Islam, then we’re doomed to provoke more-mainstream Muslims into choosing the wrong side in this conflict.

One of the things that is so refreshing about your article is that you didn’t do that. But you now seem to be saying that we must be very careful not to do anything that could give fodder to a “clash of civilizations” narrative.

The Islamic State leader identifies as Salafi, which means that he takes as his sources of authority the Qur’an, the hadīth of the Prophet Muhammad, and the actions of the generations immediately succeeding Muhammad.

The percentage of the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims who identify as Salafi—who subscribe to this literalist version of Islam—is quite small, probably single-digit. The percentage of Salafis who would identify as jihadis is vanishingly small. And then, of course, within that population a lot are going to be noncombatants because they’re too old, or too young, or whatever. So we’re still talking about large, but perhaps now manageable, numbers.

The point of bringing up this quietist group is to say that the problem isn’t Islam, or even Islamic literalism. Most literalist Muslims are essentially harmless, or even better than harmless—nice people you would like to have as neighbors. So the specificity of interpretation that leads to the Islamic State is really quite narrow.

What you seem to be expressing is a fear that there could be a mass changing of sides based on some secret sympathy, or some susceptibility to moral confusion, even in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

The Salafi neighbor may not be the neighbor you’d choose, if you could pick from a menu of atheists and liberals and, more generally, people who didn’t care what you thought about god.

there are many religious people whose beliefs about a far-off apocalyptic battle, and mass conversion at the sword, do not affect their lives much at all. People are good at compartmentalizing, and if they weren’t, the world would hardly be livable.

it is a lack of meaning or fulfillment in their lives, related to deep malaise and feelings of rejection or dissatisfaction with the worlds where they live.

If you think the high point of your life in England is going to be eating KFC, the promise of joining the greatest battle the world has ever known might be pretty attractive.

many of us experience such existential concerns early in life.

Where are your scholars?

huge numbers of scholars have been co-opted by politics—either the politics of the Middle East or the politics of the United States.

These differences between the palace scholars and ISIS seem minor, but I would encourage you to see them as significant.

I try studiously not to take a position on which one of these views is correct. I just don’t have any credibility as a non-Muslim to say whether one scholar or another espouses the best form of Islam. However, if I were able to choose what people believed, I’d hope it was the caliphate-later view.

Of course, there are Christians who think about the end times, which are also not envisioned as very pleasant. If you ask them, “Is it happening now?” some of them will say yes. But very few of them will act as if they actually believe it’s happening now. If they’re envisioning a terrible bloodbath at some unimaginably distant time, I can live with that.
illusion  debate  to:marginnote  islam  warrior  middle-east  religion  war  crisis  terrorism  explained  interview  muslim 
february 2017 by aries1988
In France, Some Muslims Seek To 'Adapt' Islam To Secular Culture
Many French Muslims believe it's time to create a uniquely French brand of Islam that is compatible with the country's secular values and responds better to the needs of modern Muslims.
numbers  france  muslim 
february 2017 by aries1988
Au Québec, les dangers de « l’insécurité culturelle »
L’attaque contre la mosquée de Québec est l’une des plus graves à s’être produites dans le monde occidental. La province est contrainte à l’examen de conscience.
quebec  reportage  community  muslim  canada  history  politics  identity 
february 2017 by aries1988
Staunch secularist entrusted to quell France’s row over Islam - FT.com
France will never be like the UK or the US, Mr Chevènement notes. No ‘In God we trust’ on our banknotes, he says. Female police officers wearing headscarves are totally out of the question.

The British and the Americans accept that everybody lives separately according to their own ways. Those communities have gained the right to sort their own affairs, he notes. We believe that citizens should contribute to the common interest by favouring reason and not the display of faith … We are trying to balance freedom and equality.
france  muslim  comparison  uk  government  laicite 
september 2016 by aries1988
What American Women Who Wear Hijab Want You to Know
In the short film Hijabi World, two Rutgers University students, Hamna Saleem and Dina Sayedahmed, filmed their friends—Muslim women who observe hijab—talking about the day-to-day challenges of wearing a headscarf. “Sometimes you itch in your own skin,” says one woman named Halima. These are the heartening testimonies of a handful of Muslim women about why they decided to wear the scarf and how it impacts their lives and religiosity.
usa  female  muslim  religion  video  story  temoignage  explained 
august 2016 by aries1988
The burkini row shows the depth of west’s crisis of confidence
Instead, the growing visibility of Muslims in western society reflects an ownership over their European and Muslim identities in a manner their first-generation immigrant parents and grandparents did not dare display. A headscarf is a mark of self-confidence not illiberalism. The Islam practised by many young European Muslims today is flexible, tolerant and accepting of the west’s prevailing norms, whether on homosexuality, abortion or atheism.

The burkini has gained prominence in recent years because Muslim women make Islam work for them: at the beach, in the workplace or at the Olympic Games. Previous generations, including my mother, would never have thought of going to the beach.
opinion  muslim  france  society  state  ban  malaise  conservatism 
august 2016 by aries1988
France Has the Burkini Blues - The New York Times
A number of factors have turned France into the epicenter of the clash between extremist Islam and Western societies. They include the presence of Western Europe’s largest Muslim community, French participation in conflicts from the Middle East to Mali, the tensions deriving from France’s troubled colonial past (notably in Algeria), and, perhaps most of all, the Republic’s firm doctrine of laïcité, or secularism, designed to subsume all ethnic, racial, religious and other differences into French citizenship.

That said, it is also unacceptable to ban Zanetti’s burkini from beaches. A burkini is not in itself “a political project,” “a counter-society” or a symbol of women’s enslavement, as Valls argued. No, it is a choice of dress reflecting a religious belief protected under the French Constitution. If anything, it is the counter-bikini.

Often the choice to wear one has been imposed through forms of male domination sanctioned by certain readings of Islam and pervasive in societies like Saudi Arabia, but equally it may reflect a woman’s independently embraced identity. That is not for officials to decide. Inside the burkini lurk many different women’s journeys.
2016  france  muslim  female  debate 
august 2016 by aries1988
The French Culture Wars Continue - The New Yorker
We are in a society that is so secularized that it no longer understands the reality of religiosity itself, Roy has said. It’s precisely there that we must make an effort, to normalize the Muslim reality as a religious reality and integrate it into the French cultural space.
debate  society  religion  muslim  islam  female  intelligentsia  culture  integration  conflict  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
For Immigrants, America Is Still More Welcoming Than Europe
Among the most notable is clearly Europe’s segmented labor market, difficult for newcomers to crack. In the United States, less-educated immigrants may work for little pay. But the vast majority of them work. The employment rate of immigrants is higher than that of natives. In Europe it is lower.

A report about the integration of immigrants issued over the summer by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development noted that more than a fifth of Europe’s immigrants from outside the European Union were unemployed, about double the rate of European Union citizens.

One in four of the economically active is out of work in France and one in three in Belgium and Sweden. And these poor employment prospects persist down the generations. Youth joblessness among the European-born children of immigrants is almost 50 percent higher than for those with native-born parents.

Employment is not the only barrier. Children from less-educated immigrant families are much less likely to succeed at school in Europe than the sons and daughters of natives, and much more likely to end up marginalized: out of school and out of work. Immigrants feel discriminated against more often in Europe. Perceived discrimination is particularly acute among the European-born children of immigrants, who in several countries still do not qualify for automatic citizenship.

In the United States, they write, “to be religious is to be in sync with mainstream norms.” Many Americans have more trouble accepting atheists than Muslims. In Europe, by contrast, “claims based on religion have much less acceptance and legitimacy.”

In June, President Obama hosted a Ramadan Iftar meal at the White House. In France, public schools still serve fish on Fridays. In some schools, the choice for Muslim children is pork or nothing.
religion  comparison  usa  europe  immigration  muslim  children  naturalization  job 
december 2015 by aries1988
L’hebdo satirique n’est pas la France
Ce journal n’a eu de cesse de manier le crayon pour insulter les croyances religieuses et se moquer de toute autorité et institution. Mais la liberté ne s’inscrit-elle pas dans un ensemble plus large : la responsabilité, le respect d’autrui et d’abord le fonctionnement de la raison ?

Exiger qu’un musulman devienne un bon citoyen en adhérant aux valeurs de la République dont l’incarnation serait « Charlie », c’est pratiquement l’exclure de la nation et donc le jeter dans les bras des islamistes qui n’attendent que cela.
opinion  muslim  france  integration 
may 2015 by aries1988
Beijing's Winter Olympic Bid
Beijing will bid for the 2022 winter Olympics and will find out this year if it's made it on to the list of candidate cities. Reporter: Huey Fern Tay Camera…
china  chinese  religion  muslim  video  female 
february 2015 by aries1988
Our France: Muslims tell their stories - FT.com
I haven’t often encountered problems related to my origins. It’s happened once or twice for housing, for example. My boyfriend at the time was from Benin, so we had two foreign-sounding names. Once we didn’t get an apartment we wanted. I think that if they had seen me, it would have been different.
muslim  france  life 
february 2015 by aries1988
张承志:「最终为之迷恋的地方」
摘要:弗朗哥的法西斯主义,主张唯一的天主教、唯一的西班牙语(其实是卡斯蒂利亚语)、主张彻底消灭共产党人和无政府主义者、主张大西班牙主义。所以等到弗朗哥一命呜呼,西班牙迎来了民主化,半岛上每一个角落的语言都立即复苏了。在巴斯克甚至出现了铁血的分离主义,大名鼎鼎的ETA数十年一日用炸弹和手枪,搅得西班牙狼狈不堪。法西斯主义招致了全面的报复
espagna  essay  history  muslim 
august 2013 by aries1988

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