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Language Log » Chinese characters and eyesight

Yet China and many other East Asian countries do not prize time outdoors. At the age of six, children in China and Australia have similar rates of myopia. Once they start school, Chinese children spend about an hour a day outside, compared with three or four hours for Australian ones.

The incidence of myopia is high across East Asia, afflicting 80-90% of urban 18-year-olds in Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. The problem is social rather than genetic.

Commenting on the photographs accompanying these two posts, I remarked how Chinese children reading and writing often have a strained look on their face.  This may due to a variety of factors, including density of strokes, dim lighting, poor printing, and so forth.

There is plenty of anecdotal evidence that would seem to indicate a connection between myopia and Chinese characters

Commenting on the photographs accompanying these two posts, I remarked how Chinese children reading and writing often have a strained look on their face. This may due to a variety of factors, including density of strokes, dim lighting, poor printing, and so forth.

The questions is, though, why don't Chinese school children spend more time outdoors? Perhaps it's because they want to master those high maintenance characters, and to do so requires writing each one of them hundreds and hundreds of time so that one can recognize them accurately and reproduce them correctly when called upon to do so in tīngxiě 听写 ("dictation" [lit., "hear-write"]) quizzes.
opinion  chinese  writing  kid  eye  health  harm  research  reading  comparison  theory 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
Twitter
吃上了!我喜欢吃饭看书,而不是看剧。剧的节奏都挺快,一不留意就跟不上了。看书就比较慢,随看随停都很舒服。
reading  buy 
7 weeks ago by aries1988
How to read more in 2019 | Financial Times

Read abundantly. Scatter books around the house in tempting piles, like bowls filled with cookies laid out on coffee tables, and in verandas and porches. “I am reading six books at once, the only way of reading,” Virginia Woolf wrote in a letter in August 1928: “Since, as you will agree, one book is only a single unaccompanied note, and to get the full sound, one needs 10 others at the same time.” That’s the best reason you have to read more next year. It’s never only about the numbers; it’s about the pleasure, the thousand little discoveries.
reading  tips  howto 
december 2018 by aries1988
五柳先生传 - 维基文库,自由的图书馆

好读书,不求甚解,毎有会意,便欣然忘食。
reading  classic  wiki  chinese  quotes  life 
december 2018 by aries1988
YellowG’s Year in Books | Goodreads
Check out #MyYearInBooks on Goodreads! via @goodreads
2018  book  reading  numbers  MyYearInBooks 
december 2018 by aries1988
The Power of Reading Books in WorkFlowy
I’ve read over a dozen books in WorkFlowy so far. But why ? Why in blue blazes would I do that? Simple, really: For the unparalleled flexibility WorkFlowy gives…
reading  notes  software 
november 2018 by aries1988
销量排行:电子书 - 亚马跌
本页展示各国亚马逊销量前十名,数据来自官方 RSS,未作修改,点击标签切换。各国销量排行有什么用?可参考《如何看待各国亚马逊销量排行》。
list  sales  amazon  book  china  usa  reading 
october 2018 by aries1988
余晨: 我们为什么走到这一步-虎嗅网
第三本可能会虚一点,和大家的工作没什么太大关系。但我认为人总是要读一点没什么用的书,就像之前朱老师讲的,在阅读中构建一个属于自己的平行世界,也就是我们自己的栖身之所。这本书是金观涛、刘青峰两位老师写的。

第二点是因为这本书讲的是一种大历史。在今天后现代主义时期,我们大家的思想越来越多元化、越来越不确定性、越来越主观性、越来越碎片化,在今天这种后现代思潮的影响下,大多数人不敢去讲大理论、大历史,也不敢去讲所谓的元叙事,还有所谓的宏大叙事(meta-narrative),大家都认为所谓一统天下的大理论在某种程度上是扼杀自由的。

在中国上学的人,多多少少都有一点唯物主义的历史观。我们都会觉得底层的经济基础决定了所谓的上层建筑,你有什么样的经济制度,就有什么样的文化,什么样的政治,这是一个典型的科学革命以后唯物主义还原论的想法。我们可以把所有的上层建筑还原成所谓的经济活动,它当然有一定的道理,但这样的描述一定是不完备的。

《中国思想史十讲》的一个假设是,人类历史进程中的思想发展非常重要。用柯林伍德话来讲,“一切历史都是思想史”,思想史也反过来决定了经济基础和下层结构。这本书的另一个角度,它从一个宏大的历史角度追溯先秦的轴心文明。
book  reading 
october 2018 by aries1988
领读中国 | 梁鸿:我更看重的是,人怎么与历史发生关系
经观书评:阅读对你当时的生活来讲,应该是很重要的一部分。
梁鸿:我姐姐上高中,她有书,所以我从小就读到好多书,《世界之窗》、《高中语文》、《现代文学作品选》,那时候没电视、没网络,只有读书。我的性格比较内向,我跟孩子们出去玩的也比较少,经常就看书。我小时候对读书有渴望,喜欢看书,什么都可以看,我对“字”有一种渴望,喜欢看“字”。长大到小学四、五年级开始喜欢写作文,那个感觉很好,写的好不好不知道,反正喜欢写。后来我们整理老家的物品,翻到我初中日记,写着:我要当作家。其实后来完全忘掉了,是翻出初中的日记才看到。

经观书评:对“字”很着迷,这个启蒙最开始是什么?
梁鸿:可能还是跟我姐姐她们上学有关系,她们带回一些书籍,我自己性格刚好又比较内向、孤独。我觉得孤独的人很自然的喜欢阅读,喜欢写点东西,也比较惆怅,比较多思。我现在的性格相对比较好,但小时候不爱说话。

经观书评:后来接受了高等教育之后,比如在你一直研究的乡土文学、乡土文化领域,或是写作过程中,有没有喜欢的作家?对写作或人生观,或是思考方式有影响的一些书或作家?

梁鸿:我很早就开始阅读,非常混沌,我是一个泛读主义者,喜欢每个我能欣赏的作家和作品。
当年我十三、四岁的时候读托尔斯泰《战争与和平》——那时候肯定是囫囵吞枣,但也非常喜欢。读《安娜·卡列妮娜》是我上师范的时候,多激动啊。还有屠格列夫的《猎人笔记》。其实那时候已经读了相当多的经典,也有郁达夫、沈从文……
从我日后的创作和我的性格而言,可能我还是比较偏重于鲁迅那一支。但是我欣赏所有的作家,比如纳博科夫的《洛丽塔》、沈从文的《边城》、婉约派的诗人、辛弃疾,我都很喜欢,我喜欢所有文字里表达情感方式。我没有特别挑剔说我不喜欢周作人,我喜欢鲁迅,但是我自己的创作倾向可能更偏重于鲁迅的气质,或者偏重于那些相对具有批判性的方式。我欣赏那种语言的美,对一个小世界的创造,我都非常着迷。
nonfiction  chinese  writer  interview  reading  childhood  countryside  china 
october 2018 by aries1988
The Best Books on Modern Japanese Literature | Five Books Expert Recommendations
Make Your Own List recommended by Linda Flores To the western eye, Japan often appears as a surprising combination of very advanced development, and extreme…
list  reading  japan  youth  today  book  bestof 
september 2018 by aries1988
我为什么抛弃Kindle,重新回归纸质书?
当你并不明确你的问题,你对某个问题思考良久,需要一些启发,但是你又不太记得你在哪个章节里看到过的时候,怎么办?

或者我们再一起想想:你是如何将一个问题,从模糊「了解」到可以「运用」,这个过程是如何发生的?
我猜想,在阅读的情境中,这个过程大概会是:当我们读同一类大主题的书,不同作者谈到同一个话题的时候,所引发的你的思考。这个思考的片段让你兴奋。
在你兴奋的时候,在这本书勾起沉睡在你脑中的相似的知识片段的时候,如果你能「即时」捕捉记录下来,这对你将知识碎片串联成成体系的知识结构有莫大帮助。这或许是最为关键的动作。

所以纸质书对人的思考最有帮助的地方在于:那些模糊的、呼之欲出的、似是而非的、就差捅一下窗户纸你就快理解和「想清楚」了的时刻,是最需要借助纸和笔帮助你厘清思考的时候。
ebook  book  reading  choice  opinion 
september 2018 by aries1988
Letter of Recommendation Recently Returned Books
They were not chosen to signal anyone’s intellect or righteousness or in-the-know-ness. They are often old and very often ugly. I’ve come to think of this shelf as an escape from hype, a kind of anti-curation.
library  idea  moi  serendipity  choice  reading  book  instapaper_favs 
september 2018 by aries1988
一周看完 3 本书,怎样读才能真正吸收?| 有用功 | 爱范儿

曾经高亮过的关键词和语句,都被做成了「小卡片」的形式,放在了大纲和思维导图里,等你来把它们重新组织起来。

这正是 MarginNote 令人着迷的地方:

所有你标记过的文字,插入过的批注,都会被「剪藏」到一个笔记本,作为备用的笔记素材收集起来;
这些笔记可以在页边、大纲列表、思维导图、学习卡集中不同的视图里自由切换;
笔记和大纲、思维导图是联动的,你可以边对照原文修改笔记,边在大纲或思维导图里重组笔记架构。
marginnote  example  book  reading 
july 2018 by aries1988
阅读神器Marginnote,你值得拥有
首先通过标注生成的卡片只有原文(区域①),我一般是概括总结下原文形成标题(区域②),然后发散地写一下感想与心得(区域③),让新的知识和我已经知道的知识缝合在一起。这样针对一个知识点,既有总结又有发散,就做到了华罗庚所说的“把厚书读薄,把薄书读厚”。

可以用卡片颜色来区分不同类型的卡片,这个是自定义的。

这是我目前的颜色定义:
淡黄色:概念卡
淡绿色:技巧行动卡
桃红色:反常识卡
橙黄色:人名卡或故事例子卡
湖蓝色:金句美学卡
紫红色:术语模因卡
中灰色:原文论述正确性存疑。

卡片定义了颜色或者打上标签(Hashtag), 方便集成并提取相同主题的卡片,再也不用逐个笔记去翻阅了。

要说的一个小技巧就是:我经常是用浏览器自带的阅读模式,屏蔽广告,纯净阅读。因为有时候下载web时会有乱码或其他我不想要的内容,所以我是打印网页为PDF。用Safari打印网页后,双指放大要打印的页面,右上角才会出现个“分享到MN”。

MN的回忆模式能模糊原文而且卡片能只显示标题。这样就可以在印象中对着标题或关键词,主动回忆原文内容,尝试用自己的话来表述。这样不仅能加深记忆,而且写作时有了很多预制的素材。
tips  tool  reading  notes  pkm  marginnote 
july 2018 by aries1988
MarginNote : 如此强大的笔记 App,每个人都该有 #iOS #Mac | 爱范儿

我的工作流一般是就某一个主题建一个笔记本,然后把这个主题下最棒的资料 PDF 拖进来,然后陆续把看到的网页通过 MarginNote 的 EPUB 转存功能也拖进来。
在碎片的时间里把一片片摘录慢慢收集起来,然后有空再到思维导图和 Outline 里整理。最后用 Flashcards 回顾和记忆。
marginnote  reading  tips  pkm  iPad 
july 2018 by aries1988
南方周末 - 刘瑜的秘密书架:从经典到经验
所以我现在主张的,是一种从经验、从问题出发的读书态度,而不是从“死去的古代白人贵族男子视角”出发的读书态度。

这个转变是基于这样的认识:一切经典本质上都是基于那个作者对他所处的时代的问题的回答与思考,那么要真正读懂它并且读得心领神会,只能是因为:第一,你对他所处的时代及其问题有相当的了解;第二,你认为他所处的那个时代与你现在所处的时代有相似性,而且你能理解其相似性以及不同性在哪,由此批判地理解他的思考对于当下的意义。

所以我的读书历程,基本上是一个不断从“经典”堕落为“经验”、从“意识形态”下降为“实证主义”的历程。不是说我对经典失去了好奇心,而是我希望引导我去读经典的,是问题的箭头在不断指引,而不是餐桌上的虚荣心。

这些研究也许讨论的都是“小”问题,但是它们往往用一种有理有据、严格论证的方式来抵达那些“小”结论,这种虽微观但严密的论证方式,在我看来,比那些虽宏大但浮空的判断要有力量的多。

在思考自己要读什么书之前,最好问问自己,我关心的到底是什么问题,因为只有真诚的问题意识才能将你引向真诚的阅读——阅读如此美好,任何虚荣心的杂质都是对它的玷污。
classic  book  reading  howto  tips 
july 2018 by aries1988
我是怎么阅读的

其实,最终我想说的是,读书的过程是很美,拿着kindle paperwhite在地铁上掏出来也恍惚有一种文艺青年的感觉。但是最终我们看重的应该是真正进入大脑的“无形”的知识,以及引起的思考,而我们付出的代价就是金钱和时间,金钱是廉价的代价,而时间是更大的代价。硬件只是书籍的承载,让你可以方便的阅读,如果把阅读搞得更麻烦了,就不要去做这件事。

所以,阅读的时候,时刻记住自己为什么阅读,就能放弃很多无谓的折腾,进入到一个纯粹的精神世界。
reading 
june 2018 by aries1988
Readmoo 電子書劃線筆記匯出 Evernote ,搭配朗讀實測教學
Readmoo讀墨電子書在 iPhone 上全文朗讀教學:

另外補充一個我在測試過程中,發現的 Readmoo 搭配 iPhone 小技巧:「朗讀書中的一個章節、一篇文章。」

利用 iPhone 在設定裡的「一般」-「輔助使用」,進入「語音」設定,開啟「朗讀螢幕」。

接著在 Readmoo 電子書閱讀畫面中,兩指從螢幕最上方往下滑,就能啟動 iPhone 的全文朗讀功能。

這裡同樣要搭配 Readmoo 的[捲動]瀏覽模式,因為當捲動時, iPhone 朗讀就會自動捲動,直到把這一篇文章、這個章節讀完為止(如果是翻頁模式,讀完一頁就會停止)。

而且我跳出電子書 App ,或是關閉手機螢幕, iPhone 朗讀功能都會繼續運作,我可以一邊「聽」電子書,一邊去操作其他 App 或做其他的事情。
howto  reading  ebook  epub 
june 2018 by aries1988
[筆記術-7] 編輯教你整理一本書最快的索引筆記法,紙筆記可用 電腦玩物
(!)本書重點:下次可重讀複習之處
(#)書中佳句或圖表資料:下次可以取用引用
(?)還需思考的問題點:下次需要繼續研究
pkm  notes  howto  moi  reading  book 
june 2018 by aries1988
瓣读-与豆网同步,文字识别记读书笔记 (iPhone / iPad)(豆瓣-App下载_图片_评论)丨豆瓣评分 8.2
瓣读-与豆网同步,文字识别记读书笔记的评测,下载,截图,评分,讨论,帮助你判断是否好用,发现更多相似好应用,最新流行应用
iOS  book  reading  notes  tool 
may 2018 by aries1988
看书如何真正吸收?我摸索出这套懒人笔记法
本文介绍一种新的记录读书笔记的思路与方法,并提供了笔记数字化的方法。
book  notes  howto  reading  pkm 
may 2018 by aries1988
12-year-old prodigy Alma Deutscher on homeschooling and Mozart

she is proudly out of step with the iGeneration. Lots of children spend all the time on video games, I don’t like that at all. I don’t have a phone or computer or anything, I just read a lot, she says, listing Philippa Pearce, Joan Aiken and Shannon Hale as some of her favourite authors. I don’t really know what they do — Minecraft or whatever — some of my friends do that but I think it’s a complete waste of time and it ruins your brain as well because you can’t imagine anything for yourself.
prodigy  piano  music  uk  reading  loisir  interview  teenager 
december 2017 by aries1988
YellowG’s Year in Books | Goodreads
Check out #MyYearInBooks on Goodreads! via @goodreads
reading  book  moi  numbers  2017  MyYearInBooks 
december 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:乾貨該有多乾?

依照這種想法,文學閱讀就算真能讓我們學到一些什麼有用的知識,花時間去看一部長篇,也還是太過浪費時間,因為裏面有太多的情景形容,太多的人物描述,和太多的角色對白,為什麼作者不能夠再乾一點,用幾句話去說明他要強調的主旨呢?不止文學,就連一些本身應該很「乾」的書,比如哲學,其實也都還可以再多榨點水分出來。

我還記得那年春天。我用一個晚上,只讀了韋伯一本著作的其中一頁。韋伯的作品並不頂難,後來回想,那本書其實也不是很艱澀。但是那幾個鐘頭,不知道為什麼我就是卡在那裏了,動彈不得。直至拂曉,非常戲劇性的,窗外一聲雀鳥鳴叫,我猛然一拍桌子,忽然我搞懂了,我明白他想說什麼了。我肯定無數讀者都曾有過這類eureka時刻,它帶給我們的不止是一種狂喜,更是一種不可斷裂的聯繫。自此之後,這頁紙上的言語徹底消融在我的血脈,是我的一部分了。
reading  opinion  debate  nonfiction  book  instapaper_favs 
november 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:讀書加點吉拿棒(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子之二)

就好比「加點吉拿棒」之類的Youtuber,能夠用幾分鐘讓你「看完」一部時長兩小時的電影。它可以十分有趣,構思和判語巧到讓人叫絕。
reading  today  china  app  knowledge 
november 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:給他二十塊,他替你做愛(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子二之一)
梁文道:給他二十塊,他替你做愛(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子二之一) via @instapaper
today  business  learn  knowledge  book  reading 
november 2017 by aries1988
征服者 - 图书
征服者豆瓣评分:8.9 简介:通过“地中海史诗三部曲”(《1453》《海洋帝国》《财富之城》),《纽约时报》畅销书作家罗杰•克劳利确立了自己的地位:他是我们这一代研究欧洲伟大航海帝国的卓越历史学家,也是十字军东征之后东西方冲突领...
book  reading  portugal  war  discovery  history  death  lisbon 
october 2017 by aries1988
audrey siourd (@audreysiourd) • Photos et vidéos Instagram
3,404 abonnés, 631 abonnement, 192 publications - Découvrez les photos et vidéos Instagram de audrey siourd (@audreysiourd)
photo  metro  book  reading  paris 
july 2017 by aries1988
为什么书价房价再贵,也要买纸质书? « 白板报
https://www.jianshu.com/p/4c0b1bd5d915

按照北宸的观点,尽管以前,他也是一个狂热的Kindle的支持者,现在也越来越倾向于看纸书。原因是:
虽然可以在知道关键词的时候「精准检索」,但是没办法在脑子里对某个片段有模糊印象的时候,快速「模糊翻阅」到自己想找到的内容片段。
没办法像纸质书一样,可以在书页空白处写写划划,让自己在读到某一段内容的时候,将自己的思维碎片与作者的思绪「即时」碰撞与交汇。

纸质书,不需要能源。最重要的是,可以自由翻页,模糊查询,非线性阅读。我看书,往往不会从第一页看起,而是随便翻翻,看到有意思的内容,就扎下去往后看。看着看着,再往前翻一段,继续往后看。

我买书有一个习惯,只要是看到就马上买,绝不考虑是不是打折。因为跟书的缘分,与跟人的缘分是一样的,错过一次,可能就错过一生。

我以前心疼书,不忍心在上面划线写字,现在我问自己:
你买书的目的,是为了传给子孙呢,还是自己看呢?
子孙喜欢看什么书,我怎么知道?还是留给自己看的。既然如此,那么就把这些书当成一次性的消费品,让它们伴随我,度过读书的黄金岁月,让我的生命的价值得到进一步的提高吧。
from:rss  reading  book  kindle  comparison  choice 
july 2017 by aries1988
Keeping Track of Every Book You've Ever Read

I love the way those early entries show a young person’s curiosity at work: What did I want to know then? What did I feel I needed? Where did I want to be?

The people we’re trying to serve are readers of The New York Times. I know—because I’m one of them—that readers of the Times have a limited amount of time to read, so they’re looking to us to do an essential triage.

A good review should be thoughtful, should be provocative, and should provide a sense that the reviewer has really engaged with the work. It’s not supposed to be a cold-blooded assessment of what’s in the book. You should feel there’s something at stake. There should be opinion in it, too. And there should be an example of the writing. It’s amazing to me that some people will hand in a book review and never quote from the book. If you’re describing a book, what better way to show it than through the text itself?

A book enables you to live that many more lifetimes, to try out that many more lives and ways of seeing the world. It’s like having your own time machine. What could be more magical than that?
book  girl  diary  growup  story  personal  history  loveletter  reading 
may 2017 by aries1988
如何真正消化一本书?

书大抵上分为两种:虚构类(Fiction),非虚构类(Non-Fiction)。读非虚构类的书籍,是为了获取新知识,并应用到生活中,让自己获得进步;就我个人而言,我更喜欢看非虚构类的书籍,从中获得的愉悦,感觉更大,因为那种愉悦通常有更为坚实的支撑 —— 进步。而虚构类的书籍,在大学毕业之后已经很少读了,可能是因为我自己在那里很难体会到太多的乐趣,更可能的另外一个原因是我已经彻底把获取那种愉悦的途径转移到了影视作品上。

没多久,理解速度开始提高,我也没啥兴趣拿着一本书一目十行地读。遇到好书,我会抽时间朗读完,一本二十万字左右的书朗读完,也不过十几个小时,中间断断续续,也能一个星期内搞定。更多的时候,时间花在那些需要停下来认真思考的部分,需要停下来心平气和地开开脑洞的部分,需要反复搜索寻找更多资料与关联的部分……反正,眼球快速移动本身,没有任何意义。

不同的作者有不同的组织方式,但大体上都是差不多的。总是要分章节。每一章其实都是在着重讲解一个概念,它的应用,它的方法论。而陆续的章节,通常是必须理解上一个概念之后才能进一步理解的概念,及其应用与方法论。所以,一头扎入内容之前,最好把这些概念大致过一遍,不理解没关系,哪怕先记住那些概念的名字和先后关系都很有帮助。

在读的过程中,不断整理这些概念与方法论之间的关系,其实是消化的必要过程。有些人从小就学会了并且早就习惯这么做,而大多数人一辈子不会这么干 —— 这就是为什么最终绝大多数人只具备读半本杂志,看个豆腐块文章的能力,而不大可能真正独立消化一整本书的根本原因。

在阅读的过程中,要不断向后总结,向前预期 —— 这是最基本的理解技巧。在阅读的过程中,要不断总结刚才输入的东西都有什么,它们之间是什么样的关系;与此同时,还要不断预期下一步的内容是什么……这是一个不断循环的输入处理的过程。

在良好的阅读习惯下,理解速度会不断积累,最终不断加快 —— 因为所有的知识都有共同点:它们不一定能用在哪里,它们早晚必然融会贯通。所以,理解过的东西越多,理解新的东西就越快。说穿了,理解能力差,无非就是见识少,仅此而已。

把你学到的,总结好的,琢磨清楚的那些知识(不是胡说八道的那些东西)传递出去,分享给你身边的人。教,不一定非要像老师一样在课堂上给一帮学生讲(还不允许他们打断)……教可以有很多种形式,比如,分享,就是教的一种形式。在饭桌上都可以进行:

分享,不仅需要能力支撑,也是培养能力的最重要手段。知识分享,没有成本,只有收益 —— 双方都有的收益。

最重要的问题:

这个概念、这个方法论、这个道理、这个知识,还可以用在什么地方?
howto  reading  book  tips 
march 2017 by aries1988
What Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace’ can teach us

The uncanny physical immediacy of War and Peace is the result of Tolstoy bringing together personal memory, family history and dense archival research into the making of his narrative.

Stylistically, it was also unlike anything anyone else had written before: raw, richly inelegant, sometimes directionless, bursting through the confines of good literary form yet stained on every page with the juice of life.

Tolstoy has us hear the overture to calamity through Rostov’s drowsy senses, as an obscure, distant hum and roar, the shapeless aaaa and rrrr of life into which we are inexorably pulled and through which we struggle, as best we can, to find a place of safety.
book  literature  reading  russia  story  personal  movie  love 
december 2016 by aries1988
What Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace’ can teach us

The uncanny physical immediacy of War and Peace is the result of Tolstoy bringing together personal memory, family history and dense archival research into the making of his narrative.

Stylistically, it was also unlike anything anyone else had written before: raw, richly inelegant, sometimes directionless, bursting through the confines of good literary form yet stained on every page with the juice of life.

Tolstoy has us hear the overture to calamity through Rostov’s drowsy senses, as an obscure, distant hum and roar, the shapeless aaaa and rrrr of life into which we are inexorably pulled and through which we struggle, as best we can, to find a place of safety.
russia  literature  reading  book 
december 2016 by aries1988
With a little help from my friends | The Economist
the focus on preventing disease also sidelined the study of beneficial microbes, a problem exacerbated by the fact that these indigenous microbiota, exquisitely sensitive to the conditions inside the body, were almost impossible to grow in the lab.

Despite over a billion years of evolution, however, mitochondria that leak into the blood following an injury trigger a misplaced immune response that can be fatal.

Mr Yong expertly avoids these pitfalls. The ecosystem of the gut is complex, he says, and the earliest studies in a comparatively new field are frequently wrong. He also examines probiotics, and finds little evidence that the sort included in some yogurts and drinks today prevent illness or provide health benefits.
book  reading  microbe 
november 2016 by aries1988
在飞机上 毛姆是我唯一旅伴-刘瑜-财新博客-新世纪的常识传播者-财新网
对我来说,读他的小说格外感到亲切的,是他笔下那些“没有故乡的人”。他写一个人在异域文化中的脆弱感,以及从异域返回本土时同样强烈的隔阂感,非常细腻,简直可以搬来描述今天的中国“海归”。空间的游移,加上时代的沧海桑田,使得那种无家可归感有了双重含义。
reading 
october 2016 by aries1988
Andrew Sullivan: My Distraction Sickness — and Yours

At your desk at work, or at home on your laptop, you disappeared down a rabbit hole of links and resurfaced minutes (or hours) later to reencounter the world. But the smartphone then went and made the rabbit hole portable, inviting us to get lost in it anywhere, at any time, whatever else we might be doing. Information soon penetrated every waking moment of our lives.

My breathing slowed. My brain settled. My body became much more available to me. I could feel it digesting and sniffing, itching and pulsating. It was if my brain were moving away from the abstract and the distant toward the tangible and the near.

Remember, my friend Sam Harris, an atheist meditator, had told me before I left, if you’re suffering, you’re thinking.

If you’re watching a football game with your son while also texting a friend, you’re not fully with your child — and he knows it. Truly being with another person means being experientially with them, picking up countless tiny signals from the eyes and voice and body language and context, and reacting, often unconsciously, to every nuance. These are our deepest social skills, which have been honed through the aeons. They are what make us distinctively human.

in a controlled and sequestered world that exists largely free of the sudden eruptions or encumbrances of actual human interaction.

The reason we live in a culture increasingly without faith is not because science has somehow disproved the unprovable, but because the white noise of secularism has removed the very stillness in which it might endure or be reborn.

From the moment I entered a church in my childhood, I understood that this place was different because it was so quiet.

this silence demarcated what we once understood as the sacred, marking a space beyond the secular world of noise and business and shopping.

The only place like it was the library, and the silence there also pointed to something beyond it — to the learning that required time and patience, to the pursuit of truth that left practical life behind.

Has our enslavement to dopamine — to the instant hits of validation that come with a well-crafted tweet or Snapchat streak — made us happier?

just as modern street lighting has slowly blotted the stars from the visible skies, so too have cars and planes and factories and flickering digital screens combined to rob us of a silence that was previously regarded as integral to the health of the human imagination.
technology  culture  internet  meditation  distraction  essay  attention  habit  reading  information  brain  silence  thinking  family  today 
september 2016 by aries1988
李笑来 - 知乎Live分享 - 我的读书经验 - 简书

大量閱讀學術論文,真的是非常鍛鍊閱讀理解能力的,請注意我的措辭啊,不是閱讀能力,而是閱讀理解能力。重點在於理解能力,這個我一會兒還會從新提起。

所以有寫作目標的人相對來看,在閱讀的時候更容易做到有目的的閱讀和主動閱讀。

從書本當中去獲得知識的時候,最重要的一點是什麼?最重要的一點是隻字不差的閱讀,然後讀不懂的地方反覆去讀,直至把那個傳遞的信息深刻的印在自己的腦子裡。應用在自己生活當中。

阅读一定要在安静的地方吗?你觀察一下大自然你就知道了,這個傲嬌的物種必然很快滅絕。如果你只能在安靜的地方讀書,那就完啦,你隨時都有可能被打斷的。
reading  tips  thinking  howto  academia 
september 2016 by aries1988
爱看历史书籍,但看完很容易忘记具体的细节,有什么好办法么? - 知乎

首先,最直接的,就是教会我们怎样有效地去了解、去欣赏一个不同的文化世界:欧洲的修道院也好,日本的庄园经济也好,或者是其他各种不同的文明。按照本系系主任老师的说法,修读过历史系的学生,以后去了国际关系呀、传媒之类的领域,也许不会直接和古代世界打交道了;但是,在对各种纷繁的问题的时候,土耳其的政变啦、某个社会现象啦,他们知道该如何着手,他们知道哪些东西自己首先要记住,然后要去看哪些材料、追索哪些问题——在这个过程中,向有关的学者请教,也会事半功倍。

稍稍,进阶一些,就是告诉我们很多神话是如何被组织起来的。我们是一个怎样的国家,我们的民族从哪里来,到哪里去,我们从小就接受了很多这样的教育。我们至少可以问:这样的历史叙事是如何被搭建起来的?哪些地方我们要保持一些谨慎和怀疑?有没有一种可能,可以搭建成一种别的样子?哪些地方,我们可以期待一些进一步的拓展?要之,对历史的爱好依然可以带给我们很多。小一些说,她让我们在信息时代变得有效率;大一些说,她也帮助我们成为一个更好的公共人。
reading  book  history  howto  academia  tips  notes  knowledge 
september 2016 by aries1988
洞见是如何产生的?

使用思维导图可以比较好地解决这个问题。画思维导图能帮助我们跳出一词一句的细枝末节,站在篇章结构的角度对一篇文章进行审视,厘清作者的行文思路,从而对文章有更深入的理解。这种方式同样适用于大块头书籍阅读。每次读完一本书后,尝试着将书中主要观点以及读书笔记提取出来加入到思维导图中,中间如果有记忆模糊的地方再回去重新读一遍。这样的阅读方式比起浮光掠影地翻完一本书,效果要好很多。
thinking  pkm  knowledge  how  to  reading  notes 
august 2016 by aries1988
How to Better Remember and Make Use of What You Read
Q - Quote
I - Idea (topics I want to read more on)
P - Main Point
R - Research (studies I found particularly interesting)
reading  notes  book  howto 
august 2016 by aries1988
Earfare: Maria Popova, Curator of Brain Pickings via Tim Ferriss Podcast
While she rarely accepts requests to speak at professional conferences, Popova will almost always do stuff for students even if it takes up my reading and writing time.

If I can help one young person even consider a life path other than the corporate gristmill; if I can persuade one aspiring journalist to consider not working for Buzzfeed and refuse to feed the public’s appetite for mindlessness and mediocrity and to assure this young person to have faith in the possibility of building a life and a career based on E.B. White’s journalistic ideal of lifting people up rather than lowering them down, then it’s worth my time.

In mentoring and sharing with students, friends, and kindred spirits, Popova enthusiastically believes that creative culture is woven of these invisible threads of good will between people who believe in one another and art is carried on the wings of this kinship.

It’s just the record of my thought process… trying to navigate my way through the world and understand my place in it and understand how we relate to one another. How different pieces of the world relate to eachother and sort of create a pattern of meaning out of seemingly unrelated meaningless information.
summary  podcast  thinking  opinion  life  tips  reading  howto  choice  art 
august 2016 by aries1988
從Kindle電子書的Page Flip看兩種「脈絡」觀的典範更替 | Rocket Café 火箭科技評論
阅读迷人之处何在?一书在手乐趣无穷,它的入口极其简单,但进入后与文字交流的体验异常丰富。文字解读的空间感多层饱满,贴近细微、拉宽辽阔,深浅几乎无限;时间感更是魅力无穷,随情节与心情急行缓步,文字音符在心中演奏成声,阅读的每一刻都是独具风格的即兴演出。这些都不只是心思内在与物质设计无关的过程,而是手指、书面、文字、眼光协调一体的实作,是电子书的设计形式可以左右的深刻体验。

阅读,一直都是双手并用,心思不断调控决策,在文字的「虚拟空间」「意识之流」中频繁往返的积极活动。不管是要往前重访故事人物之前出现时的场景对话,恍然大悟回头确认是否「读懂了之前」原本困惑的段落,浏览尚未阅读的章节预感走向以免迷失方向,甚至探望在另一条分歧路上的读者分身确定仍在等着会合。

想想其他日常动作应该有助理解,假设你是右撇子,试着只用右手去转开果酱瓶盖、在平滑桌面的一张纸上签好你的名字、为你的衬衫扣上钮扣,你会意识到被你长期忽视的左手,如何朴实忠诚而低姿态地扮演着辅助的角色。留意你自己的阅读习惯,每次右手拨页离开之际,左手的食指(以我的习惯)总是默默地卡位等着阅读视线的归来,「拨页」是「在」与「不在」 ,「离开」与「留守」同时俱在的阅读动作,它说明了阅读跟其他许多的社会实作,一样是「身体化」(embody)的活动。
analysis  kindle  reading  thinking  habit  gadget 
august 2016 by aries1988
The End of Reflection
If you are awake for 16 hours, turning on or checking your phone 85 times means doing so about once every 11 minutes (and doesn’t account for internet use on a computer), and 5.05 hours is over 30 percent of the day.

Being distracted by the second task didn’t hurt actual performance on the first task, but it did impair the subjects’ ability to be introspective (again, by accurately self-reporting how they did). The finding supports previous widespread evidence that multitasking leads to lower cognitive performance. (With, again, other studies showing some beneficial effects of multitasking.)

Finding moments to engage in contemplative thinking has always been a challenge, since we’re distractible, said Nicholas Carr, author of The Shallows. But now that we’re carrying these powerful media devices around with us all day long, those opportunities become even less frequent, for the simple reason that we have this ability to distract ourselves constantly.

Nevertheless, he sees our current direction as indicative of the loss of the contemplative mind, he said. We’ve adopted the Google ideal of the mind, which is that you have a question that you can answer quickly: close-ended, well-defined questions. Lost in that conception is that there’s also this open-ended way of thinking where you’re not always trying to answer a question. You’re trying to go where that thought leads you. As a society, we’re saying that that way of thinking isn’t as important anymore. It’s viewed as inefficient.
thinking  research  today  reading  brain  device  human  google  zeitgeist 
june 2016 by aries1988
一百年后,人类社会会如何评价比尔·盖茨? - Arthur Tang 的回答 - 知乎
我们可以看到,读书塑造了他的理性,无论在什么访谈节目,他并不像中国的企业家,比如柳传志,刘强东,由于生长于一个高压的,类似战争的环境中,显得十分锐利,强调”血性“和”霸气“;也不像Jobs那样有非常严重的偏执的倾向(由于童年的心理缺陷带来的自虐心理)。他生长于一个幸福的家庭,有着健全的人格(但有很多技术宅身上的毛病XDD)。他永远在不停地,不停地思考,对世界保持新鲜的态度,眼神很纯净,右边嘴角微微上扬,像教科书一样地回答问题,你可以十分清晰地感受到他是一个高度理性的人。
portrait  leader  pc  computer  critic  opinion  reading 
may 2016 by aries1988
‘The English and Their History,’ by Robert Tombs - The New York Times
An encyclopedic retelling of the nation’s history tracks the changing ways it has been interpreted by the English themselves.
uk  book  history  reading 
january 2016 by aries1988
2013 Summer Reading List — Curated Recommendations For a Curious Mind
A list of multi-disciplinary books, curated by the author of the popular Farnam Street blog, that can help fill your brain.
2013  reading 
december 2015 by aries1988
Your Favorites For The Best Books of 2012
From philosophy and weight loss to writing and worldly wisdom, you read a lot in 2012. After hours of sifting through data, here is a look at your 15 favorite reads in 2012. Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, and rumors or riots …
reading  2012 
december 2015 by aries1988
Finding Time to Read
If you’re a ‘knowledge worker’ you’re paid to use your brain so it’s in your best interest to make that brain as big as possible.

Remember the tagline of this website: Mastering the best that other people have already figured out. That’d be nearly impossible without reading. In fact, it is largely through reading that we walk this path.

Charlie Munger, voracious reader, billionaire, and vice chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, once commented In my whole life, I have known no wise people (over a broad subject matter area) who didn’t read all the time – none, zero.
reading  mind  intelligence  howto  habit 
november 2015 by aries1988
How the E-Book Will Change the Way We Read and Write
Think about it. Before too long, you’ll be able to create a kind of shadow version of your entire library, including every book you’ve ever read — as a child, as a teenager, as a college student, as an adult. Every word in that library will be searchable. It is hard to overstate the impact that this kind of shift will have on scholarship. Entirely new forms of discovery will be possible. Imagine a software tool that scans through the bibliographies of the 20 books you’ve read on a specific topic, and comes up with the most-cited work in those bibliographies that you haven’t encountered yet.

In other words, an infinite bookstore at your fingertips is great news for book sales, and may be great news for the dissemination of knowledge, but not necessarily so great for that most finite of 21st-century resources: attention.

If the Kindle payment architecture takes off, it may ultimately lead the way toward the standardized micropayment system whose nonexistence has caused so much turmoil in the news business — a system many people wish had been built into the Web’s original architecture, along with those standardized page locations.
ebook  reading  technology 
november 2015 by aries1988
工科生怎么看懂《经济学人》(The Economist)? - 金融 - 知乎
“国外有人做过统计,受过良好教育的英语母语人士词汇量普遍在30000左右,而且会随着年龄增长而不断提高。所以在积累词汇量的路上是永无止境的。我们的目标应该是追求更多。”

“一般词汇量在8000左右就可以开始读经济学人了。这里要说一下词汇量的问题,多大的词汇量才够用?我的理解是,越大越好。是的,两三万算凑合,四五万也不嫌多。”

“举个例子,刚才那段节选文章里有一句: The pre-modern marauders of Islamic State (IS) rampaged between Iraq and Syria, and Russian forces dismembered Ukraine, as if borders were elastic lines rather than fixed frontiers. 读到这里有没有一种“哇,写得真牛逼“的感觉?是的,最后一句的比喻写得太棒了,把国家的边界比喻成橡皮筋,可进可退,可伸可缩,借此来讽刺IS和俄罗斯随意入侵别国的行径。”

“关键是要找到适合自己的学习材料。理想的学习材料应该满足“i+1”的原则,即你的英语水平为i ,选取的阅读材料难度为”i+1”,阅读材料不能太简单也不能太难。”
english  learn  tips  magazine  reading 
september 2015 by aries1988
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