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aries1988 : race   27

‘Overrun,’ ‘Outbred,’ ‘Replaced’: Why Ethnic Majorities Lash Out Over False Fears - The New York Times
That dynamic, sometimes known as a majority with a minority complex, is thought to be a major factor in the rise of right-wing populism in Europe, religious nationalism in Asia, and white nationalist terrorism in the United States and New Zealand.

When communal tensions broke out into the outright fighting known as the Troubles in the late 1960s, Northern Ireland’s Protestants were numerically, politically and economically dominant. But they were a minority on the island as a whole, feeding a sense of demographic peril.

Fears of existential, sectarian conflict can be self-realizing.

“more negative attitudes toward Latinos, blacks, and Asian-Americans” and “more automatic pro-white/anti-minority bias.”
rightwing  race  population  birth  usa  europe  banyan  crisis  genocide 
11 weeks ago by aries1988
White Privilege Is Real, but Well-Meaning White Liberals Are Helping to Perpetuate It - Quillette

with progressive ideology. A system that disadvantages blacks, immigrants, Hispanics or Muslims comes to be imagined as a machine operated by an omnipotent white god.

Liberals tend to believe in a kind of reverse white exceptionalism: that whites, in contrast to every other ethnic and racial group, should suppress their communal identity because it’s linked to a system of racial inequality. They seek to deconstruct white identity as an ideological construct designed to maintain power. Cultural conservatives, by contrast, consider whites a group like any other—attached to particular myths, symbols and memories—which should be able to express its identity and interests without fear of censure.

Rather than imagining a world of conflicting groups in which whites oppress non-whites, we should think of white privilege as a complex structure which all people of all races and ethnicities bear some responsibility for. Instead of adopting a simple minded narrative which demonises white identity and casts white people as the villains, we should encourage the whole of society to work collaboratively to reduce system bias.
contrarian  conservatism  usa  race  racism  stereotype  policy  opinion  caucasian  society 
april 2019 by aries1988
刘擎:2018西方思想年度述评(观念/文化篇:自由主义之死与智识争论复兴)
【編者按】本文為華東師範大學劉擎教授自2003年起所撰之「西方思想年度述評」系列第16年作品下篇,首發於《騰訊·大家》欄目,略去部分內容和全部文獻註釋。完整印刷版將在《學海》雜誌發表。端傳媒經作者及《騰訊·大家》授權刊發,以饗讀者。

令人憂慮的是「自由主義造就了現代世界,但現代世界正在背離自由主義」。如果要復興自由主義的活力,必須反省它失去活力的多種成因。在社會經濟方面,需要反省自由主義崇尚的「優績制」(meritocracy)競爭對造成貧富差別與社會固化的影響。在文化方面,檢討「身份政治」的局限,在正當回應族群歧視的過程中,沒有防止它演變為「宗派憤怒」的傾向。在國際與地緣政治方面,自由派也沒有足夠的智慧和勇氣來捍衞「二戰」後形成的同盟和自由制度體系。在政治上,當政的自由派已經變得越來越保守,傾向於維持現狀,而完全忘記了自由主義最初的激進立場。

沃森的觀點可能在政治上不正確,但如果在科學上是真實的呢?難道科學真理應當屈從於政治正確的管制嗎?

回應這種鏗鏘有力的質疑其實並不困難,而且可以斬釘截鐵:沃森的這種觀點首先在科學上錯誤的(雖然他是一位科學大師),因為在生物學意義上,「種族」類別(白人、黑人、黃種人等)並不存在,這早已是學術界的普遍共識。

社會生活中使用的種族分類,是文化和政治塑造的概念(所謂「社會建構」),並不具有對應的生物學依據。這是目前生物學和人類學界的主流觀點,已經有大量的研究證據支持,也有許多相關的科普作品傳播。

萊克認為不應當迴避研究不同人群(populations)之間的遺傳差異。他明確反對一種流行的誤解:由於人類來自共同的祖先,人群相互分離的時間不久,不足以在自然選擇壓力下形成重要的遺傳差異。「但這不是事實」,他指出「東亞人、歐洲人、西非人和澳大利亞人的祖先(直到最近為止)幾乎完全相互隔絕了4萬年或更長的時間,足以讓進化力量發生作用」。人群之間的遺傳差異不僅客觀存在,而且會影響某些遺傳疾病、特定的身體性狀甚至行為和認知能力在人群之間的概率性差異。

研究人群遺傳差異是一把雙刃劍:在很多情況下它會揭露「種族」概念的虛假性,瓦解絕大多數的刻板印象,但遺傳學的發現也有可能會確證某些刻板印象。在這種情況下,科學發現的隻言片語會被某些願意信奉種族主義觀點的人用來證明自己正確。恰恰因為存在這種可能性,萊克才要在文章中直面這個問題。

美國大學招生同樣以「擇優錄取」為主要原則,反映了美國的「優績制」(meritocracy)的價值取向,但其公平原則也包含對弱勢群體的「補償正義」觀念,突出體現於「平權法案」(Affirmative Action,又譯作「肯定性措施」)。此外,還會兼顧「文化多樣性」的目標,可能會考慮校園的「族裔平衡」(racial balancing)。擇優錄取、補償正義和文化多樣性,這三重維度之間存在張力,每個大學有自己側重與應對策略。
summary  read  2018  west  intelligentsia  journalism  liberalism  opinion  race  usa  debate  polemic  university  elite  policy  scientist 
february 2019 by aries1988
Stretch Genes

the genomes of various human beings fall into several reasonably well-defined clusters when analyzed statistically, and these clusters generally correspond to continent of origin. In this statistical sense, races are real.

To Wade, the implications are big. While behavioral differences among races would surely be subtle, they can, he insists, become amplified at the level of entire societies. Slight differences in behavioral predisposition—to cooperation, aggression, trust, propensity to follow rules, and so on—probably pushed different races in directions that led to different social institutions. Indeed the seeds of difference between the world’s great civilizations were perhaps present from the first settlements.

the evolutionary psychologist Steven Pinker. (Evolutionary psychologists, while acknowledging that human behavior has a partly genetic basis, generally assume that all people share the same predispositions. They then try to explain these human universals.)

This sends Wade into paroxysms of righteous indignation and he declares that whether or not a thesis might be politically incendiary should have no bearing on the estimate of its scientific validity. What Wade doesn’t tell you is that this is what Pinker himself says in his very next sentence: The fact that a hypothesis is politically uncomfortable does not mean that it is false, but it does mean that we should consider the evidence very carefully before concluding that it is true.
book  critic  gene  human  race  biology  political  opinion  debate  society  evolution  racism 
october 2018 by aries1988
人类社会的差异是由基因决定的吗?
他的目标是“正视种族在基因层面的差别,探究人类较晚近时期的进化对历史以及人类社会特质有怎样的揭示。”他的结论是:种族不但真实存在,而且不同种族在基因层面也有常人意想不到的差异。
韦德的主要观点是:人类晚近时期所发生的进化导致不同族群在基因层面出现差异,并进而表现出不同的社会行为。这些在社会行为上的细微差异可以解释为何不同族群所建立的社会制度大相径庭

在对人们的基因组进行统计分析后,相同族群的人的基因组会在一个聚类中,每个聚类又对应一个大洲。种族在这样的统计学意义上是真实存在的。

韦德如此论述道:一旦人类进入定居生活,富人的孩子比穷人的孩子存活的机会大,所以,让富人成为富人的行为之基因将得以传播。因而通过这种自然选择,“精英的某些社会行为将得以逐渐向全社会扩散”。

不同族群在行为倾向(如合作,攻击行为,信任,遵守规则)上丝毫的不同都可能会让各个族群做出不同选择,建立不同的社会制度。“世界上伟大文明之间的差异可能自各文明发源之初便已显现。”

韦德无法做出区分的是:说政治上的敏感性不应当歪曲科学真理当然没错,是事实就是事实;然而,正如平克尔所指出,这不意味着我们可以毫无顾忌地谈论种族问题。历史告诉我们,这是个尤其危险的问题,围绕这个问题的讨论曾经导致了巨大的灾难。认识到这一点并且做到小心翼翼并非什么不科学。
genetics  society  civ  human  debate  race 
september 2018 by aries1988
The French Origins of “You Will Not Replace Us”

He sees immigration as one aspect of a nefarious global process that renders obsolete everything from cuisine to landscapes. “The very essence of modernity is the fact that everything—and really everything—can be replaced by something else, which is absolutely monstrous,” he said.

When Benoist writes that “humanity is irreducibly plural” and that “diversity is part of its very essence,” he is not supporting the idea of a melting pot but of diversity in isolation

These disciples, instead of calling for an “Islamic holocaust,” can argue that rootedness in one’s homeland matters, and that immigration, miscegenation, and the homogenizing forces of neoliberal market economies collude to obliterate identities that have taken shape over hundreds of years—just as relentless development has decimated the environment. Benoist’s romantic-sounding ideas can be cherry-picked and applied to local political resentments.

Faye, like Renaud Camus, is appalled by the dictates of modern statecraft, which define nationality in legal rather than ethnic terms.

Camus lamenting that “a veiled woman speaking our language badly, completely ignorant of our culture” could declare that she is just as French as an “indigenous” man who is “passionate for Roman churches, and for the verbal and syntactic delicacies of Montaigne and Rousseau, for Burgundy wines, for Proust, and whose family has lived for generations in the same valley.” What appalls Camus, Polakow-Suransky notes, is that “legally, if she has French nationality, she is completely correct.”

This is true, but there is always a threshold at which a quantitative change becomes qualitative; migration was far less extensive in the Middle Ages than it is today. French liberals can surely make a case for immigration without pretending that nothing has changed: a country that in 1900 was almost uniformly Catholic now has more than six million Muslims.

Yet feminism, Starbucks, the smartphone, the L.G.B.T.Q. movement, the global domination of English, EasyJet, Paris’s loss of centrality in Western cultural life—all of these developments have disrupted what it means “to be French.” The problem with identitarianism isn’t simply that it is nostalgic; it’s that it fixates on ethnicity to the exclusion of all else.
interview  usa  islam  muslim  france  français  intelligentsia  book  debate  population  race  altright  culture  identity  liberalism 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Ta-Nehisi Coates Gives Whiteness Power - The New York Times
Though free speech is constitutionally protected in America, there is always more lurking in the country’s psyche than can be safely, or politely, expressed. The laws around speech are broad, but the norms are narrower, and the norms govern much of what is actually said. Those norms are changing right now, for better and for worse.
race  politics  debate  opinion  society  expression 
october 2017 by aries1988
How ‘white people’ were invented by a playwright in 1613 | Aeon Ideas

By this criterion, Caliban is part of the prehistory of ‘how the Irish became white’, as the historian Noel Ignatiev put it in 1995. None of this is to say that Caliban is actually any of these particular identities, nor that the Dark Lady should literally be identified as belonging to any specific group either, rather that both examples provide a window on the earliest period when our current racial categorisations began to take shape, while still being divergent enough from how our racialised system would ultimately develop.

there are compelling reasons to think that many in a Jacobean audience would rather understand Caliban as being more akin to the first targets of English colonialism, the Irish.

Middleton’s play indicates the coalescing of another racial pole in contrast to blackness, and that’s whiteness – but which groups belonged to which pole was often in flux.
history  ethnic  race  invention  mentality  theater  human  identity  racism 
october 2017 by aries1988
In the nudes: why skin is in

Why anyone would require flesh-coloured tights in 2017 is another matter entirely; I had naively assumed the only woman still obligated to wear a garment that gives one’s legs the eerily smooth artificiality of a prosthetic limb was the Duchess of Cambridge.
race  fashion 
august 2017 by aries1988
Paris, ville toujours « inaccessible » pour les jeunes de banlieue
Les milliards investis dans la rénovation urbaine, censée « désenclaver » les quartiers sensibles, n’y changent rien. Adolescents et jeunes adultes issus des classes populaires de banlieue s’estiment toujours aussi « illégitimes » dans la capitale.
paris  race  youth 
july 2017 by aries1988
Why the English word 'black' became the new 'noir' in France

Both countries are idealistic, rooted in 18th-century revolutions and grand principles. But while many in the US value racial and ethnic difference, France sees itself as a color-blind society that rejects the race-based policies of its colonial past. So, using the word noir is almost un-French.

Which has left some black French residents questioning continued racism in France and looking to the United States for black role models: Michael Jackson, Carl Lewis, Barack and Michelle Obama. The English word black is inspirational.
american  african  vocabulary  france  race  comparison 
march 2017 by aries1988
The meaning of trust in the age of Airbnb — FT.com
One of the underrated achievements of the modern world has been to develop ways to extend the circle of trust by depersonalising it. Trust used to be a very personal thing: you would trust your friends or friends of friends. But when I withdrew €400 from a cash machine, it was not because the bank trusted me but because it could verify that my bank would repay the money. This is a cold corporate miracle.

Over the past few years, people have been falling in love with a hybrid model that allows a personal reputation to work even between strangers. One example is Airbnb, which lets people stay in the homes of complete strangers, a considerable exercise of trust on both sides.
trust  economy  airbnb  discrimination  race 
august 2016 by aries1988
Choosing a School for My Daughter in a Segregated City
I n the spring of 2014, when our daughter, Najya, was turning 4, my husband and I found ourselves facing our toughest decision since becoming parents. We live…
race  newyork  story  children  education  usa 
june 2016 by aries1988
Alternative guide to Euro 2016 - FT.com
The French took a long time to fall en masse for football. In other countries, professional football started out as the sport of the urban working classes. But most of France never became very industrialised, and so the French working class stayed relatively small. The Parisian elite long had contempt for the sport, while in rural France football teams rarely became a strong source of local communal identity. Only in France’s few traditionally proletarian towns — notably Lens, Marseille and Saint-Etienne — did workers, uprooted from their ancestral villages, find belonging by supporting the local football team, much as they did in Manchester or Milan or the German Ruhr region.

The “black, blanc, beur” (black, white, son of Arab) team was a picture of a unified, multicultural nation. It was probably France’s happiest communal moment since Liberation in 1944, with the difference being that in 1998 all French people were on the same side.

French complaints about les Bleus provide a way for the nation to debate immigration. Whereas the French rugby team incarnate rural France, with many white players from the south-west, the football team are drawn more from non-white suburbs of big cities. Many of today’s players grew up in poor immigrant families (often Muslim), then emigrated as teenagers to grow rich playing for foreign clubs. In short, they have never lived in the French mainstream.

The French hope is that this summer will be a rerun of 1998. Thuram says: “I think that people only ask for one thing: to love the French team. Football has the power to create a certain communion of emotions. You can go up to another person you don’t even know and share that joy. For me, that’s what football is above all.” And it’s just what France now needs.
france  2016  football  race  city  sports  analysis  instapaper_favs 
june 2016 by aries1988
What New York can learn from London - FT.com
British people are less earnest about religion than many Americans. But, more importantly, in such a diverse city-state as modern London, identities are similarly fluid.

Londoners live in a world where cultural strands are constantly blended in surprising ways. You can see that in day-to-day matters such as cuisine — this is a country where curry became a national dish long ago; today Londoners queue for ramen, bao buns and barbecue. But what is truly striking in the London city-state is the high proportion of mixed-race families.

But when my family moved to New York a few years ago, we found ourselves in a world where identities tend to sit in boxes rather than on spectrums. Yes, America is an amazing melting pot and New York an incredibly diverse city. Yet President Barack Obama is hailed as the first black president, even though he is actually mixed, and universities run special entrance programmes for minorities. On US television, romantic dramas usually match couples along ethnic lines, like a modern Noah’s ark. And when bureaucratic forms require you to identify your ethnic origins, there is sometimes a mixed box on the list, but often there is not.

The fact that Khan has been elected mayor makes me very proud of my London origins — not because he is a Muslim, but because most voters do not particularly care that he is.
race  comparison  multiculturalism  city  uk  usa  election  metropolis  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
How your unknown prejudices can dictate your actions in a crisis
The medial frontal cortex is also involved when we take another person’s perspective in order to understand their thoughts and motives. However, research reveals a reduction in this region’s pattern of activity when we think about people from lower status groups. Given that African Americans are viewed this way, this suggests they are seen more as objects than as people. These factors – stereotyping and dehumanisation – conspire to produce the impression that someone is dangerous and that their life is not particularly worthy.

You might think none of this applies to you, but you would be wrong. Virtually everyone has unconscious racial biases, in part because the mind has a natural tendency to categorise people and also because our culture exposes us to common caricatures about race.

Our research shows that even avowed egalitarians show bias in their behaviour when they have to make a snap judgement. These biases are also not limited to race but exist for almost any attribute, be it gender, nationality, sexual orientation or hair colour, and they constantly shape our judgements. Bias comes from our culture, it seeps into our brains, and unless we control it, it is expressed in our actions.
brain  perception  race  psychology  reflex  research  instapaper_favs 
january 2016 by aries1988
Day of Judgment
Shouts & Murmurs by Simon Rich: “ ‘I’m just really bad with faces,’ the Messiah said. ‘Ask anyone.’ ”
fun  race 
january 2016 by aries1988
Playing with fire
A floundering government risks igniting ethnic tensions
malaysia  2015  race  conflict  chinese  banyan 
november 2015 by aries1988
The Science Behind ‘They All Look Alike to Me’
Was the mistaken arrest of James Blake a case of racism, pure and simple, or a product of a real cognitive phenomenon that makes it hard for people of one race to distinguish among those of another?

Psychologists say that starting when they are infants and young children, people become attuned to the key facial features and characteristics of the those around them. Whites often become accustomed to focusing on differences in hair color and eye color. African-Americans grow more familiar with subtle shadings of skin color.
race  face  people  visual 
september 2015 by aries1988
Anders Breivik’s Inexplicable Crime
He is a person filled to the brim with himself. And that is perhaps the most painful thing of all, the realization that this whole gruesome massacre, all those extinguished lives, was the result of a frustrated young man’s need for self-representation.
norge  race  story  death  terrorism 
june 2015 by aries1988
Can Racism Be Stopped in the Third Grade?
The program, which was also put in place this school year at Ethical Culture, Fieldston’s other elementary school, would boost self-esteem and a sense of belonging among minority kids while combating the racism, subtle or otherwise, that can permeate historically white environments. It would foster interracial empathy by encouraging children to recognize differences without disrespect while teaching kids strategies, and the language, for navigating racial conflict.

In 45-minute sessions, children would talk about what it was like to be a member of that race; they would discuss what they had in common with each other and how they were different, how other people perceived them, rightly or wrongly, based on appearance.

The much more intimate, idiosyncratic, lived experience of race — that is a harder discussion to have, especially when it probes reflexive reactions to difference (fear, disgust, mistrust, anxiety, curiosity, eagerness, attraction, admiration) that are sometimes heated, irrational, and not always pleasant.

This same parent who sends her children to Lower because she values diversity tends not to dwell on the fact that she has few close friends of color; that her neighborhood is almost entirely white; that her nanny or housecleaner or doorman has brown skin. The program at Lower was designed, and is supported in large part, by people who have spent their lives on the other side of that well-meaning silence and can testify that it’s no way to thrive.

by 4 they are already absorbing the lessons of a racist culture. All of them know reflexively which race it is preferable to be. Even today, almost three-quarters of a century since the Doll Test, made famous in Brown v. Board of Education, experiments by CNN and Margaret Beale Spencer have found that black and white children still show a bias toward people with lighter skin.

At 7 or 8, children become very concerned with fairness and responsive to lessons about prejudice. This is why the third, fourth, and fifth grades are good moments to teach about slavery and the Civil War, suffrage and the civil-rights movement. Kids at that age tend to be eager to wrestle with questions of inequality, and while they are just beginning to form a sense of racial identity (this happens around 7 for most children, though for some white kids it takes until middle school), it hasn’t yet acquired much tribal force. It’s the closest humans come to a racially uncomplicated self.
race  education  racism  children  groupe  debate  perception  discussion  experiment  school  instapaper_favs 
may 2015 by aries1988
Fixing America’s inner cities | The Economist
AS BALTIMOREANS sweep up broken glass and haggle with insurers over fire-gutted shops, many are wondering why the city exploded into riots last month, and how to stop it happening again. The proximate cause of the mayhem is clear: it erupted after Freddie Gray, an African-American man, died in police custody. Young black men in Baltimore, as in many other American cities, are fed up with being manhandled by cops. Most demonstrated peacefully, but some seized the opportunity to steal, smash and burn.
opinion  crisis  race  usa 
may 2015 by aries1988
They Call Me Doctor Berry - NYTimes.com
So what can I do? I already have to run faster and jump higher just to gain that minimal level of respect that my colleagues are graciously, automatically afforded. But I can also insist that my students interact with me in a professional manner, even if it’s not something they’re accustomed to in other classes.

For me, this statistical desert is made even more stark by the fact that, at a private school in a Midwestern town like mine, students may have interacted with African-Americans only in the service industry, or in high school, with female teachers.
race  academia 
november 2014 by aries1988
New Statesman | Wouldn’t be seen dead there: what our choice of café says about us
A handful of “crossover” places aside though, there is hardly any mixing in the bars and cafés – the shisha and tea houses are the preserve of the locals of North African origin, the Bangladeshis congregate in the call shops and convenience stores, Chinese and Orthodox Jewish residents rarely socialise en masse in bars, while the more affluent white residents drink in the craft-beer bars and more design-oriented cafés that have sprung up in recent years.
people  mentality  race  society  today 
august 2014 by aries1988
许一力 : 国足何时能达到国厨水准 _ 腾讯 · 大家
生物学上就有过统计。白人、黑人在力量性平均来讲超过黄色人种,主要原因在于拥有更大的骨架,即使同等身高的情况下一般也拥有更大的胸围肩宽。而身体结构上,白人是长头型,腿长,风阻小,这种身体结构的形成,可以说是为了适宜放牧对于远望的需求。而黄色人种则坐高比都大于其他人种,腿偏短,宽头型,风阻大——这又与农耕文明亲于土地的定位颇有关系。在爆发力上,白人占绝对优势,他们身体里先天的白肌纤维多,肌肉里进行无氧活动的成分多,因此在无氧代谢的速度上优势明显——而可以说,这些全部都是漫长的文明进化史中所演变出的结果。
humain  race  comparison 
june 2014 by aries1988

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