recentpopularlog in

aries1988 : politics   227

« earlier  
Boris Johnson’s Apparently Bulletproof Political Career, Explained in One Scene From ‘Chariots of Fire’
Today landed-gentrying isn’t all it used to be, so nearly everyone must work, no matter their background. But the negative connotations of ambition, of trying too hard, never went away. After living here for more than a year, one of the biggest differences between American and British culture that we’ve noticed is that in America, ambitious effort is valued in and of itself, whereas here it is seen as preferable to have success without visibly striving to achieve it.
uk  usa  culture  politics  comparison 
13 days ago by aries1988
Against Murderism | Slate Star Codex

If racism is just a description of what consequences something has, then it can’t be used as a causal explanation.

So Definition By Consequences implies that racism can never be pointed to as a cause of anything, that racist policies can often be good, that nobody “is a racist” or “isn’t a racist”, and that sometimes the KKK trying to terrorize black people is less racist than them not trying to do this. Not only have I never heard anyone try to grapple with these implications, I see no sign anyone has ever thought of them. And now that I’ve brought them up, I don’t think anyone will accept them as true, or even worry about the discrepancy.

in our own universe, we recognize that “murderism” is silly: it confuses cause and effect.
Talk about murderism is obviously confused. But it’s the same confusion between the Definition By Consequences versus the Definition By Motive that we saw was a hallmark of racism.

To be clear – I am not saying that racism doesn’t exist, I’m not saying that we should ignore racism, I’m not saying that minorities should never be able to complain about racism. I’m saying that it’s very dangerous to treat “racism” as a causal explanation, that it might not tell you anything useful about the world, and that’s a crappy lever to use if you want to change behavior.

I don’t want civil war. I want this country to survive long enough to be killed by something awesome, like AI or some kind of genetically engineered superplague. Right now I think going out in a neat way, being killed by a product of our own genius and intellectual progress – rather than a product of our pettiness and mutual hatreds – is the best we can hope for. And I think this is attainable! I think that we, as a nation and as a species, can make it happen.
racism  definition  argument  politics 
25 days ago by aries1988
Politically correct cross-dressing in China - Dolled up for the party
Mr Xi, however, has allowed Mr Wang’s style of drag to flourish. That is because it has a long and respected history in traditional Chinese opera, an art form which Mr Xi has been trying to promote. It used to be that female operatic roles, or dan, were always played by men. Such acting requires considerable skill as well as the wearing of elaborate make-up and full-length traditional costume that leaves no skin showing from the neck down.
from:rss  live  female  lgbt  policy  culture  clothing  business  tradition  politics 
28 days ago by aries1988
Can Emmanuel Macron Stem the Populist Tide?
In an inversion of the anxieties that might have surrounded a relationship between a female student and a male teacher, Macron’s parents mourned the likelihood that their son wouldn’t have children.

At the terrifyingly prestigious Lycée Henri IV, whose alumni include Sartre, Weil, and Foucault, he was no longer the precocious boy wonder, just a distracted new kid from the provinces who wasn’t great at math. He twice fell short of the scores necessary to enter the illustrious École Normale Supérieure. Instead, he attended Sciences Po, the social-science university, and also got a master’s degree in philosophy.

With a few exceptions, its members were young, affluent white men, who were excited by Macron’s commitment to shaking up a status quo that had been established in the postwar era and hardly updated since.

Of all the lines the candidates slung at each other in the course of the election, the one that remains indelible for me is Macron saying very calmly to Le Pen, who had just confused two French companies, “One makes phones, the other makes turbines.”

Their activity has been particularly robust in France’s “empty diagonal,” a band of low-density settlement that stretches from the Massif Central, in the south, to Lorraine, in the northeast.

By the end of the tour, according to an official count, almost two million people had participated online; more than sixteen thousand grievance books were compiled, twenty-seven thousand letters and e-mails were written, and more than ten thousand meetings were held. Macron spent a total of ninety-two hours on the debate floor. By April, his popularity had rebounded to around thirty per cent, from a low of twenty-three in December—not good, but not nearly as bad as his predecessor’s at the same point in his tenure.

the strategy is to “identify the causes of the populist vote and respond methodically. If we succeed, we will dry it up.” When the input changes, so do the conclusions, but only to the precise degree that they need to.
politics  français  president  interview  2019  france  society  macron  democracy 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
林猛:旧瓶怎装新酒?——评赵鼎新《当前中国最大的潜在危险》|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
近年来真正的危机不是舆论场两极化,左右双峰型分布,而是中国大陆正在起步、正在自我学习和自我完善的市民社会/公共舆论场,被逼退回到一个隔绝、孤立的状态。
politics  left  rightwing 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
1999:大使馆的血、北京的游行,与世纪之交的中国知识分子|深度|端传媒 Initium Media

出生于毛时代后期的一代人,少年时代的文化生活并不丰富,从冷战中社会主义阵营引进的为数不多的译制片,被视作珍宝。游击队电影在1980年代进入中国,因其叙事节奏快、故事复杂,区别于早年引入的社会主义电影的情节扁平、人物刻板,受到热烈欢迎。男孩们在课后扮演《瓦尔特保卫萨拉热窝》(Valter brani Sarajevo)电影中游击队员的角色,想象着像里面的英雄一样牺牲。他们乐此不疲地对接着暗号:“请给我放大一张我表妹的照片!”,“空气在颤抖,仿佛天空在燃烧!”“是啊!暴风雨就要来了”……那些电影塑造了一代人的记忆,让他们对南斯拉夫有着童年乡愁般的亲近感。

“如果放在具体的历史语境中,我想当时的情感体验跟客观现实之间是有一定距离的”,二十年后再回溯,黄纪苏认为,“国际社会如何对人道主义灾难进行干涉是一个值得深入讨论的问题。但在当时,无论是南斯拉夫,还是美国,都是作为符号进入了中国人的情感经验”。

现任教于中央戏剧学院戏文系的赵志勇1999年正在武汉大学读书,武汉没有美国领事馆,只有位于汉口的法国领事馆,他记得他的同学走几小时路到法国领事馆示威,一位同学鞋子走坏了,光着脚从汉口走了回来。

王炎也认为,1999年大使馆被炸事件标志着民族主义不再被国家所垄断,它开始成为具有高度能动性的民众力量——尽管它不一定总是正面的。

“主权与人权之辩”是科索沃战争在全球知识界开启的重要问题
以哈贝马斯为代表的“人权派”支持北约对发生在科索沃的种族清洗进行人道主义干涉,而以乔姆斯基( Noam Chomsky)为代表的“主权派”则批判美国为首的利益集团重塑后冷战时代新世界秩序的野心。

当“美国”取代了“工人阶级”,成为了活跃于全球化时代的中国左翼绕不开的问题,他们如何弥合民族主义情感结构下的主权国家视角,与共产主义运动历史中“无产阶级没有祖国”式的国际主义情感结构?

在资本主义穿透一切的时代,后冷战时代的自由主义意识形态视“主权”为最大的障碍——“人权”话语经常扮演着后冷战时期中心地带对边缘地带的掠夺工具。“国际主义”改弦更张被新自由主义经济秩序所接管,而参与这套天罗地网般的经济秩序,又只能以主权国家为单位。后发国家的左翼在对抗这套经济秩序,捍卫边缘国家在这套游戏规则中不成为中心国家经济上的殖民地时,似乎不得不站稳主权国家的位置。

二十年后的今天,中美贸易战打响,美国垄断的信息秩序对中国民族资本的封锁,再度点燃了从知识界到民间的反美民族主义情绪。
politics  left  chinese  2009  history  usa  imperialism  marxism  nationalism  anti-american 
7 weeks ago by aries1988
香港这座城市还有救吗?
赵皓阳 大浪淘沙

我非常非常享受这种对香港同龄人、台湾同龄人智商上的降维打击,我觉得他们太蠢了,基本的历史不了解,基本的政治常识不知道,就只会喊喊口号打打鸡血。就像我这样的,随随便便就碾压他们,特别享受他们那种毫无还手之力的快感。

香港整个地方太小了,太闭塞了;而本地人又因为曾经得天独厚的地理历史因素,弥漫着一种发达过后弄弄的傲慢情绪。可以说整个地区的人都丧失了批判性与反思性,固步自封。如果抛去了香港优越的先天环境,香港年轻人(除0.1%的精英外)所受的教育和专业素养,至完全不足以在一个大市场中与大陆青年竞争的。同时香港长久以来受到西方价值观的冲击,普通民众很容易被蛊惑,上一次街,游一次行,就能获得一些虚伪的满足感,觉得自己多光荣多正义多威武霸气了,然后继续用自己的血肉去供养地产资本家,被人卖了还替人数钱还可开心呢。

人口红利,不是单纯的人多,而是能够达到工业化生产要求、能够纳入经济体系的劳动力多,这才是真正的“红利”。义务教育带来的是高素质劳动力,这个“高素质”不一定是要读到本科硕士之类,而是针对经济活动来说的。

现在社会其实有一些很不好的端倪了,国家对医疗和教育的财政支持不够,医生待遇低,用药品回扣、滥开检查来弥补;教师待遇低,优秀老师纷纷流入私立学校,而公立学校师资力量越来越弱,老师越来越混日子划水;精英子女要么出国要么去昂贵的私立学校。看看美国和日本,公立学校都是什么样子,这样下来社会更加固化,精英永远是精英,屁民就在看不起病、上不起学的泥潭里烂掉了。
2019  capitalism  hongkong  manif  politics  youth  critic  anecdote  economy  immobilier  education  feelgood 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
Mohamed Morsi, Who Brought the Muslim Brotherhood to the Egyptian Presidency | The New Yorker
Peter Hessler on the death of Mohamed Morsi, the former President of Egypt, who was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and came to power in the wake of the Arab…

The former President has been described as a martyr, but the term isn’t exactly appropriate. A martyr dies for a larger cause; a victim dies because of larger forces. There’s a tendency for some Americans to view the Muslim Brotherhood as a kind of negative essence of Islam, as if all of the flaws of the organization can be attributed to the faith that its followers espouse. But the group is a product of its history: it was founded during a period of colonial occupation, and then it was shaped by decades of government repression. The issue isn’t just that the institutions of the state were always opposed to the Brothers but that the group itself has internalized the brutality and dysfunction of its environment.

In a nation of splintered institutions, frustrated idealism, and dysfunctional governance, even the highest seat of power can turn into a trap—a caged man shouting, “I am the President of the Republic!”
portrait  president  egypt  revolution  islam  arab  politics  history  prison 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
Liu Cixin’s War of the Worlds
For the Chinese, achieving parity with the West is a long-cherished goal, envisaged as a restoration of greatness after the humiliation of Western occupations and the self-inflicted wounds of the Mao era.

In 2015, China’s then Vice-President, Li Yuanchao, invited Liu to Zhongnanhai—an off-limits complex of government accommodation sometimes compared to the Kremlin—to discuss the books and showed Liu his own copies, which were dense with highlights and annotations.

Liu’s fellow sci-fi writers in China call him Da Liu—Big Liu—but he is small, with an unusually round head, which seems too large for his slight, wiry physique. He has the unassuming presence, belying an unflappable intelligence, of an operative posing as an accountant. Rarely making eye contact, he maintains an expression at once detached and preoccupied, as if too impatient for the future to commit his full attention to the present.

his father had turned him on to speculative fiction, giving him a copy of Jules Verne’s “Journey to the Center of the Earth.” To the young Liu, reading Verne’s book was like walking through a door to another world. “Everything in it was described with such authority and scrupulous attention to detail that I thought it had to be real,” Liu told me.

Although physics furnishes the novels’ premises, it is politics that drives the plots. At every turn, the characters are forced to make brutal calculations in which moral absolutism is pitted against the greater good. In their pursuit of survival, men and women employ Machiavellian game theory and adopt a bleak consequentialism. In Liu’s fictional universe, idealism is fatal and kindness an exorbitant luxury. As one general says in the trilogy, “In a time of war, we can’t afford to be too scrupulous.” Indeed, it is usually when people do not play by the rules of Realpolitik that the most lives are lost.

“What about individual liberty and freedom of governance?” He sighed, as if exhausted by a debate going on in his head. “But that’s not what Chinese people care about. For ordinary folks, it’s the cost of health care, real-estate prices, their children’s education. Not democracy.”

“Here’s the truth: if you were to become the President of China tomorrow, you would find that you had no other choice than to do exactly as he has done.”

It was an opinion entirely consistent with his systems-level view of human societies, just as mine reflected a belief in democracy and individualism as principles to be upheld regardless of outcomes.

When Liu is at his most relaxed, which is usually when he’s looking at, or learning about, something, he sounds almost like a child. There’s an upward lilt to his voice that suggests a kind of naïve wonder—someone happily lost in his own boundless curiosity.
interview  scifi  chinese  politics  today  history  bio  portrait  family 
9 weeks ago by aries1988
郑力轩:战争的昭和、暧昧的平成,曙光初露的令和|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
历经了战前超民族主义的狂热与破灭之后,战后昭和则是透过许多日本独特制度,展开了受到世界瞩目的高速发展,奠定了日本认同。在昭和时期“日本第一”的呼声下,日本成为兼顾成长与平等、品质与效率、传统与现代的代名词。到了平成时期,这些具日本特色的制度遇到种种危机,然而是否要引入国外制度,特别是美国的制度,又让日本在复杂的自尊与疑虑间持续纠结。

平成年间日本,就是处在这样的暧昧情境下,既没有墨守成规,但也很难说大刀阔斧的改变,而是在不同方向的拉扯中缓步向前。

昭和时期日本政治社会经济体制是以追赶欧美发展为核心,而有以下几个特征:在经济上,以大企业为中心的日本式资本主义,不仅促进了高速成长,也因其独特的运作型态受到全球广泛的注目;在政治上则是以1955年自由民主党结成时形成的55年体制,由民选议员、官僚与企业组组成的铁三角稳定控制日本政局,形成了民主国家中罕见的一党长期执政;在家庭上则形成所谓近代家族,也就是具有明确性别分工的核心家庭。

在雇用上采取长期雇用、不轻易裁员的制度。员工(通常限定在男性)在学校毕业后集体进入企业,到55岁前享受安定雇用的保障。其次,在企业治理上,日本企业主要由终身在同一公司工作的经理人所控制,许多董事会(取缔役会) 成为经理人升迁的一部份,而非欧美式股东利益的代表。也因此,日本企业的决策往往出现以“从业员福祉”而非“股东利润”为核心的运作型态。

在经济上,1985年的广场协定加上国内宽松的金融,导致许多日本企业放弃了之前众所称道的长期视野,转向操作财务技术以获取短期利润,带来严重的土地与股市泡沫。在社会上,对女性职涯的高度压抑,随着女性教育程度提高而形成严重扞格,带来少子化的现象。昭和时代的落幕,正是伴随着诸多过往体制积弊的爆发;而平成时代的序幕,正是由昭和时代所累积诸多问题的爆发所揭开。

2009年,民主党以“彻底改革”的诉求获得压倒性胜利上台,带来平成时期第二次政党轮替,但在内外失调以及311大地震处理的失败,在2012年底选举惨败,政党走向瓦解收场。

总体而言,相较于昭和时期日本主流社会以“追赶发展”为职志,平成时代的日本不仅必须面对各种昭和体制所遗留的问题,就社会发展方向,而言也呈现出更复杂、更多样的风貌。这个追赶完成以及面对未知后所产生的多元取向,是平成暧昧性的根源,也是日本社会将持续面临的问题。
analysis  history  japan  epoch  politics  economy  society  policy  comparison 
11 weeks ago by aries1988
专访宪法学者张千帆:宪政文明的暖流会融化中国体制的坚冰|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
张千帆是中国最负盛名的宪法学者之一,研究领域包括比较宪法与行政法,司法制度,中西方政治、道德与法律思想。

我们必须理解,宪法规定的党的领导是抽象和一般的,不是指治国理政日常实践中各级领导人的具体行为。任何领导人都是会犯错误的凡人,譬如某个县委书记完全可能滥用职权。宪法规定的党的领导显然不是要神化任何领导人,否则就变成了人治,就抵触了宪法第五条规定的法治和依法治国。这些问题早在八十年代就得到清理并达成共识,现在不应该再成为问题。

因此,问题不在于党的领导,而在于如何领导。执政党需要通过宪法和法律去体现其意志,执政党的意志应该通过民主和法治程序体现出来,而不是通过各种讲话或指示。当然,执政党的行为可以通过制定党内规章加以规范,但这些法规、规章都必须符合宪法。事实上,你用宪法规定来坚持党的领导地位,这本身已表明执政党只能在宪法与合宪法律的框架内行使权力。否则,宪法没有意义的话,党的领导也就没有法律根基了。

实际上,世界上每个国家的政府都是不愿意实施宪法的,但民主国家的政府不得不实施宪法,最终是因为有选票,不实施宪法的话会得罪太多的选民,领导人当选了也会下台。但如果没有真正的选举,政府不用对公民负责,不实施宪法也没有什么后果。

如果双方都能了解对方的真实想法,共同点还是很容易找到的,因为央港博弈是一种“协调博弈”,而非零和博弈。中央的主要目标维持主权统一,香港则希望维持高度自治的空间和制度的完整性。在主权统一的基础之上,中央应该还是愿意去谈的。现在,中央可能对于香港有一些误解,好像主张港独的人越来越多;香港则觉得中央似乎越来越强硬,这样下去会对双方之间的情感和认知产生负面影响。

中国现体制可以被视为两次世界大战的国际“冰河期”形成的一块坚冰。现在冰河早已融化,世界主流文明一直处于自由民主的暖流中。记得刚打倒“四人帮”的时候,叶剑英就说过“坚冰已经打破,航道已经开通”。此言不虚,四十年改革开放其实就是暖流和坚冰的“热交换”过程。当然,摩擦还会不断发生,自由民主国家也会遇到移民、民粹、两极分化等问题的困扰,但是应该会有惊无险,社会契约即便破裂也会修复。如果今后若干年我们仍然处在一个温暖的国际大环境下,我相信世界文明暖流最终会化解每一块坚冰。
interview  opinion  constitution  china  hongkong  game  theory  democracy  today  future  leader  intelligentsia  reform  politics 
april 2019 by aries1988
周濂: 个人自由与大国崛起——从马克斯.韦伯的政治光谱谈起

韦伯政治思考的基本单位是“民族”与“文化”而非“个人”与“制度”,韦伯更认同精英而非大众,更热衷实现少数人的自由而非普世的平等自由,更推崇权力为导向的政治而非以权利为基础的政治。德国的危机是韦伯思考政治问题的根本出发点和终极原则,而韦伯对于自由主义危机的诊断和应对则进一步呼应和强化了他对德国危机的诊断和应对,最终导致韦伯放弃自由主义和宪政民主,转而拥抱民族主义以及克里斯玛型的政治领袖。

韦伯的政治思考对于具体的政治实践同样意义深远。从正面的角度说,韦伯告诫作为经济上升阶段的资产阶级要形成担当政治责任的新意愿,组建利益集团参与政治,不做当局的附庸者而要做政治的领导者和社会的压仓石。从负面的角度说,韦伯用他的失败经验(以及德国的失败经验)提醒资产阶级和自由主义者与其半心半意、工具化地接受普选制与福利政策,不如真心实意地响应普罗大众和社会底层的利益要求和社会公正议题,在面对大国崛起、民族复兴的诱惑时,必须恪守自由主义个体权利和程序正义的底线,从内部夯实宪政民主制度,始终警惕来自民族主义话语以及卡理斯玛型领袖人物的威胁。
opinion  book  politics  deutsch  nationalism  liberalism 
april 2019 by aries1988
A Certain Idea of France | Peter Hitchens

Charles de Gaulle’s life would perhaps have been better lived in the seventeenth or eighteenth century, in times when personal courage, mystical imagination, chivalry, and religious fervor were more welcome than they are now. In this world of the United Nations, risk assessment, lawyers, Geneva Conventions, television and superpowers, there is not really enough room for such a man to swing his sword, just as there is no room for old-fashioned great powers in the shadow of superpowers. Had he not been so magnificent, he would have been ridiculous. He looked, more than anything else, like a camel, not least because of the superior expression on his face suggesting that he alone knew the secret One Hundredth Name of God, which camels are supposed to know.

It is a strange fact that the potentially attractive political combination of liberty, domestic socialism, well-armed patriotism, and social conservatism seldom exists in the advanced countries of the West.

François ­Mitterrand, his old rival, undid almost all of de Gaulle’s work. He wholly rejected the general’s belief in an enduring, sovereign France. ­Mitterrand had been decorated by Pétain’s collaborationist Vichy government, and like many intelligent Frenchmen, saw 1940 as a moment of truth that France could not thereafter ignore. It fell to people like him to implement Hector Dexter’s vision of a Europe whose common cultural bond was Coca-Cola, and ­McDonald’s, too.
leader  president  france  français  history  ww2  europe  eu  fail  politics  bio  american  anti 
march 2019 by aries1988
葛兆光:十八世纪中国的盛世危机

徐中约《中国近代史》曾经把大清帝国“国运逆转,由盛到衰”,归咎于“行政无能”、“腐败普遍”和“财政窘迫”,这当然有一定道理。但我想和大家讨论的是另外三点:第一,帝国庞大疆域和复杂族群,造成控制成本过大;第二,思想文化与意识形态无法面向世界,越来越凝固和僵化;第三,归根结底,是皇权或国家权力过于集中,封杀了变革的可能性。

在二十世纪上半叶之后,“训政”与“党国”成为主流的时代,更是变本加厉。那么,在皇权笼罩一切的专制政治制度底下,说得好,唯有“得君行道”的路径和“作帝王师”的理想,说不好就只能“著书都为稻粱谋”。知识分子怎么能轻易挣脱专制皇权、政治制度对文化思想的钳制?而在专制皇权、政治制度的控制之下,自由思想空间越来越窄仄,我们又怎么能相信凭着这种传统,中国能给世界带来惠及全球的价值,发展出保证现代科学、技术和经济自由发展的制度?

当四库全书的编纂,鼓励了学者们把精力和智慧都用在古典的注释和发挥上的时候,可是,欧洲的实用知识却在发展和整合。

在中国,皇帝就是政治权力、神圣象征和文化真理三合一的,以前史华兹(Benjamin Schwartz)就说中国是“普遍王权”(Universal Kingship),皇权或者国家的权力太大,始终是“普天之下莫非王土”。

在我们有关历史的印象中,华盛顿好像比乾隆皇帝晚得多,好像华盛顿是现代的事情,乾隆皇帝好遥好远,其实,他们是同时代人,他们两人同样在1799年,也就是漫长的十八世纪最后一年去世,不是华盛顿近乾隆远,只是从制度上看,确实一个太古代,一个很现代。
qing  talk  opinion  comparison  west  question  king  politics  government  19C  china  book 
february 2019 by aries1988
Two Roads for the New French Right | by Mark Lilla | The New York Review of Books

Unlike her hotheaded grandfather and aunt, Marion is always calm and collected, sounds sincere, and is intellectually inclined.

In countries as diverse as France, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Germany, and Italy, efforts are underway to develop a coherent ideology that would mobilize Europeans angry about immigration, economic dislocation, the European Union, and social liberalization, and then use that ideology to govern.

a new legal status, dubbed a pacte civil de solidarité (civil solidarity pact, or PACS), for long-term couples who required legal protections regarding inheritance and other end-of-life issues but did not want to get married.

While it’s true that fewer and fewer French people baptize their children and attend mass, nearly two thirds still identify as Catholic, and roughly 40 percent of those declare themselves to be practicing, whatever that means. More importantly, as a Pew study found last year, those French who do identify as Catholic—especially those who attend Mass regularly—are significantly more right-wing in their political views than those who do not.

The National Front is nearly as secular and even less ideologically coherent, having served more as a refuge for history’s detritus—Vichy collaborators, resentful pieds noirs driven out of Algeria, Joan of Arc romantics, Jew- and Muslim-haters, skinheads—than as a party with a positive program for France’s future. A mayor once close to it now aptly calls it the Dien Bien Phu right.

They share two convictions: that a robust conservatism is the only coherent alternative to what they call the neoliberal cosmopolitanism of our time, and that resources for such a conservatism can be found on both sides of the traditional left–right divide. More surprising still, they are all fans of Bernie Sanders.

Three months later her Institute of Social, Economic, and Political Sciences (ISSEP) opened in Lyon, with the aim, Marion said, of displacing the culture that dominates our nomadic, globalized, deracinated liberal system. It is basically a business school but will supposedly offer great books courses in philosophy, literature, history, and rhetoric, as well as practical ones on management and political and cultural combat.
reportage  politics  interview  france  conservatism  culture  ideology  conflict  globalization  crisis  morality  family  value  debate  instapaper_favs 
december 2018 by aries1988
British Political Chaos, Explained for Chrissy Teigen (and for Americans in General)
This is not to say that polarization is good, but the non-polarization of this issue, and the composition of party politics, has paralyzed both parties on the matter. And both parties are internally fractured on what to do, making it even harder for either to act.

When you talk to people here, whether they support Brexit or oppose it, they tend to evince a decidedly un-British optimism about what leaving the European Union will mean. Often, it seems to begin with the assumption that Britain is still a great power, that the world needs Britain more than Britain needs the world.
uk  politics  usa  democracy  crisis  2018 
december 2018 by aries1988
宮崎市定:亚洲对欧洲近代化的贡献 | 海交史
独裁君主制原本起源于古代西亚,由于该制度对于大一统国家来说最为简便易行,所以罗马共和国在与西亚接触之后,也逐渐倾向于建立独裁制。随着穆斯林侵入伊比利亚半岛,当地也引入了西亚的独裁君主制。此后,西班牙对居住于半岛地区的穆斯林进行了驱逐,并在此建立了国家。西班牙不仅在文化方面,而且在政体上也吸纳了许多伊斯兰元素。于是在西欧的一角,就出现了西班牙这个实行独裁专制的君主国。

独裁君主制之所以被引入法国,很大程度上是由于波旁王朝的两代君主都从西班牙迎娶王后。路易十三及其子路易十四的王后都是西班牙王室成员的女儿,而路易十三的遗孀、曾辅佐路易十四的安妮太后,对法国宫廷的影响尤为深远。安妮之子路易十四长大后成为“太阳王”,并发出了“朕即国家”的豪言壮语,可以说绝非偶然。

这种认为人格的存在可以独立于宗教的主张,在作为现实问题被提出之前,必须面对极大的困难。对于那些长期以来不断与西亚的穆斯林进行斗争的欧洲基督徒来说,宗教上存在着鲜明的敌我关系,人与人之间非友即敌,除此之外再无第三种立场。在那个以宗教作为思想根基的时代,人们无法想象脱离宗教而又有文化教养的人类的存在。当一切皆处于非友即敌的对立状态时,想要抽象出对立双方的共通人性,实在是难上加难。

这种不依赖宗教的文明社会的存在,对于欧洲主张排斥宗教的论者来说是非常有力的武器。他们称,摆脱了宗教束缚的社会构成是有可能存在的,这一点已经在东亚得到了证实,那么将其实现于欧洲又有何不可?就这样,中国社会以被美化的理想化形象传入了欧洲。以往,传教士在中国出于传教之便,会否定儒教的宗教性,而这种否定儒教宗教性的中国观传到欧洲之后,却产生了意料之外的结果—它为欧洲的无神论者和革命思想家壮了声势。

然而,这种观念的传播并没有介绍儒教本身,而是介绍非敌非友的第三种世界。这种观念的传播本身,从更为根本的程度上动摇了欧洲的思想根基。人们原本很难从相互对立的敌我关系中抽象出共通的人性,但当第三者出现后,人们终于能够由此产生对整个人类社会的新的意识自觉。毫不夸张地说,在欧洲与西亚的敌对关系中,东亚长期以来一直扮演着无言的调停者的角色。
asia  europe  confucianism  china  history  world  politics 
december 2018 by aries1988
Why Are Americans Still Uncomfortable with Atheism?

Lack of belief in God is still too often taken to mean the absence of any other meaningful moral beliefs, and that has made atheists an easy minority to revile. This is especially true in America, where an insistence on the idea that we are a Christian nation has tied patriotism to religiosity, leading to such strange paroxysms as the one produced by President Trump at last year’s Values Voter Summit: “In America, we don’t worship government—we worship God.”

the national prejudice against them long predates Daniel Seeger and his draft board. It has its roots both in the intellectual history of the country and in a persistent anti-intellectual impulse: the widespread failure to consider what it is that unbelievers actually believe.

From John Locke they inherited the idea that atheists cannot be good citizens and should not be brought into the social contract; in “A Letter Concerning Toleration,” Locke had written, “Those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the being of a God.”

Two centuries after the Founders wrote a godless constitution, the federal government got religion: between 1953 and 1957, a prayer breakfast appeared on the White House calendar, a prayer room opened in the Capitol, “In God We Trust” was added to all currency, and “under God” was inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance.

Like saying “God bless you” when someone sneezes, the courts concluded, these “under God”s and “In God We Trust”s are innocuous; they belong to the realm of patriotism, not prayer.

Much of the animosity and opprobrium directed at nonbelievers in America comes from the suspicion that those who do not believe in God could not possibly believe in anything else, moral or otherwise.

Unlike the linguist—and new atheist—Steven Pinker, Gray regards the idea that the world is getting better as self-evidently silly. “The cumulative increase of knowledge in science has no parallel in ethics or politics,” he points out. Religions are still thriving, as are wars between them, and secular regimes have wrought as much, if not more, havoc under the auspices of Jacobinism, Bolshevism, Nazism, and Maoism.
religion  law  usa  american  mentality  politics  atheism 
october 2018 by aries1988
Waking Up with Sam Harris: #133 — Globalism on the Brink
Legitimate grievances with immigration https://overcast.fm/+Ic2iBh0LA/32:11
Impact of automation https://overcast.fm/+Ic2iBh0LA/39:34
Universal basic income, solution? https://overcast.fm/+Ic2iBh0LA/39:42

It's one thing for the Chinese to steal our intellectual property, it's another for them to steal our strategy."
civic  nationalism  technology  crisis  transformation  society  politics  trump  2018  globalism  explained  cosmopolitanism  podcast 
october 2018 by aries1988
驱逐难民、鼓吹脱欧、崇尚强力、热爱中国——我和瑞典“超极右”九零后聊了聊|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
“人如果天真就会被利用,就像现在正在发生的这样。全世界的人都在利用瑞典的天真。”

哈:历史上,左右标签是被用在经济领域的。左派想要高税收和大型福利国家,右派想要低税收和小型福利国家。就这方面来说,我觉得左右标签某种程度上被滥用了。到现在,右派指的是国家主义,左派指的是全球主义。右派想保留传统文化,左派想要文化多元。就此而言,我觉得我们是右派,在经济层面我们也是右派。

端:你未来期待成为一个职业政治家吗?

哈:按我个人的计划来说,我不一定必须从政。于我而言,政治更像是一个社会责任感的寄托,我对祖先、家庭、后代都有责任,瑞典社会正在分裂,而我想停止这种政治乱象,让瑞典恢复它曾经的美好。
sweden  politics  interview  youth 
october 2018 by aries1988
Karl Marx, Yesterday and Today | The New Yorker

interpretation of his work made after his death by people like Karl Kautsky, who was his chief German-language exponent; Georgi Plekhanov, his chief Russian exponent; and, most influentially, Engels. It was thanks mainly to those writers that people started to refer to Marxism as “scientific socialism,” a phrase that sums up what was most frightening about twentieth-century Communism: the idea that human beings can be reëngineered in accordance with a theory that presents itself as a law of history. The word the twentieth century coined for that was totalitarianism.
politics  book  revolution  ideology  uk  19C  leader  communism  economy  capitalism  utopia 
october 2018 by aries1988
In Defense of Empire - The Atlantic
From Rome’s widespread offer of citizenship to its subject peoples, to France’s offer of a measure of equality to fluent Francophone Africans, to Britain’s arrangement of truces among the Yemeni tribes, to the epic array of agricultural and educational services provided by the Europeans throughout their tropical domains—Britain’s Indian Civil Service stands out—imperialism and enlightenment (albeit self-interested) have often been inextricable.

That, I submit, would be a policy direction that internalizes both the drawbacks and the benefits of imperialism, not as it has been conventionally thought of, but as it has actually been practiced throughout history.
usa  today  world  empire  opinion  politics  order 
october 2018 by aries1988
Decorum is an unfashionable word but it has a radical core | Aeon Ideas
Cicero gives us the best sense of decorum’s richness. He did more than anyone in ancient Rome to develop the concept, and it sits at the heart of his ethical and rhetorical theory. Cicero defined decorum not as an inflexible code of conduct, but as the fit between an action and a moment, or between words and a rhetorical situation. To speak decorously is to say precisely what the moment demands.

Asking whether words have decorum is another way of asking what this circumstance and this audience call for.

Arguing over Trump’s decorum, or lack thereof, is about asking who counts – who is included in, and excluded from, ‘the sense of the community’ to which decorum appeals.
speech  politics  today  trump  audience  communication  latin  roman 
september 2018 by aries1988
Yuval Noah Harari on Why Technology Favors Tyranny - The Atlantic

- In 2018 the common person feels increasingly irrelevant.
By 2050, a useless class might emerge, the result not only of a shortage of jobs or a lack of relevant education but also of insufficient mental stamina to continue learning new skills.

- whatever liberal democracy’s philosophical appeal, it has gained strength in no small part thanks to a practical advantage: The decentralized approach to decision making that is characteristic of liberalism—in both politics and economics.
In the late 20th century, democracies usually outperformed dictatorships, because they were far better at processing information.
Democracy distributes the power to process information and make decisions among many people and institutions, whereas dictatorship concentrates information and power in one place.
- If you disregard all privacy concerns and concentrate all the information relating to a billion people in one database, you’ll wind up with much better algorithms than if you respect individual privacy and have in your database only partial information on a million people.

- What will happen to this view of life as we rely on AI to make ever more decisions for us?
once we begin to count on AI to decide what to study, where to work, and whom to date or even marry, human life will cease to be a drama of decision making, and our conception of life will need to change. Democratic elections and free markets might cease to make sense. So might most religions and works of art.
If we are not careful, we will end up with downgraded humans misusing upgraded computers to wreak havoc on themselves and on the world.

- For starters, we need to place a much higher priority on understanding how the human mind works—particularly how our own wisdom and compassion can be cultivated.
- More practically, and more immediately, if we want to prevent the concentration of all wealth and power in the hands of a small elite, we must regulate the ownership of data.
advice  future  crisis  ai  society  politics  people  life  work  mentality  human  democracy  dictatorship  competition  liberalism 
september 2018 by aries1988
Xi Sets China on a Collision Course With History - The New York Times
Known as “modernization theory,” it says that once citizens reach a certain level of wealth, they will demand things like public accountability, free expression and a role in government. Authoritarian states, unable to meet these demands, either transition to democracy or collapse amid unrest.

So China is instead promoting “ideology and collective social values” that equate the government with Chinese culture, according to research by the China scholar Heike Holbig and Mr. Gilley. Patriotic songs and school textbooks have proliferated. So have mentions of “Xi Jinping Thought,” now an official ideology.
today  china  2018  xi  politics  state  people 
september 2018 by aries1988
How Charles de Gaulle Rescued France
His life shows that right-wing politics needn’t bend toward absolutism, Adam Gopnik writes.
president  français  politics  history  france  bio  book  review 
august 2018 by aries1988
The End of ‘Civilisation’
The new program is best understood as a kind of delayed rebuttal, sometimes quite explicit, to Clark and his view of history.

An example of his method was a book the gallery published called 100 Details from Pictures in the National Gallery. Clark wanted to draw the attention of untutored viewers to specific elements in each work and place them alongside similar details from other works, with the aim of building up knowledge and interest piece by piece, element by element.

There was no stinting on travel either. By the time they were through Clark and crew had visited 118 museums and 117 other locations in 11 countries.

It was television of an intensified kind, meant to seduce a mass audience.

An act or piece of art that is life-enhancing—that allows us to have life, and to have it more abundantly—is civilized; one that isn’t isn’t.

The Greco-Roman ideal, he says, was “without doubt the most extraordinary creation in the whole of history.” It was nearly lost with the sacking of Rome—by barbarians, did he mention?—in the 5th century and then barely survived the advance of Islam in the 8th. It lay dormant, tended by monks, until the millennium, when it began to manifest itself in a variety of ways in Europe.
civ  art  politics  debate  west  documentary  2018  1969  bbc  uk 
august 2018 by aries1988
What Can We Learn from Utopians of the Past?
Adam Gopnik writes about four nineteenth-century authors who offered blueprints for a better world—but their progressive visions had a dark side.

The sensible lesson one might draw from this is that the human condition is one in which the distribution of bad and good is forever in flux, and so any blueprint of perfection is doomed to failure.

Robertson assumes that if we can just add to the utopian visions of 1918 the progressive pieties of 2018—if we reform their gender essentialism and their implicit hierarchism and several other nasty isms—then we will at last arrive at the right utopia. This gives his book something of the exhausted cheerfulness of a father on a nine-hour car trip. “We’re almost there!” he keeps saying, as the kids in the back seat fret, and peer at license plates.

Liberalism is a perpetual program of reform, intended to alleviate the cruelty we see around us. The result will be not a utopia but merely another society, with its own unanticipated defects to correct, though with some of the worst injustices—tearing the limbs from people or keeping them as perpetual chattel or depriving half the population of the right to speak to their own future—gone, we hope for good. That is as close as liberalism gets to a utopia: a future society that is flawed, like our own, but less cruel as time goes on.

We remake interior lives to make exterior improvements, because the real current of social change lies inside minds and therefore inside people’s actual existence. We always want to get past the room we’re in in order to break out and change the universe. The lesson that life tends to teach is that change begins at home, and that we can’t escape rooms on our way to worlds. The world is made of rooms.
utopia  writer  book  society  politics  sex  marriage  love  philosophy  19C  liberalism 
august 2018 by aries1988
A critique of Eric X. Li’s “A tale of two political systems” | TED Blog
Apart from the political pressures that tend to channel answers in a particular direction, another problem is that Chinese respondents sometimes view taking a survey as similar to taking an exam.

Li has not provided a coherent and logical argument for his positions on democracy. I suspect, although I do not have any direct evidence, that there is a simple modus operandi — endorsing reforms the CCP has endorsed and opposing reforms that CCP has opposed. This is fine as far as posturing goes but it is not a principled argument of anything.
debate  politics  china  party  democracy  autocracy 
july 2018 by aries1988
惑星之歌 | Pussy Riot:那群冲进球场的俄罗斯年轻人 – 中国数字时代

在晚期资本主义气息越来越浓厚的时代,大家不仅在今年的世界杯足球赛上看到了更加令人窒息的防守反击,对于抗议也似乎变得司空见惯,以至于不想再去思考背后的原因以及不再加以关注。但无论如何,她们冲进赛场的这一幕也让这次的决赛除了乌龙,点球,守门员注意力不集中被偷进球,和莫斯科的大于之外,让我们多了一个记住的理由。
worldcup  2018  russia  football  manifestation  dissident  politics  world  tv 
july 2018 by aries1988
Looking Through the Eyes of China’s Surveillance State - The New York Times
Many critics call China’s surveillance ambitions Orwellian, and they are. But for China today, the world imagined by Franz Kafka offers a closer vision: bureaucratic, unknowable and ruled by uncertainty as much as fear.
opinion  china  today  politics  state 
july 2018 by aries1988
Ballasting the US-China Relationship - John Pomfret & Paul Pickowicz | China 21
Historian Paul Pickowicz interviews acclaimed author John Pomfret about patterns in the long history of US-China relations, and how it informs the controversies in the current moment of Sino-American relations ranging from the impact of Chinese students on US universities, Xi Jinping’s end to presidential term limits, and trade and business relations.
podcast  book  usa  china  history  today  politics  leader  people 
april 2018 by aries1988
A Beijing Bookstore Where George Washington Is on the Shelves
The All Sages Bookstore, run by a onetime Tiananmen Square protester, has survived both the capital’s ferocious property market and the censorship of the Xi Jinping era.
beijing  reportage  bookstore  book  love  politics  story 
march 2018 by aries1988
Understanding China’s Rise Under Xi Jinping -- By The Honourable Kevin Rudd
the territorial expanse of the Chinese Empire virtually doubled, occupying some 10 per cent of the world’s land area, 30 percent of the world’s population, and 32 percent of the world’s economy.
Nonetheless, for those who are professionally charged with interpreting China’s future, as you are in this great military academy, it means that we must also take time to understand China’s past. To understand how China perceives the world around it. And to understand how it now perceives its own national destiny in the turbulent world of the 21st century.

# Xi’s Political Authority

there is the personality of Xi Jinping himself as a source of political authority. For those who have met him and had conversations with him, he has a strong intellect, a deep sense of his country’s and the world’s history, and a deeply defined worldview of where he wants to lead his country. Xi Jinping is no accidental president. It’s as if he has been planning for this all his life.

# Xi Jinping’s View of the Party

The Communist Party would continue, therefore, as an unapologetically Leninist party for the future.

China’s historical greatness, across its dynastic histories, lay in a strong, authoritarian hierarchical Confucian state.

# Seven Core Priorities

China’s emerging worldview, in my own estimation, is best understood as a set of seven concentric circles.

## The Party

## National Unity

From Beijing’s perspective, Tibet, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Taiwan represent a core set of security interests. Each within itself represents a confluence of external and internal security factors.

## The Economy and Environmental Sustainability

Indeed, the systematic treatment of the environment as simply an “economic externality” to the Chinese development process led to wholesale environmental destruction. China is now paying the price.

## China’s Neighbouring States - Securing China’s Continental Periphery across Eurasia

Historically, they’ve been the avenue through which China’s national security has been threatened, resulting in successive foreign invasions.
The failure of the Great Wall of China to provide security from foreign invasion is a classic case in point.

## China’s Maritime Periphery - East Asia and the West Pacific

Xi Jinping has made plain he does not see China’s role as simply replicating the current US-led liberal international order for the future.
China has consistently said that this was an order created by the Western, victorious, and by-and-large colonial powers after the Second World War.
australia  origin  history  usa  world  china  future  sinology  politics  diplomacy  analysis  xi  thinking 
march 2018 by aries1988
The Interpreter: How to tell if your president is a "strongman"
The country is run by a vast bureaucracy, divided among powerful institutions. Any individual official fits within a system of hierarchies and factions. The whole thing operates on norms that are authoritarian but at least consistent.
Mr. Xi is changing this system. He’s centralizing more authority for himself than a modern Chinese leader is supposed to have. He’s defying norms, like presidential term limits. He’s purging some officials who belong to opposing political factions. He’s borrowing some pages from the strongman playbook.
But! Mr. Xi is doing all of this within the existing political system. The Chinese state is still deeply institutionalized. He’s not changing that. He is of the system.
Personalist leaders tend to smash the system. Hugo Chavez of Venezuela treated much of the government as something to conquer or destroy. So did Mr. Putin.
china  2018  today  politics  comparison  russia  leader 
march 2018 by aries1988
Millennials Are Screwed - The Huffington Post
There are millions of Scotts in the modern economy. “A lot of workers were just 18 at the wrong time,” says William Spriggs, an economics professor at Howard University and an assistant secretary for policy at the Department of Labor in the Obama administration. “Employers didn’t say, ‘Oops, we missed a generation. In 2008 we weren’t hiring graduates, let’s hire all the people we passed over.’ No, they hired the class of 2012.”
today  youth  housing  millennials  politics  usa  numbers  statistics  workforce 
february 2018 by aries1988
Kazuo Ishiguro - Nobel Lecture: My Twentieth Century Evening – and Other Small Breakthroughs
As the only foreign boy in the neighbourhood, a kind of local fame followed me around. Other children knew who I was before I met them. Adults who were total strangers to me sometimes addressed me by name in the street or in the local store.

When I look back to this period, and remember it was less than twenty years from the end of a world war in which the Japanese had been their bitter enemies, I'm amazed by the openness and instinctive generosity with which our family was accepted by this ordinary English community. The affection, respect and curiosity I retain to this day for that generation of Britons who came through the Second World War, and built a remarkable new welfare state in its aftermath, derive significantly from my personal experiences from those years.
japan  immigration  gaijin  story  childhood  children  uk  literature  writer  memory  politics  today  world  human  future  manifesto 
february 2018 by aries1988
东方专制主义 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

这本著作认为东西方社会是两个完全不同的社会形态,东方社会的形成和发展与治水密不可分。大规模的水利工程的建设和管理必须建立一个遍及全国的组织。“因此,控制这一组织的人总是巧妙的准备形式最高统治权力”,君主专制便由此形成。而中国正是这一特征的集中反映。
concept  oriental  civ  politics 
january 2018 by aries1988
West grows wary of China’s influence game

“The party under Xi [Jinping] believes it is engaged in a ‘huayu zhanzheng’ — a ‘discourse war’ — with the west, which it thinks enjoys media hegemony and must be challenged,” says David Shambaugh, director of the China policy programme at George Washington University.

He estimates China spends between $10bn and $12bn a year on a wide range of “soft power” efforts — from traditional lobbying and public relations campaigns to more clandestine forms of influence-building.

“The Chinese Communist party is seeking to suppress dissent among its diaspora in countries around the world,” says Rory Medcalf, head of the national security college at Australian National University. “It uses a tapestry of methods to achieve its goals: political donations, control of Chinese language media, mobilising community and student groups; and engaging in coercive activities that involve CCP proxies and even consular officials.”

Defenders of these initiatives say Beijing merely wants to “tell China’s story well” and is acting no differently from western countries. The US government supports organisations that fund pro-democracy groups around the world, while Washington-based think-tanks have international affiliates that promote an American world view.

“The Communist party’s United Front work is very different from western efforts to exert influence — there is a degree of long-term planning and central co-ordination between public and nominally private enterprises that democracies can’t even imagine,”
china  today  politics  debate  strategy  world  competition  democracy 
december 2017 by aries1988
刘仲敬:大清是如何输给日本的
从宏观角度来看,我们可以说当时世界存在的不只一种世界体系,欧洲的世界体系在签订了威斯特伐利亚条约,解构了教皇和皇帝在基督教世界最高权力以后,渐渐的创造了民族国家实体概念,由民族国家实体比较平稳地组成一个没有确定权威的国际关系网络,取代了教皇和皇帝领导的基督教文明共同体这个有最高权力体系的概念。然后这个体系随着时间推移,逐渐扩散到全世界。

与此同时,中国或者说是大清承袭了中国自古以来的天下国家或者说宇宙国家的体系,同时又加上了满蒙部族联盟这个统治核心的特点。天下国家的根本特点是它没有确定的行为主体,也没有确定的边界和主权的。

首善之区就是京师,离皇恩最近,所以它的道德水平是最高的,甚至皇帝作为天下的领袖,他的道德是最高的,他主要凭他的道德感召力量而不是凭他的赤裸裸的武力来迫使各地屈服。内环到外环的道德程度和管控能力都要相应的削弱,最后的“化外之地”蛮夷肯定是像没有长大的小孩一样,是完全不听话、捣乱的。

如果你承认英国跟清国是平行的国家,那么你肯定是大逆不道的,因为普天之下莫非王土,英国这些人虽然是不懂中文而且是蛮夷,毫无疑问也是皇上的臣民,你说它是跟皇上独立的国家,那你就是大逆不道。割地赔款反倒不是,因为割地赔款是一种犒赏性的行动,是教育小孩子懂得教化的一种贿赂性的做法,而且在天下国家体系当中没有入侵这件事情,因为没有在皇权之外存在着同等的权力,只有叛乱这回事,

所以撤换林则徐非但不是丧权辱国的行动,反而是皇帝遵守儒家教化和宪法原则的结果,因为英国人上X访是到皇帝面前鸣冤告状,因为林总督没有公正的对待他们,所以皇上在弄清是非曲直之前,一定要各打五十大板,首先要把主管官员撤掉,就好像说是某个地方有访X民到中央告状,中央处理问题一定是要回避,处理这个问题的官员先让他停职审X查,要不然有他在那里从中作梗的话,访X民绝对不可能得到公正待遇。道光皇帝当时就是这样的思维。

清廷人有双面性,他在面对内地的时候仍然要坚持他的德教原则和文治的原则,也就是说不能使用武力,或者说是不能过度的使用武力,只能维持一个极小规模的政府和军X队

一个共X产X党的政X权,你应该是不承认民主国家的原则,就像苏联一样,它和整个无产阶级世界处在战争状态,只有在共X产主义实现以后才能够按照共X产主义兄弟原则处理内部关系,对外的关系应该是一种永恒的无限制的战争,像列宁说的那样,是根本不受任何法律和规则约束的战争。事实上这个做不到。你要和占据绝对优势的西方国家打交道的话,你想完全拒绝接受西方的游戏规则和国际惯例的话,你将会陷入极其被动甚至有亡国之祸的情况下,所以你必须部分接受。

英国人要代表西方教会清国怎样在西方的游戏规则中作为一个普通国家生存而玩这种游戏

内地的保守派包括满族亲贵来允许它进行有限改革,因此它加入国际体系是半心半意的,这个强大的集团是隐性的,没有出现李鸿章这样杰出的首领,实际上他们的权X势要比李鸿章这方面要强大得多。而英国这一方面过高的估计了李鸿章这一系在清廷内部体制内的影响力,觉得他们的课业是很快就会成功的,因此在外交上往往是比较袒护清政府的。

清廷内部有强烈的声音说疏远的外藩我们本来就不在乎,但朝鲜不是,朝鲜是关系密切的内藩,我们如果再也维护不了大清的权威的话,那实在是说不过去

凡尔登大战死了几十万人,但是意义还没有攻占冬宫来得重要,攻占冬宫那次战役中间,其实列宁和克伦斯基双方的损失都是非常少的,但是严重的影响了历史路径

甲午战争这件事情,它的意义不在于它当时死了几个人,也不在于当时赔了点钱,其实从长期来看,这点钱其实也是无所谓的,关键在于它把日本推上了它渴望已久的地位,而清政府方面却根本没有意识到自己丧失了什么东西,它丧失的是机会。如果你丧失的是具体的钱和人,你知道你死了多少人,亏了多少钱,但是你丧失了机会的时候,如果你知识结构不完整的话,很可能你意识不到。而对于人或者对于国家来说,无形的机会才是最宝贵的,你丧失机会造成的损失远比你丧失钱或者丧失具体物品来得重要。

这条没有出路的道路从根本上讲就是清室无法割舍他自身维持的那个国际体系的结果,这一点不单单是清室自己的昏聩,应该说维持这种体系,在清廷内部应该是一个占据主流地位的舆论,清政府如果根据李鸿章的思路进行改革的话,反倒是非常不得人心、不得军心的。
japan  china  history  war  qing  19C  theory  civ  politics  state  comparison 
december 2017 by aries1988
L’éolien français manque de souffle

L’énergie éolienne ne fournit aujourd’hui que 4 % de l’électricité française. Lourdeurs administratives et efficacité des recours expliquent cette piètre performance. Le gouvernement tente cependant d’encourager l’essor d’une filière industrielle.

La loi de transition énergétique, votée en 2015, fixe ainsi un objectif d’au moins 22 000 mégawatts (MW) de capacité installée en éolien terrestre à l’horizon 2023, contre 12 000 MW aujourd’hui. Concrètement, pour atteindre cet objectif, il faudra ajouter plus de 4 000 éoliennes aux 6 500 existantes. Mais pour atteindre l’autre objectif de la loi, celui de réduire à 50 % la part du nucléaire dans la production d’électricité, il faudra aller bien plus loin.

« On nous fait poser des Nokia 3310 alors que l’iPhone est déjà disponible, résume un industriel du secteur. Auparavant, on avait quatre mâts de 1 MW chacun, alors qu’aujourd’hui on peut avoir un mât qui produit 4 MW. Mais on ne peut pas les installer puisqu’ils n’existaient pas au moment du dépôt du projet. »

« La complexité joue en faveur de l’Europe. Une éolienne, c’est plus compliqué à fabriquer et surtout à exporter qu’un panneau solaire. »

Grâce à ces modifications, le SER estime que le temps moyen de développement d’un projet d’éolien terrestre en France pourrait descendre à cinq ans – contre sept à dix ans aujourd’hui

Certains y voient même la possibilité de créer une filière industrielle française, après plusieurs faux départs. Siemens Gamesa a ainsi une usine d’éoliennes offshore qui pourrait être prête pour 2019 au Havre (Seine-Maritime), et défend une adaptation du port afin de pouvoir accueillir les gigantesques navires nécessaires à l’installation des éoliennes en mer. General Electric attend également de pouvoir faire fonctionner à plein régime ses usines de Montoir-de-Bretagne (Loire-Atlantique) et de Cherbourg (Manche)… une fois que les projets lancés en 2011 seront confirmés.
eolien  numbers  france  français  industry  project  politics  today  china 
december 2017 by aries1988
胡平:如何解读中国之崛起-墙外楼

用托克维尔在《旧制度与大革命》中的话来讲:一个坏政府最危险的时候,不是它政绩最恶劣的时候,而是它试图改革的时候。因为改革本身,使它的弱点显露于天下,改革本身会释放出一些原来被压制的力量,所以反而会促成它的灭亡。这是一个一般性的规律。

在中国,由于采用了权贵私有化,倒是一步到位地解决了这个问题。它没有通过大众私有化,把资产分给大家,再通过市场运作把资产集中到少数人手里,而是直截了当地把资产分给了党委,给了党委书记,所以中国成了这个样子,共产党成了中国的唯一的大股东,党委会成了董事会,书记成了CEO,免除了大众私有化过程中资产零碎化的问题。因此在它的经济发展中,就没有资产零碎化导致的经济衰退,得以保持持续的发展。当然这种转变是特别恶劣的,因为共产党就是靠打倒地主资本家起家的,现在你怎么成了地主资本家了呢?所以这种做法,如果没有六四造成的那种威慑背景,根本不可能发生。但是因为中国有那么一个背景,这个情况就在我们眼前发生了。

避免了大众私有化造成的资产零碎化所带来的问题。它使得大资本一步到位地从所谓的全民的手中集中到了少数权贵的手中,就完成了资本主义的变化。

环球日报写得很清楚,实行民主对于别的国家就是政党轮替的问题,对于中国就是翻天覆地。因为它很清楚,它整个的统治,都是建立在这种压制之上的。现在不谈它政治上的压迫引起人们的反感,单单它的经济上、财富上的这种配置,就是建立在高压之下,完全是不公不义的。

大部分就是建立在对所谓全民资产的这种掠夺之上的。尤其是在六四之后,这种掠夺几乎是公开进行的。因此这些权贵不得不担心,一旦政治开放了,且不说以前当局犯下的政治错误会受到追究,单单是目前这种不合理的财富分配的格局,人们就不可能接受。也就是说,一旦中国人民有了发言权,他们很有可能就会要求对过去的经济问题进行清算,要求获得不义之财的权贵们把不义之财交出来。这一点让权贵们更难以接受。因此他们对政治的自由化、政治开发就抱有比原来更为敌视的态度。
opinion  china  politics  state  party  history  1990s  economy  future 
december 2017 by aries1988
Hans Rosling, physician and statistician, 1948-2017

Rosling, who has died aged 68, was the closest thing statisticians had to a rock star. His most famous talk, 2006’s The Best Stats You’ve Ever Seen, has been watched online more than 11m times. Its ambitious scope and sweeping narrative epitomised Rosling’s ability to rise above the ebb and flow of current affairs and see generational trends.

It led him to conclude that on most measures of human progress — the impact of climate change being a notable exception — most countries were improving rapidly.

Public perceptions had not kept up with the pace of economic and demographic development and much of the media was hobbled by its adherence to false balance, he said. The world is discussed in terms of feelings and ideologies rather than as an area of knowledge, he once told the Financial Times.
leader  statistics  communication  science  world  data  debate  politics  ideology  optimism  explained  population 
december 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Friday, December 1, 2017: The Problem With Political Quarantines
In some countries, including France and Germany, mainstream political parties practice so-called “cordon sanitaire” politics, in which they agree to work together to keep far-right politicians in a sort of political quarantine. They won’t allow the far right into political coalitions, or work with it on joint legislation.
opinion  idea  politics  election  democracy  deutschland  france  europe  2017 
december 2017 by aries1988
Where Millennials Come From

Millennials, according to recent headlines, are killing hotels, department stores, chain restaurants, the car industry, the diamond industry, the napkin industry, homeownership, marriage, doorbells, motorcycles, fabric softener, hotel-loyalty programs, casinos, Goldman Sachs, serendipity, and the McDonald’s McWrap.

Parents overemphasized self-esteem and happiness, while kids took their cues from an era of diversity initiatives, decentralized authority, online avatars, and reality TV. As a result, millennials have become irresponsible and fundamentally maladjusted. They believe that every job will be fulfilling and then can’t even find a boring one. They must lower their expectations and dim their glittering self-images in order to become functional adults.

the notion of disruptive self-interest

a homeowner with negative equity: in possession of an asset that is worth much less than what she owes.

Millennials, in other words, have adjusted too well to the world they grew up in; their perfect synchronization with economic and cultural disruption has been mistaken for the source of the disruption itself.
millennials  politics  habit  generation  work  cliche  young  crisis  economy 
november 2017 by aries1988
Stalin’s Lengthening Shadow

The authoritarian streak, excused by nationalism. The accusations of anti-state activities against the opposition. The constant references to conservative cultural values — Roman Catholic in Poland, Orthodox in Russia — and enrollment of religious leaders in the political fight. The difficulty in accepting pluralism. The appetite to control the media and civil society.
poland  urss  russia  europe  crisis  value  politics 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Europe's far right fell in love with Australia's immigration policy
Conjuring an imaginary “queue” was a clever way to conflate two different sorts of refugees in the mind of the public: those who manage to reach UN camps and patiently wait for years to be resettled, and those who flee their homelands and attempt to claim asylum upon arrival in Australia. But there is no such queue, because countries are not obliged to take in refugees assigned for resettlement by the UN; if they do, it is purely good will. Signatories to the UN refugee convention are, however, obliged to assess the claims of asylum seekers reaching their shores. Australia is a society obsessed with rules and fairness, and the queue-jumping argument resonates perfectly with a population primed to think in terms of orderly regulations, most of whom have never faced state-sponsored violence or war crimes.

More than 51,000 asylum seekers arrived in Australia by sea between 2009 and 2013.

The EU has earmarked around $2bn in the past two years to address the drivers of migration.

Libya offers a worrying picture of what the future might hold if politicians like Espersen and Le Pen get their way, or if these sorts of outsourced solutions come to be seen as palatable by mainstream parties.

The EU has declared it a goal to “significantly reduce migratory flows by enabling the Libyan coast guard to ‘rescue’ a higher number of migrants and bring them back to Libya before they reach EU ships or EU territory”,

if the Australian model is adopted more fully in Europe, then there will be no hope for legitimate refugees to claim asylum through legal channels, and more of them will seek illegal paths to Europe.

The far right’s goal is to make European social benefits the exclusive property of native-born citizens, a hard-earned jackpot to be protected from the grasping hands of supposedly undeserving new arrivals.

“We are encumbered throughout ex-Christian Europe by the phenomenon of compassion,” he tells me, hinting at the logical endpoint of the policies his ideas have unleashed. “Compassion is fabulous … but it is obvious that without the use of force, we will never stop the invasion.”
far-right  australia  reportage  refugee  2010s  crisis  europe  politics  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
Russia’s World Cup: a Putin own goal?
The thousands of visiting journalists (surely the largest foreign press contingent ever to spend a month in Russia) are likely to pump out the negative coverage that Russians call zloradstvo (evil-revelling). 

Doping wins Olympic medals but probably wouldn’t help much in skill-based, tactical football.
russia  image  world  politics  people 
november 2017 by aries1988
异乡人──胡清心:异议者的修炼,是坚持跟内心黑暗打仗|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
我总认为自己是天生反动的,文革也算了解,因为父母在那段时间吃过苦,而自小在基督教家庭教会成长,政权的凶险也是亲身经历,不过宗教自由等论辩无从说起,只是觉得这个政权和政党对我们充满敌意。可是,遇见那些头头是道为政权维护的人,辩着辩着反倒自觉理亏,好像自己对共产党的不满,只是出于私人恩怨。

然后,思考的深度就停留在这里。这些问题太难回答,而在公民身份和政治生活被刻意淡化的环境中,确实找不到足以让我系统地整理自己的感受与想法的框架。日常生活有太多琐碎与精彩充斥,对社会政治的思考就算一晃而过,也匆匆被束之高阁。
self  learn  politics  thinking  china  story  family  1989/6/4 
november 2017 by aries1988
专访王柯:极端的民族主义,一定是与世界为敌|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
实际上,本身中华文化是多重的,其最早就是由不同的异民族创造,并不是汉人自己创造的文化,而是来自于异民族向这个地方的移动。他们到达之后,为了说明自己建立政权的正当性,用神话来解释自己的历史,才导致了“权威的产生”。

夏商周三代,都是异民族开始的政权,他们到中原来建立政权的时候,就一定要对中原的人说他们建立政权的正当性。说明正当性的方法是什么呢?就是天命,我们应天命而来。

所以在清朝,北京叫顺天,南京叫应天,满洲就叫奉天。

所谓的天,日本说的“天无私照”,这就是日本的大神──“天照大神”的来源。所以实际上,向心力不是别的东西,其实就是一种对公平正义平等的向往。

最后,我对民族主义深恶痛绝。

也许从小的方面来看,对一个民族或有好处,但从整体来看,民族主义一定是需要敌人的。这个角度来看,我对中国过去通过民族主义来建国这条路,是深恶痛绝的。
opinion  research  politics  history  china  chinese  japan  nation  state  religion  ethnic  crisis  bio 
november 2017 by aries1988
Letter of Recommendation Caceroladas
A community banging its pots and pans together as a democratic showing of discontent.
espagna  people  street  politics  demonstration  tool 
november 2017 by aries1988
Panda politics: the hard truth about China’s cuddliest diplomat

Far more money, time and effort has been spent on saving the giant panda from extinction than on any other animal. As such, it is considered a touchstone species — if humans can’t rescue such an icon with all of this exertion, then what hope is there for less charismatic fauna?

“For China, pandas are the equivalent of the British royal family,” Nye tells the FT. “Like the royals, they are a terrific asset because you can put them on display. You trot them around the world and they add an enormous amount to the country’s soft power.”

In fact, the first recorded example of panda diplomacy dates back much further to 685 AD, when Empress Wu Zetian of the Tang dynasty presented a pair of live bears to neighbouring Japan.

Australia, France and Canada all received pandas after agreeing to sell nuclear technology and uranium to China. Scotland accepted a pair of pandas in 2011 as part of an agreement to share offshore drilling technology and supply salmon to China, while the Dutch loan this year came as the Netherlands agreed to supply advanced healthcare services.

Chinese and western experts all agree there is no scientific reason for producing so many animals in captivity if they cannot be released in the wild. But after struggling for so many years to produce even a few surviving cubs, the machinery of panda production is now almost unstoppable, thanks to financial incentives and rivalry between competing agencies.
zoo  chinese  politics  diplomacy  animal  reportage  analysis  numbers  economy 
november 2017 by aries1988
The challenge of Xi Jinping’s Leninist autocracy

Will this combination of Leninist politics with market economics go on working as China develops? The answer must be: we do not know. A positive response could be that this system not only fits with Chinese traditions, but the bureaucrats are also exceptionally capable. The system has worked spectacularly so far. Yet there are also negative responses. One is that the party is always above the law. That makes power ultimately lawless. Another is that the corruption Mr Xi has been attacking is inherent in a systems lacking checks from below. Another is that, in the long run, this reality will sap economic dynamism. Yet another is that as the economy and the level of education advances, the desire for a say in politics will become overwhelming. In the long run, the rule of one man over the party and that of one party over China will not stand.

Second and far more important, the west (fragile as it is today) has to recognise — and learn from — the fact that management of its economy and politics has been unsatisfactory for years, if not decades. The west let its financial system run aground in a huge financial crisis. It has persistently under-invested in its future. In important cases, notably the US, it has allowed a yawning gulf to emerge between economic winners and the losers. Not least, it has let lies and hatred consume its politics.

It must create more inclusive and dynamic economies, revitalise its politics and re-establish anew the fragile balance between the national and the global, the democratic and the technocratic that is essential to the health of sophisticated democracies. Autocracy is the age-old human norm. It must not have the last word.
world  china  politics  economy  challenge  government  comparison 
november 2017 by aries1988
The Islamic World Doesn't Need a Reformation - The Atlantic

There is simply is no “Muslim Pope,” or a central organization like the Catholic hierarchy, whose suffocating authority needs to be broken. Quite the contrary, the Muslim world—at least the Sunni Muslim world, which constitutes its overwhelming majority—has no central authority at all, especially since the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924 by Republican Turkey. The ensuing chaos in itself seems be a part of “the problem.”

The contemporary Muslim world needs not a Martin Luther but a John Locke, whose arguments for freedom of conscience and religious toleration planted the seeds of liberalism. In particular, the more religion-friendly British Enlightenment, rather than the French one, can serve as a constructive model.

Islam, as a legalist religion, has more commonalities with Judaism than with Christianity.

in a reality where the state is already deeply involved in religion, its steps toward moderation and liberalization should be welcome. It’s also worth remembering that the success of the Enlightenment in Europe was partly thanks to the era of “Enlightened despots,” the monarchs who preserved their power even as they realized crucial legal, social, and educational reforms.
from:rss  religion  islam  opinion  enlightenment  future  comparison  christianity  history  politics 
november 2017 by aries1988
殊途不同归——加泰罗尼亚与苏格兰的独立之路 - FT中文网
加泰罗尼亚是西班牙最为富有、最高度工业化的区域,堪称全国的经济马达。它坐拥全国20%的GDP,16%的人口;如果成为一个独立国家,经济体量约在丹麦和芬兰之间。它吸引流向西班牙的1/3的投资,也生产西班牙1/3的出口商品。重要行业包括金属工程、食物处理、医药化学等,并拜巴塞罗那所赐,有兴隆的旅游业。高迪、毕加索等天才,让巴塞罗那成为许多人心中的艺术之都。巴塞罗那更是地中海最大的港口,以及世界第四大游轮目的地。世界闻名的两所商学院ESADE和IESE也坐落于此。
相比之下,苏格兰只占英国GDP的7.5%,以及8.3%的人口。爱丁堡固然是经济重镇,却不能令国都伦敦失色。从经济角度来说,加泰罗尼亚的独立对于西班牙而言,更是不能承受之重。

加泰罗尼亚和苏格兰都在18世纪初,与和更大的政治体形成统一国家,然而统一的方式颇有不同。

苏格兰议会通过签署《1707联合法案》,相对和平地与英格兰建立联合王国。

加泰罗尼亚则在腓力五世的西班牙王位继承战争中,于1714年因军事征服而被兼并。自此,加泰罗尼亚的民族主义者就为自由而抗争,并于1932年取得一定自治成果。然而,自1939年弗朗哥成立独裁政权以来,加泰罗尼亚民族主义受到强烈镇压,当地制度、语言等被大规模抹杀。
comparison  espagna  scotland  independence  politics  referendum  numbers 
november 2017 by aries1988
方可成:「小粉紅」,一個「張冠李戴」的標籤|端傳媒 Initium Media
經過研究後,我們確信:「小粉紅」這個標籤的起源有問題,「讀耽美小說的少女變身民族主義小將」的故事實際上並不存在。
chinese  vocabulary  politics  internet 
november 2017 by aries1988
La « nouvelle ère » Xi, un défi pour le modèle occidental
Enfin, seul maître à bord, Xi promet à son 1,4 milliard de compatriotes un « développement en deux étapes » : d’ici à 2035, la Chine aura achevé sa modernisation, notamment en termes d’innovation et, en 2049, année du centenaire de la fondation de la République populaire, elle aura atteint le statut de leader planétaire, défendue par une armée « de premier rang mondial ».

Il lui manque toujours la reconnaissance d’un prix Nobel, les scandales de fraude sont encore trop nombreux et l’argent ne peut pas tout. Mais la taille compte. Avec 730 millions de personnes connectées, un usage du téléphone mobile plus avancé que celui des pays occidentaux et infiniment moins de barrières éthiques, la Chine aborde la bataille de l’intelligence artificielle avec de gros atouts.

Si « l’ère » est nouvelle, cependant, le modèle de la concentration des pouvoirs dans les mains d’un seul homme et de son parti, lui, est familier. Cela s’appelle une dictature. Son succès serait, pour le coup, une authentique innovation.
chronique  china  2017  future  politics  innovation  technology  comparison  ai 
october 2017 by aries1988
China Refuses to Admit It Has a Rape Problem. I Would Know. – Foreign Policy
With China’s opening also came first a trickle, and then a flood, of foreign popular culture. Japanese fashion, Hong Kong magazines, and Hollywood films exposed a mass Chinese audience to ideas of young love, romantic choice, and sexual freedom. When a slightly censored version of The Bridges of Madison County, a movie that portrayed a passionate extramarital affair, opened in Beijing in 1996, it sold 1.3 million tickets on its first weekend there.

In the show’s 10 seasons, the six main characters had a combined total of 85 sexual partners who appeared on screen. The sitcom — and by association, American culture and the entire West writ large — came to embody the sexual freedoms that had revolutionized the Chinese bedroom.
politics  feminism  story  china  american  sex  crime  21C 
october 2017 by aries1988
En direct : vos questions sur l’avenir de la Chine de Xi Jinping
Les observateurs de la politique chinoise se disent qu’il est l’homme d’une certaine rupture. Avec cette reconduction, va-t-il remodeler la direction du parti ou rester pour un troisième mandat, confortant son statut de dirigeant chinois le plus puissant depuis quarante ans ? François Bougon, chef de service adjoint au service International du Monde et auteur du livre Dans la tête de Xi Jinping, fait le point avec nous et répond à toutes vos questions en direct sur Facebook.
video  question  ama  china  chinese  politics  communism  explained  debate  2017 
october 2017 by aries1988
從明星學者到三朝帝師,晉級中共權力巔峰的王滬寧是誰?|端傳媒 Initium Media
1955年出生的上海學者王滬寧,40歲時進京,以幕僚身份從政,分別為江、胡、習打造綱領性的政治論述,是當代中共理論第一人。進京前出版的日記《政治的人生》,記錄了他的思考初衷及價值初始。
politics  china  2017 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Thoughts of Chairman Xi - BBC News
“Tell China’s story well,” he urges people with Chinese roots, wherever they are in the world. He insists that they should “identify with China’s interests” whether or not they are Chinese nationals.

Beijing’s embassies encourage the growing Chinese student bodies on campuses in the West to silence competing narratives.

Under Xi Jinping, dwelling on inconvenient facts of history or insulting revolutionary heroes and martyrs is now a punishable offence called “historical nihilism”.

He wants his citizens to identify with “the motherland, the Chinese nation or race, Chinese culture, and the Chinese socialist road”. He calls these the “four identifications” and has distilled them into two key slogans - the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the Chinese dream.

Richard Nixon had argued: “Taking the long view, we simply cannot afford to leave China forever outside the family of nations, there to nurture its fantasies, cherish its hates and threaten its neighbours.”

When the door to the West inched open a decade later, some princelings of Xi’s generation took the opportunity to leave.
portrait  mao  2017  china  politics  leader  photo  story 
october 2017 by aries1988
How Ta-Nehisi Coates Gives Whiteness Power - The New York Times
Though free speech is constitutionally protected in America, there is always more lurking in the country’s psyche than can be safely, or politely, expressed. The laws around speech are broad, but the norms are narrower, and the norms govern much of what is actually said. Those norms are changing right now, for better and for worse.
race  politics  debate  opinion  society  expression 
october 2017 by aries1988
« earlier      
per page:    204080120160

Copy this bookmark:





to read