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Opinion | We Aren’t Built to Live in the Moment - The New York Times

Our emotions are less reactions to the present than guides to future behavior. Therapists are exploring new ways to treat depression now that they see it as primarily not because of past traumas and present stresses but because of skewed visions of what lies ahead.

Similarly, studies of children’s development show that they’re not able to imagine future scenes until they’ve gained the ability to recall personal experiences, typically somewhere between the ages of 3 and 5.
psychology  future 
march 2019 by aries1988
Is Japanese Culture Traumatized By Centuries of Natural Disaster? - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus
The stress of social interaction has caused a flight from human intimacy. You cannot open your mouth to say a word without considering your relationship with the people around you—your place in the hierarchy. And if you say something wrong you risk grievously offending people.
society  psychology  disaster  japan 
may 2018 by aries1988
An American Secret — Hidden Brain

All countries have national myths. The story of the first Thanksgiving, for example, evokes the warm glow of intercultural contact: European settlers, struggling to survive in the New World, and Native American tribes eager to help. As many of us learned in history class, this story leaves a lot out. This week on Hidden Brain, we explore a national secret: that from the time Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World until 1900, there were as many as five million Native American people enslaved. We’ll learn about this history, and the psychological forces that kept it unexamined for so long.
usa  history  slavery  memory  psychology 
november 2017 by aries1988
Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond? - The Atlantic
De Beers proved to be the most successful cartel arrangement in the annals of modern commerce. While other commodities, such as gold, silver, copper, rubber, and grains, fluctuated wildly in response to economic conditions, diamonds have continued, with few exceptions, to advance upward in price every year since the Depression. Indeed, the cartel seemed so superbly in control of prices -- and unassailable -- that, in the late 1970s, even speculators began buying diamonds as a guard against the vagaries of inflation and recession.

To stabilize the market, De Beers had to endow these stones with a sentiment that would inhibit the public from ever reselling them. The illusion had to be created that diamonds were forever -- "forever" in the sense that they should never be resold.

Specifically, the Ayer study stressed the need to strengthen the association in the public's mind of diamonds with romance. Since "young men buy over 90% of all engagement rings" it would be crucial to inculcate in them the idea that diamonds were a gift of love: the larger and finer the diamond, the greater the expression of love. Similarly, young women had to be encouraged to view diamonds as an integral part of any romantic courtship.

"We spread the word of diamonds worn by stars of screen and stage, by wives and daughters of political leaders, by any woman who can make the grocer's wife and the mechanic's sweetheart say 'I wish I had what she has.'"

N. W. Ayer proposed to apply to the diamond market Thorstein Veblen's idea, stated in The Theory of the Leisure Class, that Americans were motivated in their purchases not by utility but by "conspicuous consumption."

The message was clear: diamonds represent a sharp break with the Oriental past and a sign of entry into modern life.

DeBeers devised the "eternity ring," made up of as many as twenty-five tiny Soviet diamonds, which could be sold to an entirely new market of older married women. The advertising campaign was based on the theme of recaptured love. Again, sentiments were born out of necessity: older American women received a ring of miniature diamonds because of the needs of a South African corporation to accommodate the Soviet Union.
business  advertising  jewelry  diamond  marriage  tv  marketing  usa  japan  mentality  psychology  story  success 
october 2017 by aries1988
BBC - Future - How flying seriously messes with your mind
There are some studies, however, that show even relatively mild levels of hypoxia (deficiency in oxygen) can alter our ability to think clearly.

Human night vision can deteriorate by 5-10% at altitudes of just 5,000ft (1.5km). This is because the photoreceptor cells in the retina needed to see in the dark are extremely oxygen-hungry and can struggle to get all they need at a high altitude, causing them to work less effectively.

as the change in air pressure can also lead to passengers breaking wind more often.
biology  travel  health  psychology  brain  plane  research  fun  body 
october 2017 by aries1988
Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?
More comfortable in their bedrooms than in a car or at a party, today’s teens are physically safer than teens have ever been. They’re markedly less likely to get into a car accident and, having less of a taste for alcohol than their predecessors, are less susceptible to drinking’s attendant ills.

Gen X managed to stretch adolescence beyond all previous limits: Its members started becoming adults earlier and finished becoming adults later. Beginning with Millennials and continuing with iGen, adolescence is contracting again—but only because its onset is being delayed. Across a range of behaviors—drinking, dating, spending time unsupervised— 18-year-olds now act more like 15-year-olds used to, and 15-year-olds more like 13-year-olds. Childhood now stretches well into high school.
essay  teenager  generation  crisis  device  iphone  parenting  children  health  technology  2010s  moi  sociology  psychology 
august 2017 by aries1988
Young Men Are Playing Video Games Instead of Getting Jobs. That's OK. (For Now.)

Games, with their endless task lists and character-leveling systems, their choice architectures and mission checklists, are purpose generators. They bring order to gamers' lives.

Video games, you might say, offer a sort of universal basic income for the soul.

There's a fine line between that psychology and good game design." This was true long before the rise of computer gaming. "People will never stop playing chess, because it's a great game. The discussions I hear are more about how can we keep these games interesting to keep playing."

One way to do that, it turns out, is to give people a sense of earned achievement. "What games are good at—what they are designed to do—is simulate being good at something," Wolpaw says.

Did all those hours playing games make me feel fulfilled? Did they make me feel as if I had made good decisions in my life? Yes—and no. At times, I found video games an entertainment experience as smart and satisfying as any novel or movie or television show I have ever absorbed. At other times, I have let go of my controller late at night, overcome by existential emptiness and the realization that I have, yet again, just spent the better part of a day engaged in an activity of no practical value to me or anyone else. I enjoy games, but not without some reservation. Sometimes I go weeks without playing. And if I had to choose between gaming and work, I know I'd pick the latter.
comparison  gaming  work  opinion  story  life  job  psychology  man  unemployment  society  economy  thinking  wellfare  question  individual 
july 2017 by aries1988
Want To Teach Your Kids Self-Control? Ask A Cameroonian Farmer
The "marshmallow test" is a famous experiment for studying kids' self-control. For the first time, a psychologist gave the test to kids outside Western culture. And they crushed it.
moi  children  comparison  psychology  germany  africa  cameroon 
july 2017 by aries1988
To be happier, focus on what’s within your control

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change,
Courage to change the things I can,
And wisdom to know the difference.

once you begin paying attention, the dichotomy of control has countless applications to everyday life, and all of them have to do with one crucial move: shifting your goals from external outcomes to internal achievements.

That’s why your goal should be internal: if you adopt the Stoic way, you would conscientiously put together the best résumé that you can, and then mentally prepare to accept whatever outcome with equanimity, knowing that sometimes the universe will favour you, and other times it will not. What do you gain by being anxious over something you don’t control? Or angry at a result that was not your doing? You are simply adding a self-inflicted injury to the situation, compromising your happiness and serenity.
life  choice  howto  happiness  philosophy  advice  psychology  religion  prayer  stoic 
june 2017 by aries1988
Pourquoi est-on plus à l’aise pour dire des grossièretés dans une langue étrangère ?

De nombreuses personnes plurilingues décrivent en effet l’impression de ressentir moins de choses dans leur seconde langue, qui ne porte pas le même « poids émotionnel » que la langue maternelle. En se sentant moins lié émotionnellement à la langue que l’on parle, on peut plus facilement jurer et/ou raconter des détails de sa vie intime. Le terme scientifique pour cela est « résonance émotionnelle réduite du langage », nous apprend Wilhelmiia Toivo.

La chercheuse cite le philosophe du langage Ludwig Wittgenstein, qui disait : « Les limites de mon langage signifient les limites de mon propre monde.

une époque où le bilinguisme ne se résume pas à parler les deux langues transmises par des parents bilingues. Le bilinguisme décrit aussi la pratique de deux langues au quotidien, peu importe son degré de maîtrise, en raison d’une migration, d’un séjour à l’étranger, ou d’un échange universitaire. « Alors que le nombre de personnes changeant de langue régulièrement continue d’augmenter, comprendre tous les aspects du langage et comment il influe sur nos vies est essentiel », conclut-elle.
language  psychology  brain  science 
march 2017 by aries1988
fuite en avant — Wiktionnaire

(Psychologie) Fait de ne pas faire face à ses problèmes, fait de fuir ses problèmes sans les résoudre, ou fait de poursuivre une action problématique en négligeant de considérer ses conséquences futures.
expression  français  psychology 
march 2017 by aries1988



fun  firecracker  explained  psychology 
february 2017 by aries1988
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Definition from Financial Times Lexicon

Definition of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
A theory (set of ideas) about motivation developed by Abraham Maslow, which has been used to explain the reasons why people decide to buy things or continue to work for an organization. Maslow identified five levels of human need: physiological-the need to eat, sleep etc;safety and security-the need to feel safe, have a job etc; belonging-the need to belong to a group, have friends and feel loved;self-esteem-the need to be successful in a particular job or activity and be respected by other people;self-actualization-the need to have new ideas and use your imagination to produce new things. The theory states that needs on one level must be satisfied before the next level can be reached, and only unsatisfied needs influence human behaviour. [1]

january 2017 by aries1988
BBC World Service - The Why Factor, Regret
Regret – why do we feel this negative emotion? Is it right to live with it, or should we simply get over our mistakes of the past?

Mike Williams speaks to a palliative care nurse who recorded the regrets of the dying, and the man with 50,000 regrets, all entrusted to him by anonymous strangers who have confessed the biggest regrets of their lives on his website.

(Photo: Statue of woman with head in hand. Credit: Cheryl E. Davis/Shutterstock)
emotion  explained  story  podcast  psychology 
january 2017 by aries1988
How to Be a Stoic

For Epictetus, the only thing we can totally control, and therefore the only thing we should ever worry about, is our own judgment about what is good.

fear and desire are unavoidable. Everyone feels those flashes of dread or anticipation. Being a Stoic means interrogating those flashes: asking whether they apply to things outside your control and, if they do, being ready with the reaction ‘Then it’s none of my concern.’

Starting with things of little value—a bit of spilled oil, a little stolen wine—repeat to yourself: ‘For such a small price, I buy tranquillity.’

it is not events that disturb people, it is their judgments concerning them.

Reading Epictetus, I realized that most of the pain in my life came not from any actual privations or insults but, rather, from the shame of thinking that they could have been avoided.
psychology  stoic  book  life 
december 2016 by aries1988
Crash: how computers are setting us up for disaster | Tim Harford

The psychologist James Reason, author of Human Error, wrote: “Manual control is a highly skilled activity, and skills need to be practised continuously in order to maintain them. Yet an automatic control system that fails only rarely denies operators the opportunity for practising these basic control skills … when manual takeover is necessary something has usually gone wrong; this means that operators need to be more rather than less skilled in order to cope with these atypical conditions.”

Bonin seemed nervous. The slightest hint of trouble produced an outburst of swearing: “Putain la vache. Putain!” – the French equivalent of “Fucking hell. Fuck!” More than once he expressed a desire to fly at “3-6” – 36,000 feet – and lamented the fact that Air France procedures recommended flying a little lower.

In any case, Bonin silently retook control of the plane and tried to climb again. It was an act of pure panic. Robert and Dubois had, perhaps, realised that the plane had stalled – but they never said so. They may not have realised that Bonin was the one in control of the plane. And Bonin never grasped what he had done. His last words were: “But what’s happening?”
airplane  airline  accident  psychology  computer  technology  human  error 
october 2016 by aries1988
What makes clowns, vampires and severed hands creepy? – David Livingstone Smith | Aeon Essays

Like McAndrews and Koehnke, Jentsch held that Unheimlichkeit was the upshot of a kind of uncertainty leading to cognitive paralysis; but he did not think that paralysis was prompted by uncertainty about threat. Instead, he made the case that when we regard a thing as creepy it’s because we are uncertain about what kind of thing it is.

Monsters are, by definition, malevolent creatures that violate the natural order of things. Monsters are not merely terrifying. They are horrifying – because they are also creepy.

anthropologist Mary Douglas – in particular, her celebrated book Purity and Danger (1966) – is relevant here. Douglas points out that every culture possesses some conception of the natural order of things – a system of categories to make sense of the world. Any such system of meaning is inevitably confronted with anomalies that don’t fit into the scheme. When anomalies appear to transgress the natural order, they are branded as abominations.

pigs, which have cloven hoofs but do not chew their cud, do violence to the taxonomy. Like other interstitial beings, pigs are felt to be impure or unclean in a sense that goes well beyond merely physical dirtiness. They are, so to speak, metaphysically polluted.

human beings are inclined to think of every member of an animal species as sharing a deep feature or ‘essence’ that only members of that species possess; possessing the essence is what makes it the case that an animal is a member of its species.

It’s part of the notion of essences that if a thing possesses an essence, it possesses it completely.

It’s because we essentialise them that categorically ambiguous animals pull our minds in two directions at once, rather than causing us to take a middle path, and this cognitive paralysis is what generates the sensation of creepiness.
animal  human  research  psychology  instapaper_favs 
september 2016 by aries1988
Revenge of the nerds | The Economist
Strava, a mobile app, allows cyclists and joggers to compete with each other even if they live thousands of miles apart.
technology  leader  teenager  life  lifestyle  psychology  health 
august 2016 by aries1988
No hard feelings | The Economist
Men also engaged in more touching after the handshake or post-boxing embrace. In tennis 42.5% of the matches between men concluded with the winner touching the loser’s arm or body in addition to the handshake, while only 12.5% of women’s matches ended this way. Ping pong showed similar results, with 33% of the male matches involving additional physical contact between the competitors while female matches showed none. (The high net in badminton and the many individuals interacting with fighters after boxing bouts made it impossible to monitor post-handshake contact in those sports.)
female  comparison  body  language  sports  psychology 
august 2016 by aries1988
Why rudeness at work is contagious and difficult to stop | Aeon Ideas
For example, if someone said: ‘Hey, nice shoes!’ you might normally interpret that as a compliment. If you’ve recently experienced rudeness, you’re more likely to think that person is insulting you. That is, you ‘see’ more rudeness around you, or at least you think you do. And because you think others are being rude, you become more likely to behave rudely yourself.
work  psychology 
july 2016 by aries1988
The Reckoning
She played dead as the sound of gunshots reverberated around her, echoing off the red tile roofs and limestone walls. Dozens of students had run home to retrieve their deer rifles, and the echo of return fire rang out as they came back to take aim at the gunman.
killing  university  life  change  story  love  history  victim  trauma  usa  religion  guns  crime  reportage  psychology  texas  instapaper_favs 
april 2016 by aries1988
How your unknown prejudices can dictate your actions in a crisis
The medial frontal cortex is also involved when we take another person’s perspective in order to understand their thoughts and motives. However, research reveals a reduction in this region’s pattern of activity when we think about people from lower status groups. Given that African Americans are viewed this way, this suggests they are seen more as objects than as people. These factors – stereotyping and dehumanisation – conspire to produce the impression that someone is dangerous and that their life is not particularly worthy.

You might think none of this applies to you, but you would be wrong. Virtually everyone has unconscious racial biases, in part because the mind has a natural tendency to categorise people and also because our culture exposes us to common caricatures about race.

Our research shows that even avowed egalitarians show bias in their behaviour when they have to make a snap judgement. These biases are also not limited to race but exist for almost any attribute, be it gender, nationality, sexual orientation or hair colour, and they constantly shape our judgements. Bias comes from our culture, it seeps into our brains, and unless we control it, it is expressed in our actions.
brain  perception  race  psychology  reflex  research  instapaper_favs 
january 2016 by aries1988
A user’s manual
Hardcore, abundant and free: what is online pornography doing to sexual tastes—and youngsters’ minds?
pornography  psychology  study 
november 2015 by aries1988
It Takes Just One Question to Identify Narcissism

“People who are narcissists are almost proud of the fact. You can ask them directly because they don’t see narcissism as a negative quality — they believe they are superior to other people and are fine with saying that publicly.”
psychology  question 
august 2015 by aries1988
The 'Out The Door' rant
In his superb book Writing for social scientists (which should be renamed Writing for everyone), Howard Becker talks about the importance of being the kind of writer who can get stuff Out The Door. He suggests writers need to think more like companies who make gadgets like phones and computers. Electronic consumer goods companies have similar problems to writers, but they have shipping schedules they must stick to if they want to stay in business.

The engineers will want to delay shipping until the product matchs the vision in their heads, but the marketing people will be happy with ‘good enough’. Even if the new gadget is rough around the edges, the marketing people will still make the engineers get it Out The Door. According to Becker the logic of the marketing people is simple: if it sells, there will be money for to build the next version. The next version will be be better, but, meanwhile, this one will do (some companies are great at doing this and still turning a massive profit).

The problem with intellectual labour is, although it can be hard, the effects of the struggle are not visible. My very favourite scene in the sitcom Big Bang Theory is where two of the characters, Sheldon and Raj, are collaborating on a physics problem. The scene consists of jump cuts of the two scientists, staring at equations on a whiteboard, while the theme to the movie ‘Rocky’ plays. The scene perfectly captures the inner experience of intellectual struggle vs the outer appearance of … well, pretty much nothing.

So remember: your inner engineering department does not always have your best interests at heart. You may not like your inner marketing department, but when they do their job properly you won’t go broke. Repeat after me: Perfect is the enemy of Done. Speaking of which – I’m off to finish editing that chapter now. The marketing people are nagging at me to ship it already.
book  writing  academia  thesis  howto  psychology  instapaper_favs 
july 2015 by aries1988
Inside a Pilot’s Mind
Cockpit conduct is well regulated, but ruling out human flaws is harder.
plane  aviation  psychology 
march 2015 by aries1988
The Problem With Positive Thinking
Positive thinking fools our minds into perceiving that we’ve already attained our goal, slackening our readiness to pursue it. What does work better is a hybrid approach that combines positive thinking with “realism.” Here’s how it works. Think of a wish. For a few minutes, imagine the wish coming true, letting your mind wander and drift where it will. Then shift gears. Spend a few more minutes imagining the obstacles that stand in the way of realizing your wish. This simple process, which my colleagues and I call “mental contrasting,” has produced powerful results in laboratory experiments. When participants have performed mental contrasting with reasonable, potentially attainable wishes, they have come away more energized and achieved better results compared with participants who either positively fantasized or dwelt on the obstacles. Mental contrasting spurs us on when it makes sense to pursue a wish, and lets us abandon wishes more readily when it doesn’t, so that we can go after other, more reasonable ambitions.
howto  psychology  success  self  thinking 
october 2014 by aries1988
The Physical Exam as Refuge -

Countless times, I have found that it is only during the physical exam that patients reveal what is truly on their mind. Whether it is the cough that they are reminded of now that I am listening to their lungs, or whether it is the domestic violence, the eating disorder or the genital symptoms that they feel comfortable revealing once we are in a more intimate setting — there is something about touch that changes the dynamic.

But then the doctor and patient move to the exam table, and everything changes. This is often the first moment that they can talk directly, without the impediment of technology. They are physically closer to each other, actually touching. This is an intimacy, albeit of the nonromantic type, but an intimacy nonetheless. And all intimacies have an effect of changing the dynamics of the interaction. Obviously, there is a risk of changing for the worse, but in my experience it is almost always a change for the better. Once a doctor and patient are at the exam table, touching, talking without the computer between them, conversation of a different sort is possible.
doctor  people  temoignage  body  medicine  opinion  psychology  human  communication  practice 
october 2014 by aries1988
Time and punishment
When the respondents’ education was included in the analysis, they found that higher educational attainment was linked to a preference for delayed gratification. “We therefore suspect that schooling can deter people from crime by making them value the future more,” explains Mr Gronqvist. Francisco Perez-Arce of the RAND Corporation, a think-tank, interviewed around 2,000 applicants for Mexican universities. The students had similar credentials but some obtained admission through a lottery to a university that did not charge tuition fees, whereas the rest had to apply elsewhere. As a result, a higher proportion of lottery-winners than losers went to college. After a year, Mr Perez-Arce found, the lottery-winners were more patient than the losers. Since the process was random, he concluded that higher education can make people place more weight on the future.
GTD  education  psychology  success  experiment  children 
august 2014 by aries1988
Business: Your Brain on Poverty: Why Poor People Seem to Make Bad Decisions
As Andrew Golis points out, this might suggest something even deeper than the idea that poverty's stress interferes with our ability to make good decisions. The inescapability of poverty weighs so heavily on the author that s/he abandons long-term planning entirely, because the short term needs are so great and the long-term gains so implausible. The train is just not coming. What if the psychology of poverty, which can appear so irrational to those not in poverty, is actually "the most rational response to a world of chaos and unpredictable outcomes," he wrote.
poverty  money  behavior  psychology  theory 
november 2013 by aries1988
“Dexter” and British Psychologist Ask: Who Wants to Be a Psychopath?
Psychopaths tend to be fearless, ruthless, capable of extraordinary focus, and they are cool and decisive in high-pressure situations that make others quail. Psychopaths excel at reading other peoples’ facial expression, which comes in handy if they want to manipulate someone. The big difference, Dutton said, is that monks are motivated by compassion for others, whereas psychopaths seek only their own pleasure. But maybe this difference is not so great (and this is my point, not Dutton’s). After all, many modern gurus–notably Chogyam Trungpa, who helped bring Tibetan Buddhism to the west decades ago—act like narcissistic monsters. That’s one reason why I’m so down on Buddhism.
interview  success  book  TV  explained  psychology  behavior  mind 
october 2012 by aries1988
Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying by Sönke Neitzel and Harald Welzer – review | Books | The Observer
Discovered in 2001 by the historian Sönke Neitzel, the transcripts of conversations between German prisoners of war, secretly recorded by the British and American intelligence services, offer a vivid and at times surprising insight into the mentality of the German military.

the decisive factor in making atrocities possible was "a general realignment from a civilian to a wartime frame of reference". For many of the recruits, war was simply the continuation of work by other means.
googlereader  war  ww2  enemy  human  behavior  killing  psychology  soldier  history 
october 2012 by aries1988
著名的马斯洛需求层次理论(Maslow's hierarchy of needs)中,将人的本质需求分为5个层次,分别为生理需求、安全需求、社交需求、尊重需求、自我实现需求。无房状态对于工薪阶层各层级的需求都存在负面影响。
china  family  future  googlereader  price  youth  psychology 
september 2012 by aries1988
Skepticblog » The Colorado Massacre, Gun Control, and the Law of Large Numbers
A large-numbers analysis allows us to understand on a societal-level scale why such events happen randomly and without any specific cause common to all (drugs, gangs, bullying, depression, psychopathy, psychosis, violent video games, and the like). History and population demographics for rates of mass murder show that Aurora-size events are going to happen again and again and again, and there is no way to predict who is going to do it, where, or when.

When the Second Amendment was written stating that citizens have a right to “keep and bear arms,” rifles took over a minute to load one bullet at a time. The most crazed 18th century American could not possibly commit mass murder because no WMMs existed at the time.
googlereader  guns  violence  usa  maths  numbers  psychology  opinion  debate 
august 2012 by aries1988
What You Don't Know Can Kill You | Top Stories | DISCOVER Magazine
Humans have a perplexing 
tendency to fear rare threats such as shark attacks while blithely 
ignoring far greater risks like 
unsafe sex and an unhealthy diet. Those illusions are not just 
silly—they make the world a more dangerous place.
risk  human  psychology  instapaper_favs 
august 2012 by aries1988
human  psychology  love 
august 2012 by aries1988
self  psychology 
june 2011 by aries1988

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