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aries1988 : philosophy   46

Is–ought problem
The is–ought problem, as articulated by the Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is. Hume found that there seems to be a significant difference between positive statements (about what is) and prescriptive or normative statements (about what ought to be), and that it is not obvious how one can coherently move from descriptive statements to prescriptive ones.
concept  philosophy  thinker 
september 2018 by aries1988
任剑涛:现代法兰西文明的矛盾性由何造成?
政治理论上的后发性,使得法国很矛盾。要注意先发建立现代国家,但后发规范现代国家。法国的矛盾在启蒙运动时比较突出,尤其是当现代文明骨干要建构现代国家的时候。来自日内瓦的卢梭带着非常矛盾的现代文明建构体系,跑到法国搅动了一池春水。

只有立宪民主国家加民族国家才是真正意义上的现代文明国家,而法国一半领先一半滞后,所以它很矛盾。因而法国带给我们的现代文明建构是个矛盾体。这跟英格兰不一样,英格兰在1215-1688年的四百多年间渐进磨合出一个典范,其现代文明中没有介入太多情感因素,而经验主义进步也是一样。而法国不仅在建立现代国家过程中是分裂结构,理论上是情感跟理性战斗的结构,而且法国人期望通过理想建构——而不是经验磨合,要通过理性的设计,搞出美轮美奂的文明体。

笛卡尔就是建构理性主义的代表,他希图通过自己的设计而走出与培根经验道路完全不同的法国道路。笛卡尔理念跟卢梭理念结合,对法国政治产生了极大的推进作用。这样的矛盾结构在法兰西极为深刻,揭示出后发现代国家建立现代文明的不易。

一般而言,行政如果要追求效率就一定是实行单一首长制,但在法国却是双重首长制。中央派出的机构首长和本地选出行政官员共同执政。

一直到今天,法国对于建构现代政治的矛盾依然存在。一方面,热情万丈,想要建立完美政权的乌托邦主义一直延绵了下来。另一方面,法国的左右互搏没有引领法国走向现代文明的康庄大道,这种极端形态对构建现代文明的启示,是法国对后现代文明建设的贡献。
français  thinking  philosophy  civ  world 
september 2018 by aries1988
Is there any real distinction between ‘high’ and ‘low’ pleasures?
The difficulty with resolving this disagreement about the kinds of pleasure is not that we struggle to agree on the right answer. It’s that we’re asking the wrong question. The entire debate assumes a clear divide between the intellectual and bodily, the human and the animal, which is no longer tenable. These days, few of us are card-carrying dualists who believe that we are made of immaterial minds and material bodies. We have plenty of scientific evidence for the importance of biochemistry and hormones in all that we do and think

Eating illustrates how the difference between higher and lower pleasures is not what you enjoy but how you enjoy it.

Mill was therefore right to believe that pleasures come in higher and lower forms but wrong to think that we could distinguish them on the basis of what we take pleasure in. What matters is how we enjoy them, which means that higher and lower pleasures are not two discrete categories but form a continuum.

When we learn how to take pleasure in bodily things in ways that engage our hearts and minds as well as our five senses, we give up the illusion that we are souls trapped in mortal coils, and we learn how to be fully human. We are neither angels above bodily pleasures nor crude beasts slavishly following them, but psychosomatic wholes who bring heart, mind, body and soul to everything we do.
body  mind  pleasure  philosophy 
september 2018 by aries1988
What Can We Learn from Utopians of the Past?
Adam Gopnik writes about four nineteenth-century authors who offered blueprints for a better world—but their progressive visions had a dark side.

The sensible lesson one might draw from this is that the human condition is one in which the distribution of bad and good is forever in flux, and so any blueprint of perfection is doomed to failure.

Robertson assumes that if we can just add to the utopian visions of 1918 the progressive pieties of 2018—if we reform their gender essentialism and their implicit hierarchism and several other nasty isms—then we will at last arrive at the right utopia. This gives his book something of the exhausted cheerfulness of a father on a nine-hour car trip. “We’re almost there!” he keeps saying, as the kids in the back seat fret, and peer at license plates.

Liberalism is a perpetual program of reform, intended to alleviate the cruelty we see around us. The result will be not a utopia but merely another society, with its own unanticipated defects to correct, though with some of the worst injustices—tearing the limbs from people or keeping them as perpetual chattel or depriving half the population of the right to speak to their own future—gone, we hope for good. That is as close as liberalism gets to a utopia: a future society that is flawed, like our own, but less cruel as time goes on.

We remake interior lives to make exterior improvements, because the real current of social change lies inside minds and therefore inside people’s actual existence. We always want to get past the room we’re in in order to break out and change the universe. The lesson that life tends to teach is that change begins at home, and that we can’t escape rooms on our way to worlds. The world is made of rooms.
utopia  writer  book  society  politics  sex  marriage  love  philosophy  19C  liberalism 
august 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:魯什迪這個名字(摩爾人的最後嘆息之八)
在他備受爭議的眾多觀點當中,最可怕的是他居然認定世界的永恆存在。換句話說,他認為早在神創造天地之前,那個將要被創造的天地,其實就已經以某種形式在那兒了。世界不可能從虛無之中被創造出來,物質和時間都是永恆的,真主幹的事情無非就是讓整個過程開始運轉,並且透過普遍的自然律則去管理這個世界。如果想要弄清楚上蒼的意圖,就該透過哲學和科學去掌握那些自然律。這種觀點,歐洲人本來不應該覺得陌生,因為他的靈感就來自於亞里士多德。但是比起早已忘記了亞里士多德的歐洲人,阿拉伯世界這幾百年間所產生的思想家才算是古希臘智慧的真正傳人。正是伊本.魯世德詳盡周密的註釋重新打開了西方天主教徒的眼界,受他影響甚深的阿奎那甚至尊稱他為「詮釋者」。他對力學和自然律的理解,也影響了後來歐洲科學的進展。他反對從字面意義理解可蘭經以及先知的聖訓,推崇理性的論辯,是巴黎索邦大學哲學家終於打破神學霸權的間接助力。
muslim  thinker  espagna  philosophy 
july 2018 by aries1988
He died as he lived: David Hume, philosopher and infidel | Aeon Ideas

Ever tactful, Boswell immediately brought up the subject of the afterlife, asking if there might not be a future state. Hume replied that ‘it was possible that a piece of coal put upon the fire would not burn; and he added that it was a most unreasonable fancy that we should exist for ever’.

Boswell persisted, asking if he was not made uneasy by the thought of annihilation, to which Hume responded that he was no more perturbed by the idea of ceasing to exist than by the idea that he had not existed before he was born.
scotland  death  religion  thinking  leader  philosophy  19C 
february 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:廣東人就該說廣東話?

這類言論出現的背景,是因為在北方人看來,粵語、潮語和客語這三種語言都是很難理解,甚至十分難聽的「南蠻鳥語」,它們和它們所承載的風俗文化皆是在近代所謂的中原文化底下被歧視的對象。在民族主義開始形成,現代國家的觀念逐步興起的年代,這三個語群的文人和知識份子反擊偏見的辦法,並不是乾脆的另起爐灶,尋求自主認同;反而是利用語言等各種資源的重新描述,去訴說一個華夏文化和他們的深遠關係的故事。這個故事的主旨不是一個和國家文化截然不同的地域文化,卻是中國文化在地方上的完美體現。

幾乎一切圍繞着身份認同的言論,都帶有事實和規範等兩個部分,都試圖從你是個什麼人的事實,推導出你應當如何表現,如何行為,以及如何思考的結論。

唸哲學的人,大概會關心你是個什麼人的事實,如何可能推出你應當如何做的規範式結論。

從這種角度來看,身份認同可能不是一個從事實推出規範結論的推導過程;而是一個因為我想當某種人,所以我才看到了某種事實的逆向運動。
region  explained  canton  culture  hongkong  china  independence  comparaison  nation  conflict  language  moi  philosophy 
february 2018 by aries1988
Antinomy - Wikipedia

The term acquired a special significance in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), who used it to describe the equally rational but contradictory results of applying to the universe of pure thought the categories or criteria of reason that are proper to the universe of sensible perception or experience (phenomena).[2]

This was part of Kant's critical program of determining limits to science and philosophical inquiry. These contradictions are inherent in reason when it is applied to the world as it is in itself, independently of any perception of it (this has to do with the distinction between phenomena and noumena). Kant's goal in his critical philosophy was to identify what claims are and are not justified, and the antinomies are a particularly illustrative example of his larger project.
concept  philosophy 
january 2018 by aries1988
How walking a labyrinth can trace a route to self-knowledge | Aeon Essays
I could never have gotten myself lost. In the Mizmaze there is one entrance and one exit, and one route between them: by one definition this makes it a unicursal ‘labyrinth’ rather than a multicursal ‘maze’, which presents choices between alternative paths.
definition  myth  greek  architecture  garden  archaeology  philosophy 
november 2017 by aries1988
If your pay is not yours to keep, then neither is the tax – Philip Goff | Aeon Essays

Here’s where we’re up to: to make sense of the idea that taxation is (moral) theft, we have to make sense of the idea that each person has a moral claim on the entirety of her gross income, and this can be made sense of only if property rights are natural rather than mere human constructions. We need, therefore, to defend a theory of natural property rights.

In theory, Right-wing libertarianism does entail that people have a moral claim on their pre-tax income, and hence that taxation is theft, but only in hypothetical societies where there is zero or minimal state interference in the economy. In states in which the government intervenes in the economy through taxation – ie, in almost every developed state – market transactions are tainted and so are morally void. The Right-wing libertarian is perfectly entitled to campaign for the day when her minimal-government Utopia is brought about, but until that day she cannot consistently argue that she has a right to her pre-tax income, and hence cannot consistently complain that the government is taking what is hers by right.

Still, the vast majority happily vote for low taxes, rejoicing that they get to keep their morsel while in reality all they’ve done is protect the spoils of a tiny minority at the top. The result is our failure to create what we really need: a tax system that – as part of the wider economy – creates a just society.
tax  ethic  question  debate  economy  money  work  politics  philosophy  liberalism 
september 2017 by aries1988
Away from my desk: Jeremy Corbyn, Bob Diamond and Paula Hawkins on their perfect summer holidays

Do you exercise on holiday? On days at the office, my daily step target is 12,000. On holiday, I try to increase to 24,000. Mainly by the beach if I can, but if not then the gym. (I feel so virtuous about this answer but it’s the truth!)

If you could go to any place at any time, where would you go? I used to think that there are special places I should not miss in life. But I don’t believe that any more. It’s not that somewhere in my mind there is a box with a big red warning sign Open only in Paris! and when I finally visit Paris, I get to open the box and out come all kinds of special emotions and feelings that I can have only in Paris. No. Whatever I can feel in Paris, I can feel anywhere in the world.

Top travel tip? Be here and now instead of busying yourself manufacturing memories for future consumption.
travel  idea  life  song  philosophy 
august 2017 by aries1988
中国人为什么不性感? - 中国文化的深层结构
中国文化的深层结构的书评。性感的人是什么人?如果按“某国人是性感的人”的句法来表述,那么第一反应一般就是法国人、意大利人、西班牙人、阿根廷人。。。。。。。。数来数去,一般也数不到中国人。 作为一个中国人,我感兴趣于为什么人...
book  notes  chinese  human  philosophy 
july 2017 by aries1988
人不是生出来的,是设计出来的 - 读《中国文化的深层结构》-HungryPayne

这本书有点年头了,第一版是1983出版的,我手头上的这本所谓新版也是2004年出版的。但是时间不是问题,有价值的东西依然有一直存在的理由。之所以又找出这本书来读,跟我最近的工作变动有关,从沿海城市到内地城市发展,我要做的第一件事就是要适应文化差异导致的心理逆差,中国这些年的改革开放让一部分沿海城市先富起来,令沿海城市跟内地城市“做人”、“做事”的方式有很大不同,我不想当可怜的炮灰,只好多做做功课。
chinese  confucianism  taoist  comparison  book  notes  philosophy 
july 2017 by aries1988
His Kampf

Was Hitchens’s critique of Christianity, he said, not as wan and naive as Christianity itself? Christianity had bound together the civilizations of Europe, and now Hitchens wanted to replace it with—well, what exactly? American neoliberal internationalism? Why should anyone care if Christianity was irrational and illiberal, when rationality and liberalism had never been its purpose? Hitchens had missed the point.

In his view, the Bush administration had manipulated the country into war. “Spreading democracy” and “freedom” are, Spencer said, false ideals, distracting Americans from what really matters—namely, a consciousness of their identity as whites with a shared Christian heritage.

In December, the hipster-Marxist magazine Jacobin published an online essay, “The Elite Roots of Richard Spencer’s Racism,” that sought to understand his white supremacy. “He represents a common and longstanding (if overlooked) phenomenon: the well-educated and financially comfortable bigot,” the author, Michael Phillips, wrote. “His blend of racism and elitism represents only an extreme version of a worldview that has long prevailed among the affluent in Spencer’s hometown.”

Among the German ideas he adopted was a concept of race different from the one he and I had been taught in our multicultural workshops in the ’90s. In the modern era, American discussion of race has limited itself, by convention, to a few canonical categories: black, white, Asian, American Indian, Hispanic. “Race isn’t just color,” Spencer told an audience in December. “Color is, in a way, a minor aspect of race.”

For Spencer, race is more akin to the German Volksgeist, literally “the spirit of a people.” Volksgeist is associated, historically, with Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803), and Germans became enchanted with it during the 19th century. Some would say the Second World War was the culmination of German devotion to their own Volksgeist. Herder’s followers proposed that each people has an essence that distinguishes it from others.

As one who knew Spencer when we were both hapless, overprivileged adolescents, sharing a desire to transcend our origins, what interests me the most about him is his self-reinvention, the intellectual costume changes (foppish actor, grad-school blowhard, opera-director manqué, and now architect of a white utopian dream of world-historical consequence) spanning three decades. After all, it is said that one of the great advantages of America is that its daughters and sons can escape the strictures of the world in which they were raised, be unlike their forefathers. Spencer has certainly done that.
portrait  altright  leader  university  idea  opinion  religion  usa  west  african  racism  Philosophy  intelligentsia  nazi 
june 2017 by aries1988
To be happier, focus on what’s within your control

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change,
Courage to change the things I can,
And wisdom to know the difference.

once you begin paying attention, the dichotomy of control has countless applications to everyday life, and all of them have to do with one crucial move: shifting your goals from external outcomes to internal achievements.

That’s why your goal should be internal: if you adopt the Stoic way, you would conscientiously put together the best résumé that you can, and then mentally prepare to accept whatever outcome with equanimity, knowing that sometimes the universe will favour you, and other times it will not. What do you gain by being anxious over something you don’t control? Or angry at a result that was not your doing? You are simply adding a self-inflicted injury to the situation, compromising your happiness and serenity.
life  choice  howto  happiness  philosophy  advice  psychology  religion  prayer  stoic 
june 2017 by aries1988
Norbert Elias se confronte à l’Allemagne

Les Allemands. Evolution de l’habitus et luttes de pouvoir aux XIXe et XXe siècles (Studien über die Deutschen. Machtkämpfe und Habitusentwicklung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert), de Norbert Elias, traduit de l’allemand par Marc de Launay et Marc Joly, Seuil, « La librairie du XXIe siècle », 592 p., 35 €.

Le rêve du « Reich millénaire », l’idéal aristocratique de supériorité étendu à la masse des Allemands à travers la notion de « race », la peur du déclin et la valorisation corrélative de la force ont correspondu à l’« habitus » (ce qui dans l’individu exprime le rapport historiquement déterminé à son Etat) de bien des Allemands du temps : en effet, dans une Allemagne longtemps divisée en une multitude de petites entités, l’Etat impérial n’avait cessé de s’affaiblir depuis le Moyen Age ; et alors qu’au même moment la France et l’Angleterre se constituaient en monarchies de plus en plus puissantes et centralisées, pour les Allemands les rêves d’empire paraissaient plus fragiles.

Selon Norbert Elias, Nietzsche incarne au plus près, avant Hitler, cette peur allemande de la décomposition qui mène à la haine du faible et à l’exaltation du fort. Une autre facette de la haine de soi.
history  deutschland  deutsch  civ  ww2  ww1  society  zeitgeist  nation  philosophy  germany 
may 2017 by aries1988
At Waldorf School in Silicon Valley, Technology Can Wait - The New York Times
While other schools in the region brag about their wired classrooms, the Waldorf school embraces a simple, retro look — blackboards with colorful chalk, bookshelves with encyclopedias, wooden desks filled with workbooks and No. 2 pencils.

On a recent Tuesday, Andie Eagle and her fifth-grade classmates refreshed their knitting skills, crisscrossing wooden needles around balls of yarn, making fabric swatches. It’s an activity the school says helps develop problem-solving, patterning, math skills and coordination. The long-term goal: make socks.

Down the hall, a teacher drilled third-graders on multiplication by asking them to pretend to turn their bodies into lightning bolts. She asked them a math problem — four times five — and, in unison, they shouted “20” and zapped their fingers at the number on the blackboard. A roomful of human calculators.

In second grade, students standing in a circle learned language skills by repeating verses after the teacher, while simultaneously playing catch with bean bags. It’s an exercise aimed at synchronizing body and brain. Here, as in other classes, the day can start with a recitation or verse about God that reflects a nondenominational emphasis on the divine.

parents of students at the Los Altos school say it attracts great teachers who go through extensive training in the Waldorf approach, creating a strong sense of mission that can be lacking in other schools.
education  technology  debate  children  learn  philosophy 
april 2017 by aries1988
Are We Really So Modern?

Modernity cannot be identified with any particular technological or social breakthrough. Rather, it is a subjective condition, a feeling or an intuition that we are in some profound sense different from the people who lived before us.

Modern life, which we tend to think of as an accelerating series of gains in knowledge, wealth, and power over nature, is predicated on a loss: the loss of contact with the past.

in treating the philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it is conventional to cast it as a struggle between rationalists and empiricists. In this account, everyone from Descartes to Hume is engaged in one long battle over whether truth is to be found in here, through strictly logical reasoning on the model of mathematics, or out there, through observation of the world.

As Gottlieb points out, much of the Western philosophy that still matters to us is the product of just two such eras: Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. and Western Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries A.D.

Not caring about things like being and meaning, however, is impossible, because they are the fundamental concepts that structure our very experience of the world. People who say they don’t care about metaphysics really mean that their received ideas on such matters are so fixed that they have disappeared from consciousness, in the same way that you don’t usually notice your heartbeat. Philosophers are people who, for some reason—Plato called it the sense of wonder—feel compelled to make the obvious strange.

Another way of putting this is that Descartes described reality in terms of qualities that can be measured mathematically.

He insisted on libertas philosophandi, freedom of thought, and, while he granted that the state had the power to establish the outward forms of religious worship, he adamantly opposed any coercion of conscience. Each person had the right to decide what God was and how best to serve him. Taken together, these beliefs give Spinoza a claim to be considered the first great philosopher of liberal democracy.

All our knowledge of the world depends on experience, which means that it is contingent, not absolute. We can, of course, trust that the sun will rise in the east tomorrow, just as it did yesterday and every day before that. But we can’t prove that it will rise in the same way we can prove that two plus two is four. ’Tis not, therefore, reason, which is the guide of life, but custom, Hume concluded.
modernity  book  culture  idea  history  philosophy 
august 2016 by aries1988
David’s Ankles: How Imperfections Could Bring Down the World’s Most Perfect Statue
For several hundred years, the David leaned at an angle of several degrees. That doesn’t sound like much, but when you’re dealing with six tons bearing down every second of every minute of every day of every year of every century, it is plenty. Hairline fractures worked their way slowly through the stone. The right leg is significantly worse than the left. As the tilt of the statue increases, the stress will move higher and higher up that leg, until — at the moment of failure — it will break off just below the knee.

for no discernible reason, my eyes would dart away from my interlocutor, urgently, right over one of his or her shoulders, and the shift would be so sudden that the person would whip his or her head around to see what on earth I was looking at — a policeman or an exotic bird or a runaway train — but it would turn out that there was nothing there at all. My gaze had been flicked away by a little spasm of social discomfort.

The David’s journey took four days, at the end of which it was installed, to much fanfare, out in the public square. It would stand in that same spot for the next 369 years, a period during which it would be shaken by thunder, hit by carts and smeared with bird feces.
social  self  anxiety  perfection  journalsim  florence  italia  history  art  state  today  preservation  earthquake  youth  philosophy  book 
august 2016 by aries1988
You May Also Like by Tom Vanderbilt review – what forms our tastes in a digital age?
As is fitting in an inquiry into taste, Vanderbilt starts with food. Among rats, taste is indeed a simple thing. If they eat something, they tend to like it. The more they eat of it, the more they like it. Their social situation when eating does not seem to matter much. “Rat eating behaviour does not change according to who is watching or to feelings of guilt or virtuousness.” Humans, Vanderbilt notes, are trickier. Unlike rats, they eat things because they have never tasted them before and because they think other members of their species like them. The pleasure they get from food seems much more variable than that experienced by rats.

It’s long been understood that making pleasure your goal in life will lead to diminishing returns.
book  review  food  pleasure  society  social  eating  choice  philosophy 
august 2016 by aries1988
达尔文和爱因斯坦开启的科学告别哲学之旅

牛顿力学诞生后,开始逐一横扫地球上的怪力乱神。至19世纪末,以牛顿力学为代表,电磁学、光学、声学、热学都获得了重大突破,以至于有人预言,物理学已近完美,不会再有大的发展了。但是随着研究的深入,发现了越来越多牛顿力学难以解释的新现象,令很多科学家又感到了物理学存在的新危机。解决这些危机的一个最重要人物就是爱因斯坦,他当时还不算是科学家,正式身份是一名公务员。

常说的三观之中,人生观和世界观由于科学的发展,进行了重塑,进而也影响到价值观,颠覆了以往众多的陈旧观念。

回想古希腊时期,逻辑论证的出现,令科学告别了巫学,文艺复兴时期,实验验证的出现,令科学告别了神学。科学一路走来,在弱小的时代,曾经隐身于神学,委身于哲学。但是以现代生物学和物理学为标志,科学取得新成就后,已经不再是那个懵懂的少年,在风风雨雨中,构建出庞大、强悍、坚实、独立的知识体系。就像告别巫学和神学的过程一样,科学在20世纪开始了告别哲学之旅。这注定是最后的告别。
science  story  biology  philosophy 
september 2014 by aries1988
Why Making Technology Easier to Use Isn't Always Good : The New Yorker
There have always been groups, often outcasts, who have insisted on adhering to harder ways of doing some things. Compared to Camrys, motorcycles are unreliable, painful, and dangerous, yet some people cannot leave them alone. It may seem crazy to use command-line or plain-text editing software in an age of advanced user interfaces, but some people still do. In our times, D.I.Y. enthusiasts, hackers, and members of the maker movement are some of the people who intuitively understand the importance of demanding tools, without rejecting the idea that technology can improve the human condition. Derided for lacking a “political strategy,” they nonetheless realize that there are far more important agendas than the merely political. Whether they know it or not, they are trying to work out the future of what it means to be human, and, along the way, trying to find out how to make that existence worthwhile.
human  technology  philosophy  from:rss 
february 2014 by aries1988
The Useless Tree: Are We OK?
First, J-pop is fun. Second, he sets this performance is various sites around Tokyo, most of them rather commonplace. He thus draws our attention to everyday life, the comings and goings of ordinary people on the streets of a vast city. It has a here-and-now effect: we are what we are doing at this moment; we share what we are through our everyday experiences. There's something of Zhuangzi in that. Zhuangzi tells us to "dwell in the ordinary" - 寓諸庸 - and I have always taken that to mean simply accept the moment we are in, don't impose expectations and desires, just move through life as it unfolds around you. Genki Sudo's work brings this to mind.A third thing at work in this video that reinformces my Zhuangist reading of it, is the movement. The slow syncopations disrupt our usual feeling of time and motion, and that, again, has the effect of heightening our awareness of the moment.
fun  video  philosophy 
october 2013 by aries1988
邓晓芒:中国人为什么没有信仰?
http://www.instapaper.com/read/375021384

我这里讲的信仰主要是指一种精神性的信仰,是对超越的东西的追求,而不是一般的信念,比如我相信明天会出太阳,或者是简单地相信某人某事。

张载的那种理想看起来好像是气吞山河,其实是十分狭隘的。它只盯着中国几千年不变的传统政治格局和社会制度。那么,这种理想是不是、能不能算一种信仰呢?如果它是一种信仰,是一种理想,那也只是一种政治实用主义的信仰和理想,它的前提是既定的社会政治体制。张载的理想跟现实的世俗生活,跟当时继承的社会政治体制是分不开的,他也是那样理解的。

这是中国传统的理想的最终归宿,即最终是为了现实的人生。

因为现实生活在不断地变化,你讲天人合一,看起来好像很稳固,天和人不分嘛,是一个稳定的结构嘛。但是实际上,你把人世的变化看作就是天道的变化,你必须随着现实生活的不断变化而改变自己的信仰。这种天人合一的思维模式使我们没有一个永恒的东西可以追求,它都是随时代而变、随环境而变的。

很多新儒家的鼓吹者把这种和世俗生活结合在一起的天人合一的理想称之为“内在超越”,就是说我们中国人也有超越,它和西方人的超越不一样。西方是外在超越,超越到上帝那里去了;我们超越在世俗中间,是一种内在超越,就是做圣人,凌驾于世人之上。内在超越实际上就是没有超越了,因为它只不过是要占领世俗道德的至高点。

我认为它不是真正的宗教,而是带有宗教色彩的一种政治教化。

西方的道一一我们把西方的“逻各斯”翻译成“道”,其实这种翻译是不太准确的。西方哲学的逻各斯不是我们讲的这个“道”,我们讲的这个道是从道路引申出来的,而西方哲学的逻各斯是从说话、话语引申出来的。话语是精神上的东西,而且它基本上不是物质性的东西。

基督教的这个灵魂、圣灵这个概念是纯精神性的。那么从这个纯精神性的概念,西方人就形成了人格神的概念,就是犹太教《旧约》里面记录的那个耶和华。耶和华这个神的概念是无形无象,看不见摸不着,你不能用人的形象去形容他。

上帝是不可言说的。上帝无形无象,没有言语。甚至《圣经》里面记载,上帝说这说那,那也只是一种比喻。因为要是上帝真说话了,那就要问,上帝是说的希腊语还是希伯莱语,还是说的汉语?其实那只是一种说法,上帝并没有真正地说话,所以他只是一个人格。对于上帝的人格或者说“位格”,person,所谓“三位一体”的问题,究竟是一个什么样的位格,西方人讨论得非常热烈。上帝是唯一的,他就是人格。

中国的天道和天的并不是人格神的概念,而是自然神的概念。天理是每个人心里面的东西,天有天理,但是每个人都可以知道,都可以说出来,都可以体会到的。每个人一旦体会到天道就可以“替天行道”,直接把它实现出来。所以,天道实际上在每一个人的心中,实现在人的行动中,它是世俗的,而不是超越的。在基督教里面,虽然也说上帝在每个人心中,但是在每个人心中你是不可体会到他的。你所体会到的都是可以怀疑的,都不一定是那个样子。上帝在你心中,确实每一个人心中都有一个上帝,但是是不是就是你体会到的那个样子呢?你不要太自信了,你怎么可能体会到上帝的真意呢?每一个人都有原罪,你是带罪之身,你怎么能体会到上帝的真面目呢?

在上帝面前你不能问为什么,上帝告诉你,你也听不懂。一个人是有限的嘛。

天道既然是非常世俗的东西,所以每个中国人在很多时候都表现出一种自信,甚至于有一种自大狂。就是说,只要我无私,我在内心里面就已经体会到了天道了,那么我就可以替天行道。这个在西方人看来就是骄傲了。你一个非常普通的人,突然有一天就可以替天行道,像洪秀全这样的农民起义的领袖,都是在这种精神支配之下去追求他的理想的。

真正的信仰应该能够提高人的精神层次,这个精神层次特别体现在人的自由的水平、自由的层次。

为什么说基督教是自由的宗教,主要是着眼于这一点,它已经意识到一切人都是自由的,不分种族、民族,不分地域,不分男女,不分出身贫富贵贱。这些都不足以来衡量一个人,衡量一个人最起码的、最根本的就是人是自由的,就是独立的人格。

你个人要独立起来,那当然就是孤独的,而且跟社会脱离某些关系,比如说血缘关系。你只信上帝了,你父母的话都可以不听了,亲情你都可以不顾了,这对个人来说当然是非常痛苦的。当时基督教产生的时候是经历了这样一个过程才产生出来的。所以我们说,真正的信仰,以基督教为例,它是建立在个人独立意志之上的。个人独立,他就需要一个上帝,需要一个超验的、彼岸的精神来支撑自己。

基督教的个人,基督徒,是孤独的,他不能在群体里面得到安慰,不能够在家庭里面,也不能够在国家里由皇帝来标榜、表彰他,基督徒不指望这个东西。他们指望在上帝那里得到安慰,上帝对所有的人一视同仁。你的灵魂有几斤几两,在上帝那里都称得出来。所以他个人独立以后,他只能够把自己的精神的安慰寄托在一个彼岸的上帝身上。这个在中国人这里是没有这个需要的。所以中国人为什么没有真正的信仰,是归结为没有这个需要,他在群体里面可以找到他在精神上的平衡。而之所以可以达到平衡,是因为他个人没有独立出来,个体意识还沉睡在群体意识之中。

我主张在超越教派和具体的某个宗教之上建立起一种信仰,就是所谓的精神性的信仰。我提出这样一种可能性,就是对“真善美”这样一些人类普遍的精神价值要抱有一种信仰。这些价值是绝对的,真善美的价值都是绝对的。正因为是绝对的,所以它是永远也追求不到的。绝对的真,绝对的善,绝对的美,这些是永远也追求不到的。正因为永远追求不到,所以它可以作为信仰。

要树立这种信仰,个人必须独立,要有自己的精神生活和精神追求,这是你个人的。当然这个个人不是封闭的,你可以到人类的历史上所有的精神财富里面去获得自己的营养。你要追求真善美,那么人类几千几万年己经创造出来的精神财富,你都可以去追求。这样的人,他不是封闭的,但是他是独立的。他不受周围人的干扰,可以一个人在内心里面进行一种追求,完善自己的精神生活。所以,要做到这一点,就必须要有自我意识的觉醒,当然还要有一个保障思想自由的体制。
faith  china  Philosophy  question  today  morality  religion  opinion  civil 
april 2013 by aries1988
Philosophical Theories
Philographics is all about explaining philosopical theories through basic shapes and colour.
http://www.instapaper.com/read/275233078
art  visualization  philosophy 
august 2012 by aries1988
关野吉晴:伟大的旅行
这个旅行是我试图用自己的脚走,自己的眼睛看,自己的耳朵听,自己的头脑思考的结果—那些对人类来讲具有普遍性的“问题”:比如,“ 我们从哪里来”、“ 我们是谁”、“ 我们往哪里去”,每一个问题都是任何时代的人在一生中一定会思考的。
http://www.instapaper.com/read/262292445
human  travel  philosophy 
august 2012 by aries1988
法国中学为什么要学哲学?-翟华博客-我的搜狐
这位哲学老师打了这样一个比方:正如游泳需要学习和训练才能掌握一样,思考也是一样需要学习和训练才能掌握的,因为思考不是与生俱来的能力。学哲学的目的就是让人们学会思考,让头脑解除桎梏。只有这样,人才不会把自己对世界的认知交给他人去思考,对于他人的观点能够拉开距离去审视,有点评的能力。更重要的是,学习哲学可以使孩子们自小具有批判性思考,将来成人之后可以成为有建设性的公民。
youth  français  philosophy 
june 2012 by aries1988

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