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aries1988 : question   45

futurists and historians
What best distinguishes our species is an ability that scientists are just beginning to appreciate: We contemplate the future. Our singular foresight created…
history  future  mind  animal  human  question  opinion  futurism  historian 
27 days ago by aries1988
文明大国的条件
撰文:吴介民 本文选自《东方历史评论》第1期,回复“购买”了解如何购买…
taiwan  essay  china  beijing  society  quartier  inequality  civ  question 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
葛兆光:十八世纪中国的盛世危机

徐中约《中国近代史》曾经把大清帝国“国运逆转,由盛到衰”,归咎于“行政无能”、“腐败普遍”和“财政窘迫”,这当然有一定道理。但我想和大家讨论的是另外三点:第一,帝国庞大疆域和复杂族群,造成控制成本过大;第二,思想文化与意识形态无法面向世界,越来越凝固和僵化;第三,归根结底,是皇权或国家权力过于集中,封杀了变革的可能性。

在二十世纪上半叶之后,“训政”与“党国”成为主流的时代,更是变本加厉。那么,在皇权笼罩一切的专制政治制度底下,说得好,唯有“得君行道”的路径和“作帝王师”的理想,说不好就只能“著书都为稻粱谋”。知识分子怎么能轻易挣脱专制皇权、政治制度对文化思想的钳制?而在专制皇权、政治制度的控制之下,自由思想空间越来越窄仄,我们又怎么能相信凭着这种传统,中国能给世界带来惠及全球的价值,发展出保证现代科学、技术和经济自由发展的制度?

当四库全书的编纂,鼓励了学者们把精力和智慧都用在古典的注释和发挥上的时候,可是,欧洲的实用知识却在发展和整合。

在中国,皇帝就是政治权力、神圣象征和文化真理三合一的,以前史华兹(Benjamin Schwartz)就说中国是“普遍王权”(Universal Kingship),皇权或者国家的权力太大,始终是“普天之下莫非王土”。

在我们有关历史的印象中,华盛顿好像比乾隆皇帝晚得多,好像华盛顿是现代的事情,乾隆皇帝好遥好远,其实,他们是同时代人,他们两人同样在1799年,也就是漫长的十八世纪最后一年去世,不是华盛顿近乾隆远,只是从制度上看,确实一个太古代,一个很现代。
qing  talk  opinion  comparison  west  question  king  politics  government  19C  china  book 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
Dinos neither warm nor cold blooded
"It's basically a spectrum," observed Dr Barrett. "I don't think it's bad to have a new word that describes animals that are in the middle of that spectrum."
dinosaur  research  question 
11 weeks ago by aries1988
战争重塑中国(南北战争三百年)书评

这仍然未能回答东西方为何选择不同的道路,在我看来,这个问题的答案必须回到不同政治文化传统中去寻找:如果说在欧洲,在罗马帝国的废墟上能有效应对战争挑战的是封建军事传统,那么在中国北方,战争所激活的却是一个强国家传统,最终再次证明只有政治力量能有效整合各种资源转化为战斗力。
west  war  state  history  origin  comparison  question  book  review 
january 2019 by aries1988
好文!旅法30多年翻译详述法国目前社会动乱“黄马甲运动”及法国的现状!

欧盟为各国制定的未来发展方向是: 法国和意大利是专门旅游国, 西班牙和葡萄牙种菜和水果, 德国荷兰丹麦养猪牛, 波兰种粮食; 东欧各小国按人口总额交纳的欧共体分摊金少, 但领取的补助因货币比值差距大而实际受益最多。

俄和前南诸国向西欧贩卖军火, 大量投资滨海房产, 黑社会势力强大, 东欧的蛇头、娼妓、少年惯偷群, 波兰的长途运输业+电工和建筑工, 北非转来的毒品, 大量新老移民轻易获得法国(和西欧其他各国) 经过历史长期斗争而获得的社会福利, 诸多头疼问题导致各国极右翼迅速发展。

美中俄的威胁

法国的税项门类和总额, 被"世界经济发展与合作组织"排名为欧洲最高额国家之一(丹麦第一, 德国第二, 法国第三)。 在至少十多种赋税和社会分摊金以及行业分摊金中, 增值税 1° 收益最大, 其次是社会保险税 2°, 然后依次为: 收入所得税 3°, 公司所得税 4°, 土地税 5°, 居住税 6°, 烟草税 7°, 社会奉献普及税 8° (法文缩写CSG), 以及颇有争议的 巨富团结税 9° (法文缩写 ISF)。

该税始创于1791年大革命时期, 1953年以法律形式正式确定。 几十年来, 法国所有城镇的基建和福利费用所需: 道路修缮, 垃圾清理, 街心花园, 体育中心, 图书馆, 幼儿园, 中小学交通和食堂等, 全指靠国家对此税收的反还款。

跟世界各地的都市布局和建筑艺术相比, 看来看去, 总觉得法国别具一格: 建筑群内临近楼房的风格一致,建筑物本身的外貌与内部功能一致, 内部装饰物的质地和颜色格调一致, 当时利用与未来的长远发展一致, 一句话, 各个市镇的规划设计, 体现出法国人对美的欣赏水平, 整体上高于其他国家。这正如法国人的穿衣习惯,当今世界生活普遍以务实为主, 不管出身是何层次, 穿着是否品牌, 法国人都注意上衣下裤鞋袜的式样搭配和颜色协调。 跟生活水平差距并不大的南欧北欧和德国相比, 法国人的这一点比较突出, 从旅游团的穿戴就能断定是否来自法国。

** 美国飞机向法国空投了3000台钢琴, 几万份爵士乐谱, 意在传播美国生活方式。

左翼上台后根据他们对"社会主义"理念的理解, 实施人人平等, 全民自由, 对犯罪分子从轻判决, 相信他们能自身改造思想, 实际是放纵坏人罪人。 他们主张"不要隔绝罪犯, 使他们远离生活现实, 不利出狱后再融入社会"。 这种对一小撮人的自由, 势必造成社会紊乱, 人身安全无保障, 更谈不上全民自由! 法国的传统左派应当对此负主要责任。

1986年6月我来到法国, 那时社会比现在稳定, 在"巴黎高等翻译学校"上课, 有时晚上11点乘公交车返回郊区住处, 毫无安全问题; 物价呢, 过去50法朗(折合现在7欧元)能买很多东西, 可现在100欧元(折合过去700法朗) 却买不到啥。 由此可见法国的物价涨幅, 人民的普遍购买力和生活水平下降多大, 我深有体会, 所以同情支持。

有位法国老知识分子曾对我说, 美国人称呼新闻媒介为"第四权力" (西方是"三权"鼎立), 此次法国的"黄马甲"运动, 我深有感触。
The derivation of the term fourth estate arises from the traditional European concept of the three estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The equivalent term fourth power is somewhat uncommon in English but is used in many European languages (see: es:Cuarto poder and fr:Quatrième pouvoir, for example) referring to the separation of powers in government into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.
analysis  france  anecdote  stereotype  media  2018  question  future  crisis  populism  history  français 
december 2018 by aries1988
The Modern Origins of the Early Middle Ages | Reviews in History
what part did the rise of Christianity and the Catholic Church play in the ending of Roman rule? Was the influence of Christianity baleful or liberating?
roman  empire  history  historian  christianity  europe  question  modernity 
september 2018 by aries1988
Is the Algorithmification of the Human Experience a Good Thing?
Skeptics will point out that those algorithms are designed by corporations to serve their interests, not yours. Social media companies, for instance, want to keep you on their services as long as possible, which makes them prone to pushing emotionally charged content that might not be super healthy for you or for society. And even a benevolent algorithm can produce negative or unwanted results.

The video wasn’t directly crafted by a machine. But it wasn’t totally a human creation, either. Rather, it was optimized to appeal to YouTube’s content algorithm, which automatically plays related videos one after the other. “Johny Johny Yes Papa” copies enough elements of popular kid’s videos — a certain length, musical beat, color palette and visual style, along with key words and lyrics — that YouTube’s algorithm will line it up after more popular songs.

At least on a symbolic level, there is something unsettling about a global, faceless content empire that hoovers up human culture and processes it into homogenized nothingness to be fed to kids via tireless social media algorithms that seek, above all else, to maximize time spent on site.
society  engineering  crisis  question  future  children  video  ai  algorithm 
september 2018 by aries1988
赵鼎新:加州学派与工业资本主义的兴起
笔者强调的是经济行动者的特性,以及与军事和经济竞争相关联的机制的重要性;笔者同时强调以私利为导向的工具理性成为可被正面价值观是工业资本主义兴起中的一个关键。

反事实思维在历史分析中按说是破坏目的论思想的利器,但实际上,它更多地被用来制造另一种奇思幻想的目的论,在其中,某一因素被无限地从历史情境中抽离、拔高,成为历史进程的主要推动力。

儒家学者则更多地将儒家思想视为道德体系而非超验真理。当李贽表达他的非正统的观点时,它引起的是李贽和与他交好的耿定理的哥哥耿定向之间带有私人性质的争论。主流儒生更感兴趣的是掌握理学经义以通过科举考试,而不是这种辩论。明朝中央政府甚至没有插手其间。

中国的城市仍有不同于欧洲城市的几个关键方面。最明显的是,中国的城市从来没有拥有过自治的政治和法律地位,并且它们也没有像中世纪一些获得特许状的城镇或自由城镇那样拥有属于自己的军队。因此,研究中国城市的学者都承认政治和行政命令对中国城市的命运有着决定性的影响。

面对国家的政治主宰和理学思想的统治地位,明清商人非常热衷于让他们的孩子接受儒家教育,取得科举功名并致仕。他们与地方官员建立密切的关系,并且与仕宦家族联姻。他们为政府征收税款,并且介入乡镇治理活动。他参与地方慈善活动,仿效士人的生活方式,旨在获取尊重与信任,并使得商业活动能更顺利开展。然而,这些经济行动者无法构建诸如自由主义或“看不见的手”这样的非正统的价值观来为他们的经营性行为正名,而且他们必须严格隶从官府。这些都显示了中国经济行动者的弱势,更进一步表明在西方到来之前工业资本主义很难在中国自发地崛起。

由于商业发展和繁荣,中国的富庶地区有着较高的生活水准,然而,明清时候的中国,技术创新并没有鼓励性的回报,理论/形式理性极不发达;最重要的是,新儒家意识形态没有面临重大的挑战,而商人无法利用他们的财富来获取政治、军事和意识形态方面的权力从而抗衡国家的权力。与欧洲情况不同的是,晚期中华帝国维持灿烂的商业的原因不是新儒家世界的衰弱和资产阶级力量的崛起,而是帝国庞大的领土和人口所带来的巨大市场和王朝中期特有的长期政治稳定。当欧洲人在19 世纪持着现代武器抵达中国时,中国并没有走向工业革命而是走向王朝的衰落。中国并非自发地迈入现代化,而是被西方和日本帝国主义拖入到工业化和现代化的历史进程当中。
debate  china  qing  ming  capitalism  modernity  society  state  question  europe  confucianism  to:pdf 
july 2018 by aries1988
Why did we start farming?
What if the origin of farming wasn’t a moment of liberation but of entrapment? Scott offers an alternative to the conventional narrative that is altogether more fascinating, not least in the way it omits any self-congratulation about human achievement.

The perfectly formed city-state is the ideal, deeply ingrained in the Western psyche, on which our notion of the nation-state is founded, ultimately inspiring Donald Trump’s notion of a ‘city’ wall to keep out the barbarian Mexican horde, and Brexiters’ desire to ‘take back control’ from insurgent European bureaucrats.
CPR 都市帝国 宫崎市定

His account of the deep past doesn’t purport to be definitive, but it is surely more accurate than the one we’re used to, and it implicitly exposes the flaws in contemporary political ideas that ultimately rest on a narrative of human progress and on the ideal of the city/nation-state.

domesticated goats had begun to eat up the local vegetation – the first step to today’s barren landscape.

although farming would have significantly increased mortality rates in both infants and adults, sedentism would have increased fertility. Mobile hunter-gatherers were effectively limited by the demands of travel to having one child every four years. An increase in fertility that just about outpaced the increase in mortality would account for the slow, steady increase in population in the villages.

Collapse could mean nothing more than the abandonment of the centre and the redistribution of the population into independent settlements, to be followed by the next cycle of annexation.

According to Scott, the period of early states was the Golden Age for the barbarians.
book  agriculture  human  debate  evolution  question  civ  idea  invention  destiny  whatif  history  origin  state  read  instapaper_favs 
february 2018 by aries1988
Medicine’s Burning Question
“Inflammation is the final common pathway for pretty much all chronic diseases,” he told me. His recommended solution is an “anti-inflammatory diet”—omitting sugar, caffeine, beans, dairy, gluten, and processed foods, as well as taking a variety of supplements, including probiotics, fish oil, Vitamins C and D, and curcumin, a key molecule in turmeric.
question  medicine  research  theory  body  cancer 
december 2017 by aries1988
曾磊:元朝是中国吗—对“元朝非中国”论的批判_爱思想

在21世纪的中国,有一部分网络写手操纵舆论,鼓吹元朝非中国论,他们找出很多似是而非的理由,对我国现存历史观进行挑战,影响了一部分人,应该看到,这种历史虚无主义观点不仅是错误的,而且其背后操纵者妄议我党、我国,这种错误的观点,必须予以坚决的辩证。笔者认为,必须重新认识大蒙古帝国、元朝和现代蒙古国之间的关系,才能彻底认清元朝历史问题,对中国历史的多民族性进行统一认识。

众所周知,外蒙古原本是我国领土,但是在1924年蒙古人民革命党的带领下建立了相对独立的政权。在1946年腐朽的国民党政府统治时期,以公民公投的形式获得了正式独立。任何一个爱国者都应该人知道这一历史事实,并且认识到弱国无外交的道理,我们不能让历史重演,不能再让任何一块中国领土从我们手里分裂出去,否则就是中华民族的罪人。

2006年,我国邻邦蒙古国举办了大蒙古国建国八百周年的活动,应蒙古国总统恩赫巴亚尔邀请,全国政协副主席徐匡迪将作为胡锦涛主席的特使,于10日至13日访问蒙古国,并出席了大蒙古国800周年纪念活动。
china  mongolia  history  today  diplomacy  debate  ethnic  nation  chinese  question 
november 2017 by aries1988
Comment Martin Luther a inventé le buzz, 500 ans avant Internet

Il y a 500 ans, Martin Luther publiait ses 95 thèses pour dénoncer le trafic de l'Eglise catholique qui vendait littéralement des places au paradis. Mais le père de la réforme protestante ne s'attendait pas à un si grand succès médiatique. Un entretien avec son biographe en démonte les ressorts.

Beaucoup de laïcs, de gens moyennement cultivés mais qui pouvaient au moins écrire en allemand, se sont faits les diffuseurs des idées de Luther, parce qu’il leur avait apporté un message qui les réconfortait.

C’est aussi quelqu’un qui a su donner une réponse pastorale, apaisante, réconfortante, cohérente, au tourment de ses contemporains qui se demandaient vraiment : "Est-ce que je peux réussir ma mort ? Comment est-ce que ça va se passer pour moi dans l’au-delà ?"

Ce que Luther a compris, c’est qu’il y avait un certain nombre de questions que l’on pouvait traiter dans de petits écrits destinés à un large public et rédigés en allemand. Et cela, ses adversaires ne l’ont pas compris d’emblée.

un bon nombre de clercs et de laïcs se sont mis à leur tour à écrire, à publier ce qu’on appelle des feuilles volantes, des Flugschriften, de petits écrits imprimés, dans lesquels ils exprimaient la manière dont eux avaient compris les idées de Luther. Donc ils se sont faits en quelque sorte des démultiplicateurs des écrits de Luther, et ça, c’est tout à fait nouveau à cette époque.
deutsch  media  communication  mass  religion  zeitgeist  middle-age  leader  movement  europe  history  explained  mentality  question  death  life  bio  book  français 
november 2017 by aries1988
En direct : vos questions sur l’avenir de la Chine de Xi Jinping
Les observateurs de la politique chinoise se disent qu’il est l’homme d’une certaine rupture. Avec cette reconduction, va-t-il remodeler la direction du parti ou rester pour un troisième mandat, confortant son statut de dirigeant chinois le plus puissant depuis quarante ans ? François Bougon, chef de service adjoint au service International du Monde et auteur du livre Dans la tête de Xi Jinping, fait le point avec nous et répond à toutes vos questions en direct sur Facebook.
video  question  ama  china  chinese  politics  communism  explained  debate  2017 
october 2017 by aries1988
Analysis | We have a pretty good idea of when humans will go extinct

That radical notion — that we are not, in fact, at the center of the universe — gives rise to what modern scientists call the Copernican Principle: We are not privileged observers of the world around us. We don't occupy a unique place in the universe. We are profoundly ordinary. We are not special.

Assuming that you and I are not so special as to be born at either the dawn of a very long-lasting human civilization or the twilight years of a short-lived one, we can apply Gott's 95 percent confidence formula to arrive at an estimate of when the human race will go extinct: between 5,100 and 7.8 million years from now.
probability  fun  example  human  disaster  berlin  future  prediction  earth  question 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Thursday, October 5, 2017
And conversely, how much attention should we pay to the fact that today’s nascent democracies are held to a much higher moral standard than more established ones were in their earliest days? The early United States, for instance, relied on slave labor and waged brutal ethnic cleansing campaigns against Native Americans. European nations used slavery, torture and political oppression to maintain control over their colonies.

We now recognize, rightly, that those atrocities were abhorrent and shameful. But it is easier to do that from today’s comfortable vantage point of wealth and stability. We rarely reckon with how much of what we have today was derived from the oppression of others. So should we take a cold, hard look at the difficulties of establishing democracy, freedom and equality all at the same time?
question  debate  democracy  nation  state  2017  history  future  government 
october 2017 by aries1988
If your pay is not yours to keep, then neither is the tax – Philip Goff | Aeon Essays

Here’s where we’re up to: to make sense of the idea that taxation is (moral) theft, we have to make sense of the idea that each person has a moral claim on the entirety of her gross income, and this can be made sense of only if property rights are natural rather than mere human constructions. We need, therefore, to defend a theory of natural property rights.

In theory, Right-wing libertarianism does entail that people have a moral claim on their pre-tax income, and hence that taxation is theft, but only in hypothetical societies where there is zero or minimal state interference in the economy. In states in which the government intervenes in the economy through taxation – ie, in almost every developed state – market transactions are tainted and so are morally void. The Right-wing libertarian is perfectly entitled to campaign for the day when her minimal-government Utopia is brought about, but until that day she cannot consistently argue that she has a right to her pre-tax income, and hence cannot consistently complain that the government is taking what is hers by right.

Still, the vast majority happily vote for low taxes, rejoicing that they get to keep their morsel while in reality all they’ve done is protect the spoils of a tiny minority at the top. The result is our failure to create what we really need: a tax system that – as part of the wider economy – creates a just society.
tax  ethic  question  debate  economy  money  work  liberal  politics  philosophy 
september 2017 by aries1988
What Makes Countries Rich or Poor?

Acemoglu and Robinson, generalize from these examples of bordering countries and deduce that good institutions also explain the differences in wealth between nations that aren’t neighbors and that differ greatly in their geographic environments and human populations.

why have some countries ended up with good institutions, while others haven’t? The most important factor behind their emergence is the historical duration of centralized government.

The various durations of government around the world are linked to the various durations and productivities of farming that was the prerequisite for the rise of governments.

the reversal of fortune,

in formerly poor countries with sparse native populations, such as Costa Rica and Australia, European settlers had to work themselves and developed institutional incentives rewarding work.

In the New World the two north temperate countries (the US and Canada, average incomes respectively $47,390 and $43,270) and the three south temperate countries (Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina, respectively $10,590, $10,120, and $8,620) are all richer—on the average five times richer—than almost all of the intervening seventeen tropical countries of mainland Central and South America (incomes mostly between $1,110 and $6,970).

biological characteristics of the responsible microbes have made it easier to develop vaccines against major infectious diseases of temperate areas than against tropical diseases; we still aren’t close to a vaccine against malaria, despite billions of dollars invested.

glaciers repeatedly advanced and retreated over temperate areas, creating young nutrient-rich soils.

It costs roughly seven times more to ship a ton of cargo by land than by sea

Young fertile volcanic and alluvial soils are exceptions

inclusive institutions are required for sustained growth based on technological change.

Acemoglu and Robinson’s view of history is that small effects at critical junctures have long-lasting effects, so it’s hard to make predictions. While they don’t say so explicitly, this view suggests that good institutions should have cropped up randomly around the world, depending on who happened to decide what at some particular place and time.

In their Chapter 5, Acemoglu and Robinson use one of those exceptional patterns (that for the Fertile Crescent) to assert, in the complete absence of evidence, that those particular hunter/gatherers had become sedentary because, for unknown reasons, they happened to develop innovative institutions through a hypothesized political revolution.

They take these maps to mean that the ancestors of barley and wheat were distributed along a long arc beyond the Fertile Crescent, hence that the Fertile Crescent’s unique role in agriculture’s origins was not determined by the availability of plant and animal species.

My overall assessment of the authors’ argument is that inclusive institutions, while not the overwhelming determinant of prosperity that they claim, are an important factor.
review  critic  book  debate  economy  inequality  question  instituition  environment 
september 2017 by aries1988
Millennials, This Is Why You Haven't Been Promoted

The solution is to outline exactly what you’re going to do. This requires preparation. Even if it’s a small task, think of it as a presentation. Schedule one meeting with your managers, present how you’re going to tackle this specific project/assignment, and get their approval on every bullet. Follow up explicitly confirming that you’ll do xyz. Then here’s the key part: don’t check in again until it’s done the way you agreed.

Surround yourself with and learn from inspiring people.
career  advice  millennials  moi  question 
september 2017 by aries1988
Against Murderism
As usual, the answer is that “racism” is a confusing word that serves as a mishmash of unlike concepts. Here are some of the definitions people use for racism: 1. Definition By Motives: An irrational feeling of hatred toward some race that causes someone to want to hurt or discriminate against them. 2. Definition By Belief: A belief that some race has negative qualities or is inferior, especially if this is innate/genetic. 3. Definition By Consequences: Anything whose consequence is harm to minorities or promotion of white supremacy, regardless of whether or not this is intentional.

Murder is an effect of other goals – sometimes base, sometimes noble – and the invocation of “murderism” only serves to hide these goals and conflate different actions into a single meaningless category.
politics  racism  debate  essay  idea  comparison  moi  question  toread 
august 2017 by aries1988
Young Men Are Playing Video Games Instead of Getting Jobs. That's OK. (For Now.)

Games, with their endless task lists and character-leveling systems, their choice architectures and mission checklists, are purpose generators. They bring order to gamers' lives.

Video games, you might say, offer a sort of universal basic income for the soul.

There's a fine line between that psychology and good game design." This was true long before the rise of computer gaming. "People will never stop playing chess, because it's a great game. The discussions I hear are more about how can we keep these games interesting to keep playing."

One way to do that, it turns out, is to give people a sense of earned achievement. "What games are good at—what they are designed to do—is simulate being good at something," Wolpaw says.

Did all those hours playing games make me feel fulfilled? Did they make me feel as if I had made good decisions in my life? Yes—and no. At times, I found video games an entertainment experience as smart and satisfying as any novel or movie or television show I have ever absorbed. At other times, I have let go of my controller late at night, overcome by existential emptiness and the realization that I have, yet again, just spent the better part of a day engaged in an activity of no practical value to me or anyone else. I enjoy games, but not without some reservation. Sometimes I go weeks without playing. And if I had to choose between gaming and work, I know I'd pick the latter.
comparison  gaming  work  opinion  story  life  job  psychology  man  unemployment  society  economy  thinking  wellfare  question  individual 
july 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:為甚麼不嫌中菜吃得慢(中國人吃的閒情之二)

所以我覺得問題並不在於你真正花在一餐飯上的物理時間有多長,而在於你感受到的心理時間。就好比同樣兩公里的路程,如果是老胡同老巷弄,又或者歐洲古城的卵石小道,一路曲折,風光步步生變,你是不會覺得自己走了那麼多路的。若是換在洛杉磯那種通衢大道,抬望眼,兩側平房,除了棕櫚樹還是棕櫚樹,走路可就真是地獄裏的折磨了。

總而言之,這是種自由的狀態,吃東西的速度與節奏操之在我,決定於那天耍戲的需要,而非餐廳上菜的次序。

這是種非常中國的自由與閒情,是你在吃飯,而非飯在吃你,不會有種被食物壓倒的感受。猶如古人出外賞花,花固然可觀,卻也不必專注呆視,幾個人自己閒聊喝茶甚至唱闋小曲方是主要內容,以花為背景,間中隨興瞧它幾眼,更覺其可親解人。又像走路散步,路不是主角,要緊的是和誰在走,以及沿路的風光。
question  opinion  eating  restaurant  chinese  europe  time  comparison 
march 2017 by aries1988
李约瑟对李约瑟难题的回答 -上海书评-东方早报网

曾经高度发达的中国科学为什么没有发展出现代科学,反倒是科学发展并不领先的欧洲取得了突破,发展出了现代科学?这就是李约瑟难题,也称李约瑟之问、李约瑟之谜。

“中国礼仪之争后,大多耶稣会士被驱逐出境,中欧文化交流的正式渠道被关闭”

FRD

所谓现代科学,最为重要的内核是把理性与经验结合起来,把经受住受控实验检验的关于外在世界的假说系统化(124页),简言之,数学假说与受控实验密切结合。

中国历史上公共工程(河流控制、灌溉、运河开凿)的空间范围一再超越了个体封建诸侯或原始封建诸侯的领地界限,水利社会总是倾向于中央集权,也就是用官僚制度来统治遍布各地的‘部落’乡村(189页)。中央集权虽然有助于对某些科学领域的发展提供国家支持,但是官僚主要由儒家知识精英充当,重义轻利的价值观不仅使逐利的商人处于边缘地位,君子不器的价值观也使科学家和工匠处于附属地位,中国文明中绝不可能出现一种以商业为主导的社会秩序(183页),其结果是即使是富商人家的孩子,其唯一志向也是做官,商人阶层显然不可能获得像欧洲文艺复兴时期的商人在国家中的那种权势和影响力(27页)。

正如尘世的君主颁布了实在法让人们遵守,天界至高的理性造物主也颁布了一系列的法让矿物、晶体、动植物和星辰遵守(280页),这一源自巴比伦和希伯来的自然法传统,为基督教神学所继承,启发了诸多基督教背景的科学家去寻找上帝赋予自然的法则,促成了牛顿范式的机械宇宙观的形成,进而对现代科学的兴起发挥了相当重要的作用。与此相对的,是传统中国几乎完全没有产生过机械宇宙观,而一直秉承有机宇宙观,万物之所以能够和谐并作,并不是因为有一个外在于它们的最高权威在发布命令,而是因为它们都属于一个等级分明的整体,各个部分形成了一种有机的宇宙样式,它们服从的乃是自身本性的内在命令(309页)。

道家在未奠定牛顿式世界图景的基础之前就在摸索一种爱因斯坦式的世界图景,而科学沿着这条道路是不可能发展的(294页)。
civ  china  comparison  europe  history  science  religion  book  critic  chinese  theory  research  question  debate 
january 2017 by aries1988
我们究竟需要多大的词汇量?
从统计图中可以看出,《经济学人》的36万多词文本中,只有 92.57% 的单词落在BNC词表中前8000词区间中。也就是说,假如你的词汇量是8000,那么你只能读懂《经济学人》文本的92.57%,按照上面的词汇覆盖率标准,这样的覆盖率并不能保证顺利理解文本。如果你的词汇量达到了10000,那么你大概可以读懂 95.05%的《经济学人》,基本可以理解文本内容。如果词汇量达到了15000,你的词汇覆盖率会上升到97.92%,基本达到了充分理解的程度。

由此看来,“掌握几千个单词就够用”这种说法在阅读中并不靠谱。即使你词汇量达到8000,读起野生外刊仍然会捉襟见肘。如果想要比较舒服地读懂外刊,那么你的词汇量最好不要低于12000。

那么,熟练掌握几千个单词对听力够用吗?答案也是否定的。认真听过BBC以及VOA的同学应该会留意到,这些听力材料的难度并不比原版外刊低多少,要听懂它们仍然需要10000以上的词汇量。
vocabulary  study  english  tool  to:things  numbers  question  howto  data  analysis 
december 2016 by aries1988
The history man: how Saul Friedländer told his own story

But when he began working on Nazi anti-Semitism in the early 1960s, little had been written on it, and it was not regarded as an entirely respectable subject either in West Germany or in Israel. Where Memory Leads offers a close-to-the-ground view of the debates, scholarly and less scholarly, that erupted in both countries from the Auschwitz trials of 1963-65 to the so-called Historians’ Battle of the late 1980s. It is a powerful reminder of just how much intellectual labour was required in West Germany to get the country to where it is today, the most historically self-aware democracy in the world. But engaging with Nazism was no simple matter for Israeli historians either, especially after 1967. The founders of the new state wanted to turn their back on a European past of victimhood and celebrate the virile heroes of the war of independence. They did at first not take kindly to Friedländer’s insistence that this too was part of the country’s past, and it took time before the political elite became as comfortable as it is today invoking the memory of the Holocaust.
holocaust  intelligentsia  book  thinking  isreal  jewish  question  deutschland  ww2  leader  germany 
november 2016 by aries1988
A quoi les migrants ont-ils vraiment droit en France ?
Certains métiers fermés aux étrangers
Pour commencer, certains métiers sont par principe fermés aux étrangers (hors Union européenne) : ils ne peuvent, par exemple, accéder à la fonction publique qu'en tant qu'agent contractuel ou vacataire, jamais en tant que titulaire (exception faite des postes d'enseignants-chercheurs). Il en va de même avec certaines professions « réglementées » qui nécessitent diplômes, certificats ou titres ad hoc ; dans certains cas, une reprise complète des études est nécessaire.
france  question  explained  immigration 
october 2016 by aries1988
唐映红 | 心理学问答:男朋友是“小粉红”该不该分手

在一个不正常的社会里,政治观念的差异往往有着其它的意蕴。例如,在一个权力集团垄断几乎所有社会资源的极权社会里,赞美权力集团往往意味着人格、道德或者智力上的问题。特别是在全球化、互联网以及资讯相对开放的社会情境下。拥护垄断的权力集团的人群中,有相当部分具有权威主义的人格或倾向,他们对掌握了权力的人会心悦诚服地膜拜,但另一方面却对那些没有权力的少数派极为苛刻,甚至不惜助纣为虐。权威主义人格的人在特异性的时代很可能会成为道德上的坏人,他们在纳粹时期的德国是积极地驱赶犹太人进毒气室的人;他们在波尔布特时期的柬埔寨是兴奋地将屠刀挥向异议者的人;他们在塔利班时期的阿富汗是率先点燃异教徒身上汽油的人。
politics  china  partisanship  couple  question 
july 2016 by aries1988
历史的发展路径已经确定了吗?
以西方的兴起为例,正如伊恩•莫里斯在本书中简洁概括的,所有的解释大抵可以分为两类:一类认为西方的兴起是“长期注定”的,另一类则强调那只是“短期偶然”所导致。前者强调有某个关键因素(人种、地理、文化、政治等)在很久之前(常常追溯到古希腊)就决定了工业革命必然发生在西方;而后者则认为西欧不过是运气较好而已,而且其优势直到1750年代仍不明显,换言之,西方的兴起不仅偶然,而且领先于世界其他地区不过是最近两百多年的现象。

他的结论是:“生物学和社会学能解释全球范围内的相似之处,而地理学则能解释区域差异。从这个意义上讲,是地理学解释了西方为何主宰世界。”在他看来,是地理这一非人为因素致使中西方走上了不同道路,这是因为第一,中国“无法拥有属于自己的地中海”,因而就缺乏廉价和便捷的水运通道,导致贸易活动只能局限于相对较小的范围内;其次,地理因素使西方人比东方人更容易到达美洲。他反复强调,“明朝的中国永远也不可能创造一个西方后期大西洋经济的东方版本”,因为对中国人来说“地理是一个极为不利的因素”。
book  history  comparison  development  academia  debate  geography  fate  future  explained  question 
june 2016 by aries1988
13 Questions to Ask Before Getting Married
13 Questions to Ask Before Getting Married - The New York Times Help FAQ Contact Us Type Size Edit Profile New! Use your left and right arrow keys to browse…
love  tips  question  marriage 
march 2016 by aries1988
Is Christmas the Greatest Story Ever Told?
This story has everything—audacity, wonder, awe, journey, vulnerability, courage, tragedy—and they all collide in a single narrative, she says. If you were to direct this as a Hollywood movie, all the typical elements of great storytelling are there.

Buster compared the story’s components to beloved American films. She said it has the audacity of Schindler's List, the transformation of Shawshank Redemption, the complexity of It's A Wonderful Life, and the depth of the Star Wars franchise, which she adds, borrows the full template of the Christ story.
analysis  religion  story  explained  movie  question  instapaper_favs 
december 2015 by aries1988
It Takes Just One Question to Identify Narcissism

“People who are narcissists are almost proud of the fact. You can ask them directly because they don’t see narcissism as a negative quality — they believe they are superior to other people and are fine with saying that publicly.”
psychology  question 
august 2015 by aries1988
当炮友终成眷属
无论男女都会因性而爱,尤其是在美好的性爱中。在和谐愉悦的性爱中,人一定是特别放松和释放的,会呈现特别真实自己,这样放松的自己和美好的性体验都令人希望更多地重复体验。就跟你吃了好吃的菜,下一次还想吃一样。你期待更多的和这个人在一起,继续获得性上的满足,这种期待不仅带来了关系继续发展的机会,也会反过来刺激性爱的激发,让两个人因性生爱。

夏天到了,心理学家说夏天会唤起人们关于童年暑假的美好回忆,所以人会感到更快乐,更轻松,同时性欲也会增强,做爱频率大大增多。约炮有风险,赴约需谨慎,安全排第一!
love  advice  sex  couple  story  life  question 
may 2015 by aries1988
I've just been asked to write a minimal example, what is that? - TeX - LaTeX Meta Stack Exchange
Most questions about code are made more answerable by the addition of a minimal working example (MWE) or short, self-contained, correct example (SSCCE).
latex  question  explained  concept 
march 2015 by aries1988
VOL.788 如何超越肉身禁锢? | ONE·一个
坐在轮椅上的李乐问:瘫痪后度过了非常绝望的日子,现在真的对生活一点信心都没有,总觉得整个人生都被限制在了轮椅上。一个人,究竟如何才能超越肉身禁锢?
from:rss  handicap  scifi  question  life  howto 
december 2014 by aries1988
邓晓芒:中国人为什么没有信仰?
http://www.instapaper.com/read/375021384

我这里讲的信仰主要是指一种精神性的信仰,是对超越的东西的追求,而不是一般的信念,比如我相信明天会出太阳,或者是简单地相信某人某事。

张载的那种理想看起来好像是气吞山河,其实是十分狭隘的。它只盯着中国几千年不变的传统政治格局和社会制度。那么,这种理想是不是、能不能算一种信仰呢?如果它是一种信仰,是一种理想,那也只是一种政治实用主义的信仰和理想,它的前提是既定的社会政治体制。张载的理想跟现实的世俗生活,跟当时继承的社会政治体制是分不开的,他也是那样理解的。

这是中国传统的理想的最终归宿,即最终是为了现实的人生。

因为现实生活在不断地变化,你讲天人合一,看起来好像很稳固,天和人不分嘛,是一个稳定的结构嘛。但是实际上,你把人世的变化看作就是天道的变化,你必须随着现实生活的不断变化而改变自己的信仰。这种天人合一的思维模式使我们没有一个永恒的东西可以追求,它都是随时代而变、随环境而变的。

很多新儒家的鼓吹者把这种和世俗生活结合在一起的天人合一的理想称之为“内在超越”,就是说我们中国人也有超越,它和西方人的超越不一样。西方是外在超越,超越到上帝那里去了;我们超越在世俗中间,是一种内在超越,就是做圣人,凌驾于世人之上。内在超越实际上就是没有超越了,因为它只不过是要占领世俗道德的至高点。

我认为它不是真正的宗教,而是带有宗教色彩的一种政治教化。

西方的道一一我们把西方的“逻各斯”翻译成“道”,其实这种翻译是不太准确的。西方哲学的逻各斯不是我们讲的这个“道”,我们讲的这个道是从道路引申出来的,而西方哲学的逻各斯是从说话、话语引申出来的。话语是精神上的东西,而且它基本上不是物质性的东西。

基督教的这个灵魂、圣灵这个概念是纯精神性的。那么从这个纯精神性的概念,西方人就形成了人格神的概念,就是犹太教《旧约》里面记录的那个耶和华。耶和华这个神的概念是无形无象,看不见摸不着,你不能用人的形象去形容他。

上帝是不可言说的。上帝无形无象,没有言语。甚至《圣经》里面记载,上帝说这说那,那也只是一种比喻。因为要是上帝真说话了,那就要问,上帝是说的希腊语还是希伯莱语,还是说的汉语?其实那只是一种说法,上帝并没有真正地说话,所以他只是一个人格。对于上帝的人格或者说“位格”,person,所谓“三位一体”的问题,究竟是一个什么样的位格,西方人讨论得非常热烈。上帝是唯一的,他就是人格。

中国的天道和天的并不是人格神的概念,而是自然神的概念。天理是每个人心里面的东西,天有天理,但是每个人都可以知道,都可以说出来,都可以体会到的。每个人一旦体会到天道就可以“替天行道”,直接把它实现出来。所以,天道实际上在每一个人的心中,实现在人的行动中,它是世俗的,而不是超越的。在基督教里面,虽然也说上帝在每个人心中,但是在每个人心中你是不可体会到他的。你所体会到的都是可以怀疑的,都不一定是那个样子。上帝在你心中,确实每一个人心中都有一个上帝,但是是不是就是你体会到的那个样子呢?你不要太自信了,你怎么可能体会到上帝的真意呢?每一个人都有原罪,你是带罪之身,你怎么能体会到上帝的真面目呢?

在上帝面前你不能问为什么,上帝告诉你,你也听不懂。一个人是有限的嘛。

天道既然是非常世俗的东西,所以每个中国人在很多时候都表现出一种自信,甚至于有一种自大狂。就是说,只要我无私,我在内心里面就已经体会到了天道了,那么我就可以替天行道。这个在西方人看来就是骄傲了。你一个非常普通的人,突然有一天就可以替天行道,像洪秀全这样的农民起义的领袖,都是在这种精神支配之下去追求他的理想的。

真正的信仰应该能够提高人的精神层次,这个精神层次特别体现在人的自由的水平、自由的层次。

为什么说基督教是自由的宗教,主要是着眼于这一点,它已经意识到一切人都是自由的,不分种族、民族,不分地域,不分男女,不分出身贫富贵贱。这些都不足以来衡量一个人,衡量一个人最起码的、最根本的就是人是自由的,就是独立的人格。

你个人要独立起来,那当然就是孤独的,而且跟社会脱离某些关系,比如说血缘关系。你只信上帝了,你父母的话都可以不听了,亲情你都可以不顾了,这对个人来说当然是非常痛苦的。当时基督教产生的时候是经历了这样一个过程才产生出来的。所以我们说,真正的信仰,以基督教为例,它是建立在个人独立意志之上的。个人独立,他就需要一个上帝,需要一个超验的、彼岸的精神来支撑自己。

基督教的个人,基督徒,是孤独的,他不能在群体里面得到安慰,不能够在家庭里面,也不能够在国家里由皇帝来标榜、表彰他,基督徒不指望这个东西。他们指望在上帝那里得到安慰,上帝对所有的人一视同仁。你的灵魂有几斤几两,在上帝那里都称得出来。所以他个人独立以后,他只能够把自己的精神的安慰寄托在一个彼岸的上帝身上。这个在中国人这里是没有这个需要的。所以中国人为什么没有真正的信仰,是归结为没有这个需要,他在群体里面可以找到他在精神上的平衡。而之所以可以达到平衡,是因为他个人没有独立出来,个体意识还沉睡在群体意识之中。

我主张在超越教派和具体的某个宗教之上建立起一种信仰,就是所谓的精神性的信仰。我提出这样一种可能性,就是对“真善美”这样一些人类普遍的精神价值要抱有一种信仰。这些价值是绝对的,真善美的价值都是绝对的。正因为是绝对的,所以它是永远也追求不到的。绝对的真,绝对的善,绝对的美,这些是永远也追求不到的。正因为永远追求不到,所以它可以作为信仰。

要树立这种信仰,个人必须独立,要有自己的精神生活和精神追求,这是你个人的。当然这个个人不是封闭的,你可以到人类的历史上所有的精神财富里面去获得自己的营养。你要追求真善美,那么人类几千几万年己经创造出来的精神财富,你都可以去追求。这样的人,他不是封闭的,但是他是独立的。他不受周围人的干扰,可以一个人在内心里面进行一种追求,完善自己的精神生活。所以,要做到这一点,就必须要有自我意识的觉醒,当然还要有一个保障思想自由的体制。
faith  china  Philosophy  question  today  morality  religion  opinion  civil 
april 2013 by aries1988
Why We Can't Solve Big Problems | MIT Technology Review
July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. On July 21, 1969, Buzz Aldrin climbed gingerly out of Eagle, Apollo 11’s lunar module, and joined Neil Armstrong on the Sea of Tranquility. Looking up, he said, “Beautiful, beautiful, magnificent desolation.” They were alone; but their presence on the moon’s silent, gray surface was the culmination of a convulsive collective effort. Kennedy’s words, spoken at Rice University in 1962, provide a better clue:  “But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? . . . Why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? . . . We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills . . .”
http://www.instapaper.com/read/338960349
question  future  nation  astro  human  usa  moon  today 
november 2012 by aries1988

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