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aries1988 : nation   63

被遗忘的冷战铁幕:苏台德
匈牙利的马扎尔人把自己塑造成来自中亚草原的民族。每一个匈牙利教师都在向学生描绘着马扎尔人的迁徙史和他们的故乡。当学生被这种浪漫的乡愁所打动,他们当中的很多人真的踏上了走向亚洲的道路,比如布达佩斯的犹太人斯泰因,他一直走到了敦煌。

1938年曾在慕尼黑被迫向希特勒妥协的捷克总统爱德华·贝奈斯决心从根本上解决捷克斯洛伐克的民族问题,他的选择就是《贝奈斯法》。根据二战后的《贝奈斯法》,捷克斯洛伐克共和国把国内第二大民族的德意志人全部没收财产、驱逐出境。两百多万德意志人被赶出捷克来到德国后,捷克真的成了一个民族国家。也正是在他们离去的背影里,铁幕无声地降下。横亘在这些被驱逐者和故乡之间的就是这条被遗忘的“冷战的静谧边界”。

捷克和德国之间的这条边界北到瓦尔德萨森、南到帕绍。在很多时候,这条边界看起来和东西德国之间、东西柏林之间的分界线没什么两样。

对一个美国知识分子来说,即使是在中欧这样的多民族地区,民族国家依然被看作是最理想的选择。希特勒固然令人厌恶,但他们也不反对《贝奈斯法》,况且《贝奈斯法》还是以“反纳粹”这个名义下制定出来的。

即使西方的经济起飞让他们当中的很多人改善了自己的处境,但故乡依然是难以忘却的。“在柏林看不到一座像家乡的山”,他们开着汽车或租用大巴回到这条遍布山峦和森林的边界,目的只是看一看自己的家。他们甚至靠捐款在边界的西侧修建了眺望塔,那里站得更高,像是登上了蒂伦高耸的山峰。

在这条边界上,铁幕战胜了他们,等待着他们的只能是忘记自己的过往,也最终被别人遗忘。
ww2  nation  state  ethnic  deutschland  coldwar  nostalgia  population  czech  book 
9 weeks ago by aries1988
李肇祐:在香港,認同「中華民族」的人,心裏是怎樣的「中華」?
在最近一项研究中,我提出香港人的中国人身分认同,或取决于一些关于人类社群的基本信念。具体一点来说,他们到底倾向相信社群的特征会受外在环境影响,抑或是难以改变的?

根据 Molden 和 Dweck (2006)的观点,人们对社群的信念大致可分为两类:可塑(malleable)和固定(fixed)。前者假设社群的属性以至当中成员的行为皆是由环境决定,会因领袖变化等外部因素而改变;后者则相信社群的特征是(近乎)固定的,甚至与生俱来。我们经常听到的“民族性”、“族群基因”论(如“古巴人有快乐的基因”),隐含的正是此类信念。

社群的可塑性为他们在中港矛盾中维持中国人身分认同提供了一个基础。

首先,两个实验组别的参加者对社群的可塑性的看法有显著差异,表明“科普文章”成功刺激他们对有关议题产生特定看法。其次,那些收到强调族群可塑性文章的参加者普遍比另一实验组别的参加者有更高的中国人身分认同。由于参加者所阅读的文章乃随机选出,我们有较大的信心推断参加者关于社群可塑性的想法与中国人身分认同存在一定因果关系。

今天全球环绕身分认同的冲突此起彼落,我们有必要找出,是甚么导致很多文化上有共通点、表面上能够和平共存的群体(如香港人和内地人)隔阂越来越深?

自2000年代以来,香港政府不断努力提高市民对中华民族的认同。通过社会组织,课程改革和交流活动,香港人,特别是学生,被灌输香港“自古以来”就是中华民族的一分子,有共同的历史及文化,中华民族各成员的关系“血浓于水”,彼此“同根同心”。与此同时,中国内不同族群之间的矛盾及差异则被有系统的掩盖。在中港两地人心愈走愈远的今天,或许我们该问,这些看似政治正确的宣传,会否同时令人对社群产生僵化的印象,或如赵永佳教授(2016)所说,令香港人缺乏面对一个复杂多元的中国的“抗体”,导致他们在面对中港间种种冲突时,对“中华民族”更加抗拒呢?
research  community  identity  nation  origin  poll  experiment  hongkong  chinese 
may 2019 by aries1988
What did the Anglo-Saxons ever do for us?

But the English never forgot 1066. Nor of course did the Welsh and, later, the Irish (the centuries-long assault on their culture began with an Anglo-Norman invasion in the 1170s). The Normans bequeathed wounds yet to heal. Even in the 21st century, we are trying to negotiate the legacy of these events: in Scottish and Welsh independence movements, and in the Irish border question. As the historian Eric John wrote in the 20th century: “It was the Anglo-Saxons who made England, the Normans who attempted to make Great Britain. And as yet they have not succeeded so well.”
history  england  uk  nation 
november 2018 by aries1988
東亞在世界史中的角色 – Zhongjing Liu | 劉仲敬 – Medium
從現在的這個中國核心去看待世界
把近代以前的中國看成一個自給自足的完整的實體,在十九世紀中葉以前一直是獨立和連續的,然後在十九世紀中葉以後受到歐洲外來者的侵略或者打擊

歐洲國際體系,它本質上講是一個自發演化的多國體系,
歐洲最初產生的威斯特伐利亞體系散播到整個世界,包括亞洲。在這個過程中,亞洲原有的政治結構需要重組,這就是我們所說的「中國」產生的原因。
以前所謂的「中國」,就是中央的城池,就是首都,或者是中原,就是指的中部的、首都周圍的土地,它是一個模糊的地理名詞,並不是現在所謂的民族國家的那個「國」。
大清漸漸解體,直到現在,王朝解體了,歐洲意義上的國家卻沒有真正建立起來。這就是近年來中國為什麼會發生對外緊張關係的根本原因。
民族國家所需要的那些基本要件,例如明確和穩定的邊界,例如排他性的主權
如果中國要建立民族國家的話,那麼很多缺乏認同感的原先的前藩屬地帶,就可以像是對待韓國一樣,讓它自己去獨立,今後建立平等的民族國家的新型關係。

如果美國不採取所謂的再平衡政策,那麼中國方面投入更多力量的結果,就有可能導致周邊的某些小國,特別是東南亞某些小國,背離原來的原有體系,倒向中國,然後形成一個以中國為中心的類似朝貢貿易的體系。而美國為了維持原有體系的平衡,就是說,你加碼我也得加碼,這樣原有體系才能夠維持平衡。
nation  state  china  geopolitics 
october 2018 by aries1988
內亞海洋與帝國秩序(四):羅馬時刻 – Zhongjing Liu | 劉仲敬 – Medium
你能夠征服,然後你的後代才能夠享受征服者留下的紅利,體現為福利形式。

勤奮是被征服者的美德,而勇敢是征服者的美德。

像孫恩(東晉五斗米教領袖,海寇頭領)那些人,或者像張角(東漢太平教教主,黃巾軍領袖)那些人,為什麼他出現在歷史記錄中的時候已經是連州跨省,擁有數十萬人馬,佔據了幾十個州的地方?

廬山會議實際上是他自己性格中小文人一面的體現,這種人比較容易幻想自己已經搞定了局面,他沈迷在自己的幻覺中,然後突然發現外在的形勢跟他的幻想不一樣,然後在這個幻想破滅的一瞬間會突然陷入人格崩潰的狀態,做出很多錯亂的事情來。

《大義覺迷錄》應該也是雍正在被他自己營造的環境所欺騙的一種產物。

日本人的問題是,他做事比較拘謹,也就是在有機會的時候,他沒有充分利用自己的機會,然後等機會喪失了以後他又後悔,來硬搶。這是極大的錯誤。在辛亥革命時,如果他當時就把東北整個吃下去,或者把愛新覺羅皇室遷到瀋陽的話,基本上沒有哪個列強會認真反對它,孫中山也不會反對,恐怕還會高興得不得了呢。

國民黨就是這樣完蛋的,它一定要冒充一個西方國家,也就是說要同時做獅子和蟑螂,於是它的成本太高而收效太低;而共產黨呢,效果雖然還不如他,但他至少把成本給壓到蟑螂的水平了,所以反而勝利了。

我見過很多次,被很多人認為是觀念的東西,到最後真的一查,結果都是跟當時的社會背景有非常密切的關係的。
japan  china  civ  today  idea  nation  qing 
september 2018 by aries1988
访谈|彭慕然:中国为什么这么大?

《东方历史评论》:在您的著作中,我注意到您很强调两个因素,一个是环境因素,另一个是制度因素,您怎样看待环境与制度之间的关系呢?对于以道格拉斯·诺斯为代表的制度经济学派的观点(当然也包括赵鼎新教授对您的批判)您怎么看呢?

彭慕然:诺斯提出的“制度经济学”概念非常的重要,但是它过于狭隘,甚至于有些过于僵化。我认为,这种僵化(包括你提及过的赵的观点)在于毫无道理地认为,在各种情况下,相同类型的制度都是最理想的。从可以在现实世界抽象出理论模型的经济学角度看 ,你当然可以认为,一系列的制度运作可以应对各种情况,但是现实情况并不是这样。《大分流》尤其想要说明的是,在一定情况下,一系列的制度运作可以发挥作用,但是在其他情况下,这样的制度则不行。

中国在长期的统治中意识到,要比较充分地维持北方边境的成本非常高,仅凭华北的财力物力,根本无力承担。维持边境所需的军队规模、首都的规模都远远超出了华北所能产出的农业剩余(agricultural surplus)

如果你在18世纪初或18世纪50年代问那些汉人士大夫,新疆、蒙古、东北甚至像云南的部分山区,都能说是你所处世界的一部分吗?他们会说:当然不是

我认为新清史的缺点在于,他们能够解释为何清朝可以在1683年至1759年将版图扩大了两倍,但却无法解释那些区域在清朝走向衰落以后,为何依然是中国的一部分。要理解这个问题,你需要了解汉人精英阶层为何会认为,那些地方是国家的一部分。这种观点并不是自然而然就出现的。
qing  book  nation  mentality  china  comparison  economy  england  debate  research  theory 
september 2018 by aries1988
L’Allemagne est-elle démunie face à l’extrême-droite ? — Du grain à moudre
durée : 00:40:15 - par : Hervé Gardette - Les manifestations anti-migrants se succèdent depuis plus d’une semaine à Chemnitz, en Allemagne. Face à l’émergence d’un discours raciste décomplexé, les autorités semblent avoir été prises de cours. Comment l’Allemagne peut-elle endiguer cette montée de l’extrême-droite ? - réalisé par : Alexandre Fougeron
deutschland  nation  origin  france  today 
september 2018 by aries1988
seoul_wave - YouTube
Brandon Li
Published on Aug 5, 2018
I spent a month in Seoul and saw a city racing to the future. Here's the film I made with the help of the great people I met along the way.
korea  portrait  video  nation  korean 
august 2018 by aries1988
公民民族主义 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书
公民民族主义来自理性主义与自由主义的传统,公民民族主义与单一种族及文化倾向的民族主义(ethnic nationalism)是互不相容的,公民民族主义认为民族成员的身份认同应该是取决于每个成员的自我决定,而种族或族群民族主义则认为民族成员的身份认同取决于血缘或共同的祖先等外在条件,由此可知,公民民族主义认为民族认同是由个体内在的主观意志所决定,而种族或族群民族主义则认为个体的民族认同是由外在的客观条件(例如血缘、语言、文化)所决定。
concept  nation  culture 
july 2018 by aries1988
Why some countries come together, while others fall apart | Aeon Essays

A comparison between Switzerland and Belgium, two countries of similar size, with a similar linguistic composition of the population, and comparable levels of economic development, provides an example. In Switzerland, civil society organisations – such as shooting clubs, reading circles and choral societies – developed throughout the territory during the late 18th and first half of the 19th century. They spread evenly throughout the country because modern industries emerged across all the major regions, and because Switzerland’s city-states lacked both the capacity and the motivation to suppress them. In Belgium, by contrast, Napoleon, as well as the Dutch king who succeeded him, recognised the revolutionary potential of such voluntary associations, and suppressed them. Even more importantly, the associations that did exist in Belgium were confined to the more economically developed and more educated French-speaking regions and segments of the population.

In 1831, when Belgium became independent of the kingdom of the Netherlands, most of the new rulers of the country had long been members of these French-speaking associational networks. Without giving it much thought, they declared French the official language of the administration, army and judiciary. Despite forming a slight demographic majority, those who spoke only Flemish were not part of these networks, and were therefore excluded from the central government. Until the end of the 19th century, the Flemish were ruled as an internal colony of Francophone Belgium. Early nation-building failed, the language divide became heavily politicised during the 20th century, and the country is now close to breaking apart.

Generations of political ties across linguistic divides allowed nationalist intellectuals and politicians to imagine the Han nation as multilingual, but ethnically homogenous.

Supporting civil society organisations can lead to backlash against foreign influence and political interference. The recent crackdown on foreign-funded NGOs in many eastern European countries is just one example of the risks run by a strategy of cultivating civil society organisations from outside. In the long run, however, such organisations help to provide a political infrastructure to establish ties across ethnic divides and move toward national political integration. A consistent and long-term strategy, such as that pursued by Germany’s political foundations or the Soros foundation, might still be the best way to help citizens connect with each other based on a shared cause, rather than shared ethnicity.
book  nation  state  origin  irak  afghanistan  howto  today  aids 
june 2018 by aries1988
【林忌书评】《丝路、游牧民与唐帝国》
然而要理性讨论上述问题最困难的,正由于民族主义对窜改历史以至对大家的洗脑,都是非常彻底的;每一次要讨论这些问题,必须先提醒大家一个最基本的历史事实︰民族主义,即要建立以民族为本位的国家,其实是来自唐朝灭亡近千年后的法国大革命;在此之前,只有皇朝,没有国家;因此异族作为君主,从来都不是甚么问题;因此唐朝来自拓拔家的帝国,不会影响其作为「中国地区」的皇帝的身份问题,但更不能因此把「唐朝」就当成是中国这个民族国家,两者的错误,其实是相同的。

举例说,英国今日的皇室,在一次大战才「本土化」改名为温莎皇朝,而摆脱本身出自德意志诸候萨克森—科堡(Saxe-Coburg),以至较早前的汉诺威(Hannover);再早之前,奠定之后英格兰一千年历史的征服者威廉(1066),在登陆时的爵位,正是法兰西的诺曼第公爵,因此异族入主一个帝国或王国,取得该国的王位,其王室本身并不是重点,原因就是当年根本没有民族主义;出问题的,其实是后代受到民族主义洗脑式的影响,如把狮心王查理视为「英国民族英雄」,或把唐太宗李世民视为「中国民族英雄」,这才是最大的问题。
history  tang  china  nation  state 
april 2018 by aries1988
Phoenicia: an imaginary friend to nations in need of ancestors | Aeon Essays
the Phoenicians, the ancient traders who had founded the coastal cities, sailed the length of the Mediterranean and beyond, and invented the alphabet that we still use today. Portraying the Phoenicians as champions of free enterprise, much like themselves, the Lebanists argued that these ancient Phoenician roots gave the Lebanese a Western, Mediterranean-focused identity, very different from the Muslim culture of the broader Syrian region, which they saw as distasteful and uncivilised. It was central to their ideology that they were not Arabs: ‘There are no camels in Lebanon’ as the slogan still goes.

While not yet nations in the modern sense, these groups shared cultural and sentimental attachments, a common name, a myth of shared descent, shared historical memories and attachment to a particular territory.

The historian Herodotus, for instance, talks frequently – and with considerable admiration – about the Phoenicians, but he never gives an ethnographic description of them as he does for other groups including the Egyptians, Ethiopians and Persians.
lebanon  history  nation 
april 2018 by aries1988
为什么古代的商业国家里没有一个持久的强国?
本账号系网易新闻&网易号“ 各有态度 ”签约账号 问丨 这些年来,好像出现了很多吹捧商人,歌颂商人国家的文章。但回头一看,发现那些以商业立国的地方,其实没有出现过一个持久性的强国。往往是稍有发展,就很快陷入一种速断不快但持续性的衰退。造成这种现象的原因是什么? 道理很简单,…
history  narrative  mercantilism  nation 
march 2018 by aries1988
In the Land of Vendettas That Go On Forever | VQR Online

These laws strike a responsive chord in us because that from which they arise is part of what C. G. Jung called our ‘collective unconscious,’ the phylogenetic, primordial, instinctual foundations of the human race.

he recognized and opined the perpetual instability of his country, the entrenched corruption, the way that, on bad days, it can seem as if there is no future here, that Albania’s collective unconscious is inconsonant, incompatible with modernizing forces—that the country resists, chokes itself.
nation  albania  crime  balkan  history  killing  family  honor 
february 2018 by aries1988
1789-2018 : les Anglais parmi nous
La présence des Anglais en France est importante et constante depuis le XIXe siècle. Tout en profitant des agréments culturels et des avantages matériels, les Anglais s'efforcent d'y reproduire un univers familier. Ils sont à l'origine d'une "France anglaise" dont l'histoire est méconnue.[...]
british  français  france  immigration  immigrant  story  nation  culture  history  sports  podcast 
february 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:廣東人就該說廣東話?

這類言論出現的背景,是因為在北方人看來,粵語、潮語和客語這三種語言都是很難理解,甚至十分難聽的「南蠻鳥語」,它們和它們所承載的風俗文化皆是在近代所謂的中原文化底下被歧視的對象。在民族主義開始形成,現代國家的觀念逐步興起的年代,這三個語群的文人和知識份子反擊偏見的辦法,並不是乾脆的另起爐灶,尋求自主認同;反而是利用語言等各種資源的重新描述,去訴說一個華夏文化和他們的深遠關係的故事。這個故事的主旨不是一個和國家文化截然不同的地域文化,卻是中國文化在地方上的完美體現。

幾乎一切圍繞着身份認同的言論,都帶有事實和規範等兩個部分,都試圖從你是個什麼人的事實,推導出你應當如何表現,如何行為,以及如何思考的結論。

唸哲學的人,大概會關心你是個什麼人的事實,如何可能推出你應當如何做的規範式結論。

從這種角度來看,身份認同可能不是一個從事實推出規範結論的推導過程;而是一個因為我想當某種人,所以我才看到了某種事實的逆向運動。
region  explained  canton  culture  hongkong  china  independence  comparaison  nation  conflict  language  moi  philosophy 
february 2018 by aries1988
於淵:走不出的「邊疆中國」|讀書時間|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

孙中山在辛亥革命后所提出的五族共和,

章炳麟则更加极端,他不赞同继承异族王朝的疆域,而要恢复到汉、明时期的疆域,那才是汉族正统。于是在章炳麟眼中,在清朝与中国形同异国的缅、朝、越,变成中华民国必当恢复的领土;而在清代内附且至清末已明白划在中国近代国际疆界之内的蒙、回、藏部,反而成了可以任其去来的荒服。

首先,中国国内民族的数量远远多于五族;其次,五族共和是汉、满精英的妥协,并不是五族之间达成的。五族共和最直接的目的是将清帝国五域维系在民国之内,而中国实际上却进入了以分离为开端的大分裂时期──外蒙直接独立,最终成为无可挽回的结局。
qing  china  state  nation  challenge  history  today  ethnic  book  chinese 
january 2018 by aries1988
专访王柯:极端的民族主义,一定是与世界为敌|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
实际上,本身中华文化是多重的,其最早就是由不同的异民族创造,并不是汉人自己创造的文化,而是来自于异民族向这个地方的移动。他们到达之后,为了说明自己建立政权的正当性,用神话来解释自己的历史,才导致了“权威的产生”。

夏商周三代,都是异民族开始的政权,他们到中原来建立政权的时候,就一定要对中原的人说他们建立政权的正当性。说明正当性的方法是什么呢?就是天命,我们应天命而来。

所以在清朝,北京叫顺天,南京叫应天,满洲就叫奉天。

所谓的天,日本说的“天无私照”,这就是日本的大神──“天照大神”的来源。所以实际上,向心力不是别的东西,其实就是一种对公平正义平等的向往。

最后,我对民族主义深恶痛绝。

也许从小的方面来看,对一个民族或有好处,但从整体来看,民族主义一定是需要敌人的。这个角度来看,我对中国过去通过民族主义来建国这条路,是深恶痛绝的。
opinion  research  politics  history  china  chinese  japan  nation  state  religion  ethnic  crisis  bio 
november 2017 by aries1988
曾磊:元朝是中国吗—对“元朝非中国”论的批判_爱思想

在21世纪的中国,有一部分网络写手操纵舆论,鼓吹元朝非中国论,他们找出很多似是而非的理由,对我国现存历史观进行挑战,影响了一部分人,应该看到,这种历史虚无主义观点不仅是错误的,而且其背后操纵者妄议我党、我国,这种错误的观点,必须予以坚决的辩证。笔者认为,必须重新认识大蒙古帝国、元朝和现代蒙古国之间的关系,才能彻底认清元朝历史问题,对中国历史的多民族性进行统一认识。

众所周知,外蒙古原本是我国领土,但是在1924年蒙古人民革命党的带领下建立了相对独立的政权。在1946年腐朽的国民党政府统治时期,以公民公投的形式获得了正式独立。任何一个爱国者都应该人知道这一历史事实,并且认识到弱国无外交的道理,我们不能让历史重演,不能再让任何一块中国领土从我们手里分裂出去,否则就是中华民族的罪人。

2006年,我国邻邦蒙古国举办了大蒙古国建国八百周年的活动,应蒙古国总统恩赫巴亚尔邀请,全国政协副主席徐匡迪将作为胡锦涛主席的特使,于10日至13日访问蒙古国,并出席了大蒙古国800周年纪念活动。
china  mongolia  history  today  diplomacy  debate  ethnic  nation  chinese  question 
november 2017 by aries1988
Catalonia on the Brink | by Miguel-Anxo Murado | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books
Catalonia’s relationship with the rest of Spain was not idyllic but it took the shape of a healthy contest, epitomized by the eternal rivalry between Spain’s two world-famous soccer teams: Real Madrid and Barcelona. If other Spaniards sometimes perceived Catalans as arrogant, they also thought them more efficient, more modern, more “European.” The Catalans, for their part, would sometimes grumble about Spain’s too easygoing approach to life, but then they would mock their own sense of superiority, and they, too, celebrated southern Spain’s vibrant culture.
reportage  barcelona  Catalonia  history  politics  nation 
october 2017 by aries1988
Capitalists need the nation-state more than it needs them – Dani Rodrik | Aeon Essays

Among the intelligentsia, the nation-state finds few advocates. Most often, it is regarded as ineffectual – morally irrelevant, or even reactionary – in the face of the challenges posed by globalisation. Economists and centrist politicians tend to view globalism’s recent setbacks as regrettable, fuelled by populist and nativist politicians who managed to capitalise on the grievances of those who feel they have been left behind and deserted by the globalist elites.

The globalist worldview is grounded in the argument that an interconnected world economy requires collective action at the global level. But this premise is largely false.

Global governance remains crucial in some areas, for example climate change or health pandemics, where the provision of global public goods is essential. But in the economic sphere the best way in which nations can serve the global good is by putting their own economic house in order.

The best definition of the nation remains that of Abbé Sieyès, one of the theorists of the French Revolution: ‘What is a nation? A body of associates living under one common law, and represented by the same legislature.’ Ethno-nationalists, with their emphasis on race, ethnicity or religion as the basis of nation, have it backward.

Institutional design comes with a fundamental trade-off. The diversity of social needs and preferences push governance down, to the local level. Meanwhile, the scale and scope of market integration push governance up, to the global level. An intermediate outcome, a world divided into diverse polities, is the best that we can do.
instituition  economy  today  opinion  politics  nation 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Thursday, October 5, 2017
And conversely, how much attention should we pay to the fact that today’s nascent democracies are held to a much higher moral standard than more established ones were in their earliest days? The early United States, for instance, relied on slave labor and waged brutal ethnic cleansing campaigns against Native Americans. European nations used slavery, torture and political oppression to maintain control over their colonies.

We now recognize, rightly, that those atrocities were abhorrent and shameful. But it is easier to do that from today’s comfortable vantage point of wealth and stability. We rarely reckon with how much of what we have today was derived from the oppression of others. So should we take a cold, hard look at the difficulties of establishing democracy, freedom and equality all at the same time?
question  debate  democracy  nation  state  2017  history  future  government 
october 2017 by aries1988
Myanmar Follows Global Pattern in How Ethnic Cleansing Begins - The New York Times
National self-determination, the idea that a nation should have the right to freely choose its political status, is a central tenet of the international system. It is enshrined in Article 1 of the United Nations Charter, which states that its purpose is “to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.”

Self-determination means not only defining what a nation is, but also who belongs in that nation and who is an outsider. And during times of political upheaval, when national identity comes under pressure and different groups compete for claims to self-determination, such definitions can provide an impetus for mass violence and even genocide against those deemed to be outsiders.

It is easy enough to define a “state” — a place with borders, territory and a sovereign government. But a “nation” is a hazier concept — a group of people bound together by some common characteristic, which may or may not match up precisely with state borders. That is where things get tricky.

Stefan Wolff, a political scientist at the University of Birmingham in England who studies ethnic conflict, has found that many of the world’s worst conflicts have arisen when ethnic and political borders do not line up with one another. “From Kosovo to Silesia,” he wrote in a 2004 article, “the competing claims of distinct ethnic groups to self-determination have been the most prominent sources of conflicts within and across state boundaries.”
2017  nation  state  banyan 
september 2017 by aries1988
India and Pakistan are still paying for a botched partition
No help was at hand — at that point, the UN was still some years away from defining what constituted refugee status. Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, who had lived side by side for years, slaughtered each other. Partition is estimated to have cost up to a million lives; the tragedy created at least 11m refugees.

If only wiser and cooler heads had prevailed 70 years ago, partition would have been avoided. It has proved a catastrophe — in lives lost, the millions wasted in military confrontation, not to mention the collective exhaustion induced by decades of mutual antipathy. The architects of this disaster imagined, rather naively, a peaceful coexistence rather than today’s deadly rivalry. Pakistan’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dreamt of a secular state, a far cry from the Islamic and sectarian nation that exists today. India’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, envisioned a pluralist and tolerant India, rather than the Hindu nationalist fantasies gripping parts of the country today.
pakistan  india  history  uk  nation  story 
august 2017 by aries1988
India and Pakistan at 70: their years of independence in charts
When measured at “purchasing power parity” — which adjusts for the fact that locally traded goods and services are much cheaper in the developing world — India is now the third-largest economy in the world, overtaking Germany and Japan since the turn of the millennium.

But output per head in India and Pakistan is around 10 per cent of US levels and in Bangladesh — which at partition was part of Pakistan but gained its own independence in 1971 — half of that. For all the spectacular growth of recent decades, these are still poor countries.

A significant moment in a nation’s economic and demographic history is when the urban population exceeds the number of people living in rural areas. In Great Britain this happened around the time of the 1851 census, in the US by 1920, and China passed this mark in 2011. The UN estimates that Pakistan and Bangladesh will have a majority urban population sometime in the late 2030s, but in India not until mid-century.
numbers  population  nation  india  pakistan  comparison 
august 2017 by aries1988
Dialect versus language — what's the big deal?
When does a 'dialect' become a 'language'? And what does it matter? This week on the podcast we look at two places that defy traditional definitions: Scandinavia and the Balkans.
moi  language  dialect  comparison  research  politics  nation  explained 
july 2017 by aries1988
Nobel laureate Svetlana Alexievich on her fears for Russia’s ‘collective Putin’
Not only did many of the intellectuals of her generation lose their jobs, their savings and their ideals: they also experienced no catharsis, since no one from the former regime was ever brought to justice. I ask her if Russia might have turned out differently if there had been a trial of the Communist party. “I was convinced there should have been,” she says. But others, including her father, an ardent communist, disagreed. “He said it would have led to civil war,” she says. As a result there was no reckoning with the Soviet past, no Russian Nuremberg. “We missed our chance,” she says.
interview  russia  communism  intelligentsia  today  history  literature  zeitgeist  nation 
june 2017 by aries1988
Norbert Elias se confronte à l’Allemagne

Les Allemands. Evolution de l’habitus et luttes de pouvoir aux XIXe et XXe siècles (Studien über die Deutschen. Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert), de Norbert Elias, traduit de l’allemand par Marc de Launay et Marc Joly, Seuil, « La librairie du XXIe siècle », 592 p., 35 €.

Le rêve du « Reich millénaire », l’idéal aristocratique de supériorité étendu à la masse des Allemands à travers la notion de « race », la peur du déclin et la valorisation corrélative de la force ont correspondu à l’« habitus » (ce qui dans l’individu exprime le rapport historiquement déterminé à son Etat) de bien des Allemands du temps : en effet, dans une Allemagne longtemps divisée en une multitude de petites entités, l’Etat impérial n’avait cessé de s’affaiblir depuis le Moyen Age ; et alors qu’au même moment la France et l’Angleterre se constituaient en monarchies de plus en plus puissantes et centralisées, pour les Allemands les rêves d’empire paraissaient plus fragiles.

Selon Norbert Elias, Nietzsche incarne au plus près, avant Hitler, cette peur allemande de la décomposition qui mène à la haine du faible et à l’exaltation du fort. Une autre facette de la haine de soi.
history  deutschland  deutsch  civ  ww2  ww1  society  zeitgeist  nation  philosophy  germany 
may 2017 by aries1988
南方周末 - 统一文字是果,统一国家才是因
李俊慧
从语言还可以进一步推广到更深远的制度。欧元这种后天人为的货币,从一开始就没有实体国家的支持,可想而知除非统一出一个实体国家,其消亡不可阻挡!统一的国家,才是一切统一——无论是统一的文字,还是统一的货币——的原因与根源,我们不可倒果为因啊!当然,为什么中国比西方更早地出现统一的国家,有关的解释我在《贸易的真相》一书(中信出版社出版)的“重商主义”一章里有详细的讲解,这里就不再重复了。
language  nation  state  comparison  europe  china  chinese  latin  opinion 
may 2017 by aries1988
After Eta: Spain’s history of violence
Eta was founded in 1959, during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. Its mission was to fight for the independence of the greater Basque country, a region straddling the Franco-Spanish border. The group went on to assassinate Luis Carrero Blanco, Franco’s chosen successor in 1973, a killing that had profound political repercussions. Since 2011 though, Eta has made news only sporadically, mostly when another of its dwindling band of members is arrested. The group inhabits a strange netherworld, neither dead nor alive, as it waits for a grand political settlement that will probably never come.

History matters, he says. It always does. “What is history today becomes social reality a generation from now,” he says. “And, what’s more, the victims have a right to the truth.”
espagna  history  terrorism  story  killing  conflict  nation 
january 2017 by aries1988
I Criticized the Olympics. That Doesn’t Make Me a Traitor.
In Brazil, many of us are so obsessed with how the outside world sees us that we won’t recognize our own faults.
brazil  pride  nation  critic  opinion  nationalism 
august 2016 by aries1988
从中国网民的愤怒,想到姚明的好脾气_易小荷_腾讯大家
因此,真正的奥林匹克精神绝对不是把孙杨等于全部中国人,指责孙杨就是指责中华民族,把不支持去围攻谩骂霍顿的人划分为“洋奴”,也绝不是自以为是的“网络打砸抢”,打着“爱国主义”的旗号进行暴力狂欢,趁机割裂人群,把全世界分为“中国”和“诋毁中国的国家”。
sports  people  nation  zeitgeist  chinese  today  olympics  nationalism 
august 2016 by aries1988
对于“废柴”巴西的想象和误解:与其互黑,不如共情_文化课_澎湃新闻-The Paper
葡萄牙是在荷兰与法国明确表达出对那块肥沃殖民地的觊觎之后,才真正开始了殖民巴西。他们派出了军队,赶跑了荷兰人,确认了对巴西的绝对统治。我有不少中国知识界的朋友,对于荷兰没有成功占领巴西一事耿耿于怀,觉得如果宗主国不是葡萄牙这个天主教废柴,而是荷兰这个发达的新教国家,那么以巴西的先天条件,何愁不混个第一世界国家当当?他们深深地为巴西遗憾、委屈,就像许子东老师一样。

在《巴西之根》中,他详细地对比了葡萄牙与荷兰人之间的差异。荷兰人打北方来,喜寒怕热,热爱秩序,到哪儿都要建个整洁干净的城市,给自己人住,特别不爱下乡,尤其不跟土著妇女乱搞。葡萄牙人从温暖的南欧来,对热带的气候比较适应,性格也不是那样龟毛,吊床上也能睡睡。葡萄牙本土等级制并不森严,再加上高门大户的都不来巴西,所以来巴西的这批人也没什么门户之见,跟土著妇女通婚也不是什么大事。这样,才能孕育出一个新的种族,成为了未来巴西的基础。

我也一点儿不觉得遗憾,因为如果荷兰真的占领了巴西,那么巴西今天就成了南非。现实如此打脸,我真不愿提醒那些善心人。

各种来源的文化要素,交融在一起,形成了多元共生的奇观。这当然是伟大的贡献,并不逊于希腊的光荣、罗马的成就、英伦的保守主义、法兰西的自由平等博爱,尤其是对于当下的世界。
essay  brazil  portugal  history  nation  zeitgeist  olympics  2016  comparison  chinese  perception  today  intelligentsia  netherlands  success  cliche 
august 2016 by aries1988
Way, José | The Economist
BRAZILIANS delight in Portuguese words that seem to have no equivalent in other languages. Saudade is yearning for an absent person or a place left behind. Cafuné is the act of running one’s fingers through a lover’s hair. More newsworthy is jeitinho, a diminutive of jeito (“way”). It is a way around something, often a law or rule.

Some scholars think that Catholics, tempted to regard confession as an alternative to compliance, are especially prone to jeitinho-like behaviour. Others suggest that mestiço (mixed-race) societies like Brazil’s are liable to be flexible, about the law as much as ethnicity. Perhaps inequality plays a role: the rich and powerful flout the law, so why shouldn’t ordinary folk?
language  brazil  portugal  story  comparison  nation  crisis  today  law  explained 
may 2016 by aries1988
How to change the face of Europe - FT.com
‘Europe today faces a problem: it lacks a clear creation myth with unifying heroes’
https://www.instapaper.com/read/721544683
europe  crisis  opinion  currency  people  nation  globalization  leader  myth  human  concept  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
Edge People
Undergraduates today can select from a swathe of identity studies: gender studies, women’s studies, Asian-Pacific-American studies, and dozens of others. The shortcoming of all these para-academic programs is not that they concentrate on a given ethnic or geographical minority; it is that they encourage members of that minority to study themselves—thereby simultaneously negating the goals of a liberal education and reinforcing the sectarian and ghetto mentalities they purport to undermine. All too frequently, such programs are job-creation schemes for their incumbents, and outside interest is actively discouraged. Blacks study blacks, gays study gays, and so forth.

I prefer the edge: the place where countries, communities, allegiances, affinities, and roots bump uncomfortably up against one another—where cosmopolitanism is not so much an identity as the normal condition of life.

If identification with a community of origin was fundamental to my sense of self, I would perhaps hesitate before criticizing Israel—the Jewish State, my people—so roundly. Intellectuals with a more developed sense of organic affiliation instinctively self-censor: they think twice before washing dirty linen in public.
thinking  essay  identity  nation  intelligentsia 
may 2016 by aries1988
Paris Attacks Have Many in France Eager to Join the Fight
French military spending, which reached 42 billion euros, or more than $52 billion, last year for military operations, weapons, surveillance networks and other support, will grow by €600 million next year to finance the new positions and necessary equipment, Finance Minister Michel Sapin said last week. The French Army, currently the largest in Western Europe, will take on an additional 10,000 recruits this year and 15,000 more next year. The French national police force and gendarmerie will expand by about 5,000 members, along with 1,000 new customs inspection positions and 2,500 at the French Ministry of Justice.
nation  2015  military  people  français  terrorism 
december 2015 by aries1988
Name that country: What to call Macedonia?
Alexander was Greek — his tutor was Aristotle the philosopher — and grew up in the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, which stretched across the modern border towards Skopje, before setting out on his trail of conquests.

Meanwhile, ethnicity in Macedonia is so mixed it gave the French a word for fruit salad. In the modern republic there are Slavs, who consider themselves ethnically Macedonian and a big Albanian minority, along with smaller groups of Vlachs, Bulgarians, and Roma people.
greek  conflict  history  nation  name 
december 2015 by aries1988
INFOGRAPHIC: A world of languages - and how many speak them
We represent each language within black borders and then provide the numbers of native speakers (in millions) by country. The colour of these countries shows how languages have taken root in many different regions
infographics  language  world  nation 
may 2015 by aries1988
Pourquoi les femmes sont si peu nombreuses au Panthéon
Deux femmes de plus au Panthéon. Ce mercredi, Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz et Germaine Tillion vont faire leur entrée dans le temple des «grands Hommes». Elles rejoindront ainsi la scientifique d'origine polonaise Marie Curie et l'épouse du chimiste Marcellin Berthelot, portant le nombre de femmes «panthéonisées» à quatre. Une bien maigre présence comparé aux 72 hommes qui reposent au Panthéon.
hero  2015  nation  history  français  female 
may 2015 by aries1988
The Bearable Lightness of Being: How Germans Are Learning to Like Themselves - SPIEGEL ONLINE
Bajram Avdijaj, 47, immigrated to Germany from Albania 22 years ago. Today he works in one of the most international parts of Munich: at a fruit and vegetable stand at the Viktualienmarkt market in the city center.

But look at Germany now: It has indisputably become a nation of immigration. Figures from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2012 show Germany ranking second in the world after the United States in attracting permanent immigrants, beating out even such melting pots as Britain and Canada. Germany drew 400,000 immigrants described by the international body as permanent in 2012. For some time, people wanted to settle in Germany. Now they can, the barriers have been lowered — and not just at the border. In 2010, former German President Christian Wulff made headlines around the world when he said that Islam is now a part of Germany. It’s the kind of statement that cannot be reversed.

Recently, Berlin’s prestigious Grause Kloster high school held a commencement ceremony for its graduating class. In her speech, the head of the parent’s association made a plea for a more diverse school, noting that there were almost no children of immigrants. It was just one of many examples of how things are slowly changing, even in strongholds of homogeneity like this. The school, founded in 1871 by the German Empire, includes Otto von Bismarck among its alumni.

Germany is benefitting from the fact that it modernized its economy in the early 2000s, preparing itself for the 21st century. The lethargic Rhine Capitalism model, which saw stores close for the weekend at 2 p.m. on Saturday, is history. Both business and society have adjusted and become more flexible. Companies became more efficient and began targeting the needs of the booming developing world.

Recently, Berlin's prestigious Grause Kloster high school held a commencement ceremony for its graduating class. In her speech, the head of the parent's association made a plea for a more diverse school, noting that there were almost no children of immigrants. It was just one of many examples of how things are slowly changing, even in strongholds of homogeneity like this. The school, founded in 1871 by the German Empire, includes Otto von Bismarck among its alumni.

After the fall of the Wall, a sort of Wild East atmosphere prevailed in East Berlin -- life seemed to move faster than the law and regulations could. Many young West Germans picked up and moved, at the same time discovering a new sense of freedom together with the East Germans. They didn't bother to apply for licenses for their bars and clubs, they squatted buildings and danced, partied and lived wherever they pleased. It was cheap, there was lots of space, a sense of openness to other people and other ideas. It was an openness that also beckoned people from around the world. They answered the call, too, coming to Berlin in droves.

they all want to be in Berlin, to be photographed leaping in front of the Brandenburg Gate. They experience Berlin as a place where they can manifest their own lightness of being.

Describing his view of the world, the Schiller Institute writes, "a man's duty lies above his own personal inclinations, how he must be both a patriot and a world citizen, which can never imply a contradiction, for the true interests of any one nation can never be at odds with the interests of the world as a whole."

no other country has done as much to come to terms with the history of its crimes. It was necessary in order to ascertain what was inherently German about that history and if there's a danger of it repeating itself. It was also necessary in order to send a message to the world that people here understand what Germany wrought on the world. But it also created a sense of gloom that was not only difficult for Germans to endure, but sometimes for others as well.
germany  german  story  people  nation  patriotism  instapaper_favs  history 
july 2014 by aries1988
The Vietnam Solution
How a former enemy became a crucial U.S. ally in balancing China’s rise

Chinese administrative norms were “internalized to the point that their alien origins became irrelevant.” The fierce desire of all Vietnamese to be separate from China was reinforced by their contact with the Chams and Khmers to the south, who were influenced by non-Chinese civilizations, particularly India’s. Given their intense similarity with the Chinese, the Vietnamese are burdened by the narcissism of small differences, and this makes events from the past more vivid to them.

Vietnam’s victories over China and over the Chams and Khmers in the south helped to forge a distinct national identity—a process spurred by China’s inability, up through modern times, to let Vietnam alone. In 1946, China colluded with France to have the Chinese occupation forces in northern Vietnam succeeded by French forces. The Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping “never lost his visceral hatred of the Vietnamese,” Templer writes. In addition to deciding in 1979 to send 100,000 Chinese into Vietnam, Deng devised a policy of “bleeding Hanoi white,” by entangling Vietnam in a guerrilla war in Cambodia.

The South China Sea links the Indian Ocean with the western Pacific, connecting global sea routes through the Malacca, Sunda, Lombok, and Makassar Straits. These choke points see the passage of more than half of the world’s annual merchant-fleet tonnage and a third of all maritime traffic worldwide. The oil transported through the Malacca Strait from the Indian Ocean, en route to East Asia by way of the South China Sea, is triple the amount that passes through the Suez Canal and 15 times the amount that passes through the Panama Canal. Some two-thirds of South Korea’s energy supplies, nearly 60 percent of Japan’s and Taiwan’s energy supplies, and about 80 percent of China’s crude-oil imports come through the South China Sea.

Vietnam and China have largely settled the problems created by the Gulf of Tonkin—in which China’s Hainan Island largely blocks the northern Vietnamese coastline from the open sea—by dividing the energy-rich gulf in half. “But we cannot accept the cow’s tongue,” he said, meaning China’s historic nine-dashed line in the South China Sea. “China says the area is in dispute. We say no. The cow’s tongue violates the claims of five countries.”

A Western defense expert in Hanoi tells me that the sale makes no logical sense: “There is going to be real sticker shock for the Vietnamese when they find out just how much it costs merely to maintain these subs.” More important, the expert says, the Vietnamese will have to train crews to use them—a generational undertaking. “To counter Chinese subs,” the expert says, “they would have been better off concentrating on anti-submarine warfare and littoral defense.” Clearly, the Vietnamese bought these submarines as prestige items, to say We’re serious.
diplomacy  usa  china  vietnam  banyan  nation  origin  history 
may 2014 by aries1988
汉字、国家与天下
由于汉语以单音节为主,同音字的数量太多,所以汉字的发展走向了表意的道路,着重字形构义,以免同音字造成误会与不便,这种特征和语音辨义的拼音文字大异其趣,开发了拼音文字所不具备的视像世界。

至于中国,白话文运动和国语运动更是民族国家建立计划的一部分。可别忘了,自清末开始,“中国不算是一个国家”和“中国人是一盘散沙”的哀叹就已渐成共识。要让中国人团结起来,语言统一是极其必要的;要让中国人没有内在的区隔,把本属士绅阶层的书写能力交还给大众,也是不可避免的。白话文的推行,汉字的改革,以及标准普通话的成立,全是中国建成民族国家的核心工程。
chinese  language  writing  history  essay  nation  change  mandarin  instapaper_favs 
march 2014 by aries1988
Outrage in Okinawa - NYTimes.com
Many Okinawans believe, with justification, that their views are irrelevant to the Japanese government and the United States, whose geopolitical priorities trump local concerns about jet crashes, noise, environmental destruction and crime.
region  nation  conflict  geopolitics  japan 
november 2012 by aries1988
Why We Can't Solve Big Problems | MIT Technology Review
July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. On July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. Kennedy’s words, spoken at Rice University in 1962, provide a better clue:  “But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? . . . Why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? . . . We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills . . .”
http://www.instapaper.com/read/338960349
question  future  nation  astro  human  usa  moon  today 
november 2012 by aries1988
奥运金牌:得也纠结,失也气恼
对西方来说,最大的困难在于很难对中国人的民族心理做到感同身受。过去300年是世界历史的“西方时刻”,近代以来,西方作为一个整体从未受到过外来异质文明入侵和统治,从未被看成过是“劣等人”,西方的精神传统也从未像中国那样因无力应对外来挑战而陷于彻底崩溃……因而,西方人几乎不可能理解普遍弥漫于曾经在列强入侵下国破家亡的中国人民心灵深处的那种近乎“病态”的民族自尊感。... 近年来随着中国的发展和开放,尤其是中国已经以东道主的身份举办过一届成功的奥运会,金牌和奖牌数也连续高举各国前列,在这方面我们似乎已经没有再多目标可以继续追求了。因而,越来越多的人逐渐能够以平常心看待比赛胜负,运动员也不再被视为国家和民族的符号。就像中国著名体操运动员李宁所说过的,中国已经过了“只需要金牌,不需要体育;只需要冠军,不需要运动员”的时代,中国的竞技体育也从要通过体育来彰显国力的“英雄时代”进入了运动员充分展现个体魅力的“明星时代”。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/314820519
china  history  zeitgeist  nation  people  future  opinion  sports  politics 
august 2012 by aries1988
The best and worst countries to be a returning athlete | FP Passport
The Olympics have left in their wake a glut of sports metaphors and even a few diplomatic spats, but the games themselves are over. The athletes are heading home - in fact, many left before the closing ceremonies last Sunday night. Some will receive heroes' welcomes, others, less so. Where are the best and worst places to go home to as an international athlete?
googlereader  sports  nation 
august 2012 by aries1988
India’s Planned Mars Mission Receives Mixed Reactions | World | TIME.com
The country's planned mission to Mars has prompted strong reactions, particularly among those concerned about domestic issues on the ground
india  astro  nation  people 
august 2012 by aries1988
载人航天有什么用?
我的答案是:天下没有不蒙人的政治,但也许可以有不骗人的政治?如果你脸皮没有厚到去宣传太空实验、“太空育种”的程度,那就使劲宣传靠谱得多的“技术反哺社会”吧!比如观察者网上马平的文章《技术制高点必须自己爬》,就是这样的好宣传文章。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/299906600
thinking  nation  astro  debate  science  public  politics 
july 2012 by aries1988
中印龙象赛跑:谁比谁更不稳定-翟华博客-我的搜狐
最近美国《外交政策》杂志与和平基金会发布的“2012年失败国家指数”(The Failed States Index 2012)按社会、经济、政治、军事等12个指标的评分(得分越高越不稳定)把世界上的国家分成了五类:最稳定(如美国、法国)、稳定(如日本、韩国)、中等状况(如蒙古)、较不稳(如俄罗斯、越南)、最不稳(如朝鲜、巴基斯坦),用五种颜色在地图上呈现了出来。
ranking  nation  future  india  china  fail  index  info  comparison 
june 2012 by aries1988
The Watch List - By Jay Ulfelder | Foreign Policy
Predicting state failure isn't as hard as you think.
nation  fail  future  index  ranking 
june 2012 by aries1988
The Economist: 美国各州、中国各省的GDP与哪些国家相当?
英国《经济学人》的编辑经常独出新裁,特别是喜欢用简单化的图表说事,常有出人意料的发现。美国和中国是世界属一属二的经济体,每一个州(省)都富可敌国。最近在《经济学人》的网站上就分别把美国各州、中国各省的GDP与全世界各国的GDP分别作了个比较。
gdp  nation  china  usa  comparison 
february 2011 by aries1988
年轻人,到“体制内”去
稳定、高福利、有保障、安全感,这些眼下倍显金贵的收益,正在指引一代中国年轻人向体制内大量回流。
youth  future  china  nation 
february 2011 by aries1988

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