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杭州千岛湖 9 岁失联女童遗体被找到,案件真相究竟如何? - 知乎

在宗教中,绝对真理,或者说是神——有一些宗教中唯一的神就是绝对真理本身——乃是世界的本质,遵循本质乃是人类的义务,违背本质乃是人类的谬误。而宗教的特征就是将绝对真理具体化了,通过扩大化或者扭曲化的方式,比如,变成生活中的仪规,变成感召人的诗歌,变成人性化的慰藉。但它本质还是某种真理,也就是说,驱动它的是它的义务性。
宗教只有将真理放在不可知的领域中,比如人的死后,宇宙的边界之外,时间开始之前。然后虚构出一套完整的逻辑,比如,因为天堂人感受不到痛楚,所以开水不烫手,之类的。

而迷信呢?不一样,迷信是诉诸神秘,它崇拜的不是藏在不可知之中的某种真理,它崇拜的就是不可知本身。不可知可以并没有任何道理,也可以公说公有理婆说婆有理,也可以没有任何义务性——你可以遵循不可知奉为圭臬,也可以不理会它。我们这个民族便喜爱将这样的不可知具现化,于是这样的不可知,成为生活规范同时又没有规范,成为感召人们的诗歌的同时又被焚毁,成为人性化的慰藉的同时又使人恐惧——就是这样的东西。
2019  crime  zhejiang  girl  kidnap  religion  superstition  explained  comparison 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
Good and Bad Muslims in Xinjiang - Made in China Journal

if China was pursuing an anti-Muslim policy, then wouldn’t we expect it to also sweep up the Sinophone Hui Muslims in Xinjiang? Uyghurs seem to be ending up in internment camps not because they are Muslims, but because they are Uyghurs.

Muslims who conform to the stereotype of the brown-skinned Muslim. Simply put, they will not be racialised as Muslim. Similarly, we might posit that in Xinjiang the Uyghurs have become racially Muslim in ways that the Sinophone Hui have not. Their Central Asian features increasingly signify the category ‘Muslim’, that is to say, more so than they do the category ‘Uyghur’, a classification which is losing its salience at administrative levels as the promises of China’s minzu (民族) system—the national (or ethnic) rights enshrined in the constitution—fall by the wayside.

even in times of conflict, it was rare for officials to attribute anti-state or anti-Han violence to any inherent flaw in the Islamic faith. While often disparaging of non-Chinese religions, China’s intellectual tradition had no ‘Orientalist’ discourse comparable to that of the West, which furnished explanations of Muslim anti-colonial violence in terms of a congenital ‘fanaticism’.

Just as Sufism did not necessarily cultivate a pluralistic pacifism, nor was the call to return to Islam’s founding texts—the Qurʾan and the Hadith—invariably accompanied by a rigid anti-Chinese militancy.
islam  xinjiang  china  2019  policy  world  terrorism  religion  critic  comparison  han 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
再访 Ian Johnson:宗教复兴遭遇收紧治理,中国要打一场“灵魂之战”吗?|深度|探索学院|端传媒 Initium Media
中国宗教政策的转机其实始于1982年,邓小平宣布落实“宗教信仰自由”政策,中共下发19号文件要求重新认识宗教和民族问题。即便是在文件公布的数字里,人们也惊奇地发现,在中国宗教遭受过控制、打压、改造甚至消灭的环境下,基督教人数仍然取得惊人增长。香港中文大学神学院院长邢福增认为,这绝不可能是1979年之后才发生的,他引用自己有关中国基督徒的口述史研究,佐证这场复苏是从文革期间的地下状态或第二社会(The Second Society)开始的。

英文学界的一些主张曾经认为,只有制度性的、正统的宗教才能酝酿出真正的信仰,并以此认为中国没有宗教。张彦没有囿于这种认识,他对中国宗教信仰的评价更接近学者杨庆堃的“弥散性宗教”(diffused religion,又译分散性宗教)的概念,即不成系统却无处不在。张彦形容所有宗教像在一个持续的光谱(Spectrum)里:“一方面,宗教是非常哲学化的,是关于精神领域的,另外一方面,宗教有纯仪式的一面。”因此,他不轻视“拜拜求平安”这样的普通民众看似“无主”的宗教生活,同时分配了一大部分注意力给不经中国政府认证的“地下教会”。

为加强“党的全面领导”,中国各地开展“四进”活动,意指国旗、宪法、社会主义核心价值观、中华优秀传统文化进入宗教场所,这些做法为境外各类“中国禁闻”增添了啼笑皆非的谈资。

我认为宗教复兴提供了一种新的方式,让中国人自己产出一套新的、属于中国人自己的价值体系。你知道,政府想要将自己的价值体系(社会主义核心价值观)强加到人民身上,政府也拥有这种至上而下的权力。虽然社会主义核心价值观中,也包涵一些有价值的传统观念,但这些传统观念是对政府有利的。我注意到的一件事是,很多人觉得中国在过去的一个半世纪里,丢失了很多框架、传统、价值体系和人们在社会中共同生存的方式。这些年人们尝试重新去寻找这些东西,很多底层的中国人民开始寻找自己的传统和价值观。

欧洲,柏林墙也倒塌了。中国的共产党看到并研究了欧洲的这一变化,他们注意到共产主义在欧洲失败的部分原因是因为那里有太多民主社会组织了,比如说波兰的基督教会、东德的新教教会,贸易组织等等。中国领导是不会允许宗教组织发展到如此有组织性的地步的。

我个人不认为任何一种宗教可以拯救中国,但中国可以通过发展宗教去改变自己。

政府想要利用宗教,并且选择宗教中的赢家和输家。比如现在,政府选择的就是佛教和道教,于是他们就攻击基督教和伊斯兰教,于是便会发生各种情况。

宗教局前局长叶小文,他管理宗教局很长一段时间,他相对比较独立、是个很有意思的人物,但是政府可能不喜欢这样,可能政府认为宗教局有太多所谓专家,而且对宗教太过同情。即便宗教局的人是无神论者,他们还是会同情并理解宗教。

法轮功跟基督教家庭教会相比,规模还是算小的。所以我认为政府不会再这样打压宗教。

去年政府关闭了三个最有名的地下教会(编注:北京锡安教会、成都秋雨教会、广州荣桂里)

政府注意到了宗教的复兴并且想去控制它,就像几年前政府控制了非营利组织(NGO)一样,在这之前他们还控制了网络。共产党有时可能需要一些时间去做出反应,但他们总是会做出反应的。

假如在中国有1600万天主教徒,一半在独立教会一半在政府教会,如果每个独立教会有500名成员,那么就会有16000个教会。实际数字一定比这个更多,因为不是所有教会都有500人这么大的规模。所以我认为政府不可能关闭所有教会,他们所做的是在警告:第一,不要有政治倾向,第二,不要有太高的组织性。

新疆发生的一切是很可怕的悲剧,你不能用武力去改变人们的想法。

中国对不同的宗教有不同的应对方式,培植佛教、道教、民间信仰,但打击外来宗教如天主教及伊斯兰教。

我认为“政府”(government)也是一样,它没办法控制社会的所有方面。它或许可以控制非营利组织、关闭独立电影节、终止女性运动、民办教会,但是到最后这些只会毁了政府自身。我认为一个健康的社会需要非营利组织和各种公民组织。一个稳定的社会不应是人造的、外表强大的国家,看似坚硬实则易碎,都是外强中干的。

天主教在过去几年间的人数增长几乎“停滞”。你看,新教教徒从1949年的100万人到今天,大概有5000-6000万的规模,佛教、道教的人数以亿计,而天主教徒仅仅是从300万到了1000万,这期间中国人口数量翻了三倍(编注:1949年的4亿到如今的近14亿),意味著天主教教徒的增幅仅与人口增长相当。

我认为天主教的问题是它没有参与到宗教复兴中去,它是唯一一个没有发展壮大的。教皇可能认为如果解决了牧师等人事问题,比如若是可以让主教、牧师都被合法认证,那么教会就可以更好的发展。

当中国政府说“宗教本土化”的时候,他们的真正意思其实是所有在中国的宗教都应该被完全控制。

我认为这种爱国主义的问题在于人们获取的信息有限,所以他们经常下意识的就认为政府有在做事。

至于共产主义,我认为现在几乎没有人真的信仰共产主义了。我觉得对很多人来说,他们寻找的是一种理想主义的东西,而这其中共产主义相对来说比较安全可靠,因为毕竟中国还是一个共产主义国家。但我不确定人们是否还真的有被共产主义所激励著。

有机的(Organic)东西是从公民社会中产生的。不管怎么说,好莱坞就是美国的一个软实力,但它不是政府的产物。所有的好莱坞电影,以及这些电影所传播的美国思想,都不是政府权力。

真正的软实力是,以佛教为例,如果中国的佛教足够活跃,有新的佛教思想家出现、新的佛教书籍出现,就像20世纪太虚大师创办的“人间佛教”,那么世界其他地方的人会赞叹中国发生的这一切,他们会认为中国一定是一个非常好的国家。这才是真正的软实力,而不是孔子学院这种政府控制的东西。
religion  interview  chinese  government  today  buddhism  christianity  opinion  explained  policy 
march 2019 by aries1988
孔令伟评《丝绸之路与唐帝国》︱“中央欧亚”的流动_上海书评_澎湃新闻

过去研究安史之乱的学者,多半从中国史内部的视野,认为安史之乱起源于安禄山与李林甫的政治斗争。然而从中央欧亚大陆长时段的历史发展看来,安史之乱可以被视为征服王朝的先驱,亦即中央欧亚大陆骑马民族通过结合游牧社会军事力与丝路贸易经济力二者,试图将南方的中原纳入势力范围的一种趋势。然而根据森安本人所划分的历史分期,这个趋势一直要到十世纪北方游牧文化与南方农业社会进一步深入融合并形成一系列稳定的行政、商业、情报制度,方才臻于完备。而八世纪所崛起的安史势力,仍不具备这些军事以外的统治条件,因此森安称之为过早的征服王朝(310页)。换句话说,就中央欧亚史的脉络而言,安史之乱虽然仍不具备作为征服王朝的成熟条件,却深刻体现了辽、金、元、清等征服王朝的发展轨迹。

森安指出回鹘在与吐蕃的边界战争中占得上风,加上唐朝与吐蕃讲和,最终形成了九世纪二十年代唐朝、回鹘、吐蕃三国会盟的鼎立局面,这个局面维持约二十年余年,直到九世纪四十年代回鹘与吐蕃帝国崩溃。而北庭争夺战的历史意义,在于阻挡了吐蕃帝国的北进,确立了突厥语系的回鹘人在今日中亚的地位,这个影响直至今日(355页)

原本活跃于丝绸之路的粟特人,则由于八世纪中叶以后阿拔斯王朝等伊斯兰政权进入中亚后,逐步伊斯兰化而其原有的语言与宗教传统相对受到限缩。但这并不意味着粟特文化的遗产完全消失,大约在十世纪后期至十四世纪前期,粟特文化的影响仍体现在中央欧亚的佛教壁画及个别语言词汇中。此外粟特语也被以语言岛的形式,被保存在今日塔吉克斯坦境内的雅格诺比语(Yaghnobi)社群中。而根据粟特字母所创制的回鹘文字,也先后在十三世纪与十六世纪末成为蒙古文以及满文的构成基础,从而为后世中央欧亚大陆的历史发展留下深刻的遗产(356-357页)。
tang  history  xinjiang  middle-asia  religion  book  japanese 
january 2019 by aries1988
How the Inkas governed, thrived and fell without alphabetic writing

Instead of writing, the Inkas’ principal bureaucratic tool was the khipu. A khipu consists of a number of strings or cords, either cotton or wool, systematically punctuated with knots, hanging from a master cord or length of wood; pendant cords might also have subsidiary cords. The basis of khipu accounting practice was the decimal system, achieved by tying knots with between one and nine loops to represent single numerals, then adding elaborations to designate 10s, 100s or 1,000s. By varying the length, width, colour and number of the pendant cords, and tying knots of differing size and type to differentiate data, the Inkas turned the khipu into a remarkably versatile device for recording, checking and preserving information.

It is hard to see how alphabetic writing would have helped the Inkas to administer Tahuantinsuyu more efficiently: this was not an intensively governed empire but a federation of tribute-paying and politically allegiant provinces. In other spheres of government, such as law, writing would doubtless have made more of a difference, leading perhaps to the development of written law-codes, arguably even a ‘constitution’. But since writing was never developed, imperial rule remained weakly institutionalised, leading to a concentration of power and office, which meant that when the Sapa Inka was removed, there was little to fall back on.

Inka religion, which was broadly speaking animistic, acknowledged many gods, ranging from heavenly bodies (Sun, Moon, stars) to topographical features (mountains, rivers, springs) to ancestors, whose earthly remains were venerated to a degree that baffled Europeans – although most of them made little attempt to understand such practices, disparaging them as heathen, folk-magic or simply childish.
americas  civ  opinion  writing  religion  fail  espagna 
january 2019 by aries1988
Why Are Americans Still Uncomfortable with Atheism?

Lack of belief in God is still too often taken to mean the absence of any other meaningful moral beliefs, and that has made atheists an easy minority to revile. This is especially true in America, where an insistence on the idea that we are a Christian nation has tied patriotism to religiosity, leading to such strange paroxysms as the one produced by President Trump at last year’s Values Voter Summit: “In America, we don’t worship government—we worship God.”

the national prejudice against them long predates Daniel Seeger and his draft board. It has its roots both in the intellectual history of the country and in a persistent anti-intellectual impulse: the widespread failure to consider what it is that unbelievers actually believe.

From John Locke they inherited the idea that atheists cannot be good citizens and should not be brought into the social contract; in “A Letter Concerning Toleration,” Locke had written, “Those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the being of a God.”

Two centuries after the Founders wrote a godless constitution, the federal government got religion: between 1953 and 1957, a prayer breakfast appeared on the White House calendar, a prayer room opened in the Capitol, “In God We Trust” was added to all currency, and “under God” was inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance.

Like saying “God bless you” when someone sneezes, the courts concluded, these “under God”s and “In God We Trust”s are innocuous; they belong to the realm of patriotism, not prayer.

Much of the animosity and opprobrium directed at nonbelievers in America comes from the suspicion that those who do not believe in God could not possibly believe in anything else, moral or otherwise.

Unlike the linguist—and new atheist—Steven Pinker, Gray regards the idea that the world is getting better as self-evidently silly. “The cumulative increase of knowledge in science has no parallel in ethics or politics,” he points out. Religions are still thriving, as are wars between them, and secular regimes have wrought as much, if not more, havoc under the auspices of Jacobinism, Bolshevism, Nazism, and Maoism.
religion  law  usa  american  mentality  politics  atheism 
october 2018 by aries1988
陈浩武:为什么要让石门坎重新回归公众视野?
我们今天要让石门坎重新回归公众视野,并非突然发思古之幽情,而是因为中国当下普遍面临着一种深刻的精神危机,这种危机就表现在社会仅仅关注经济增长而罔顾对环境造成的破坏,甚至有断子绝孙之忧;再加上人际之间信任关系丧失,精神领域的荒废、理想的荒芜、信仰的崩溃、道德的沦丧这些方面,我相信所有的人都不会怀疑当今社会所存在的这些问题。

唐代“会昌法难”以后,佛教的精神气质在发生变化,它不再是原来印度的那个佛教。其中,以龙树为代表的大乘佛教哲学思想,逐步被佛教的净土宗和禅宗取代;佛教的净土宗和禅宗是非常世俗化的宗教,而具有哲学思辨意义的“三论宗”和“天台宗”基本消失。今天在中国大陆,已经找不到原教旨意义上的天台宗寺院。我几乎走遍了中国现存的大概几十座天台宗的寺庙,它们都成了禅宗寺院。

佛家由于没有经历过宗教改革,没有神学思想的觉悟,它对精英阶层慢慢地丧失了吸引力。另外,我们在全世界的范围内,也找不到一个佛家文化导致这个国家现代化的范本,说明佛教和现代文明是明显地缺乏亲和力的。

“五四运动”带来的一个最直接的结果,就是马克思主义在中国的传播。当时的思想领域有三大流派:以陈独秀、李大钊为代表的激进的革命派,以胡适、蔡元培为代表的所谓自由主义,和以章士钊、严复为代表的保守主义。前面两派在五四运动以后形成国共两党,他们在某一点上是完全一致的,就是主张激进革命,主张反传统,打倒孔家店;而保守主义的一派很快销声匿迹。在这种情况下,中国无论是儒、释、道,到了文革,统统都变得奄奄一息。
minguo  intelligentsia  religion  buddhism  confucianism  activist  today 
october 2018 by aries1988
葛兆光:中国是现代民族国家和传统帝国的混合体 | 政见 CNPolitics.org
我们把civilization这个词用来做一个普遍性的规则,而文化culture这个词我们把它说是中国传统的东西。我们认为就传统文化而言,各个民族没有高低之分,没有哪一个culture好一点,哪一个culture比较不好。但是,文明是有不同的,因为文明是要学习的,而且是跟知识、教养、秩序是有关系的。

我总觉得中国是一个非常特殊的例子。一方面呢,我在书里面一再强调:从公元1000年,也就是差不多宋代的时候,就已经有类似于欧洲nation-state(民族国家)的那种意识。这个idea不是制度上的,而是思想上的。但是另外一方面呢,中国始终保留了帝国的观念,帝国的制度。比方说,一直到后来,它都觉得应该有朝贡体制,有一个天下的、中央的、天朝大国的那种秩序。所以,中国的历史和欧洲的历史不一样的地方,就是说中国并不是从传统的帝国转向现代的民族国家,而是民族国家和帝国是混在一起的。也就是说,一方面它有现代民族国家的一些因素,但是它另外一方面又保留了帝国的想象和意识。所以,这两个东西并没有像欧洲那样从传统到现代。

在中国,正因为传统的帝国和现代的民族国家混在一起,所以现在很多问题都出在这里。它面对的是一个已经现代了的国际秩序,但是它又有很多传统的帝国想象。怎么办?我们之所以会讨论这个问题,其实和中国当下的问题有许多联系。比方说,中国政府在处理对外关系的时候和处理对内的民族问题的时候,有许多复杂的问题其实跟这个历史──跟这个特别的历史——是有关系的,所以就带来很多很多困难。你单纯地按照现代国际秩序、国际法则来处理问题好办,或者干脆你回到帝国时代去也好办,但是这两个混在一起的时候,就带来很多麻烦。你看看现在中国政府官员的脑子里,到现在仍然是这两个东西是混在一起的。

这种以父子关系为主轴的这种放大了的家族、家国的结构,才是孔夫子的思想基础。脱离了这个社会结构,孔夫子就变成了抽象的道德。但实际上在那个时候,他不是抽象的道德,他还是一套治理整个社会、建立政治秩序的一整套方法。

历史记忆在中国太多地被控制。这也是为什么我们很多知识份子都希望重写历史,比如民间历史、公共历史(public history)。这样的东西,都是试图瓦解固定的、强大的、意识形态的那种历史记忆,这是大家都在做的事情。但是说实话,作用很有限,因为历史教科书你改变不了,公共的纪念性的东西你改变不了,还有电视电影要很多钱的,你也控制不了。所以你也没有办法

这些冲突呢,造成现在中国的很多问题。这些问题肯定都是跟历史有关的,这三个问题都来自历史,而且是很长的历史,可能是几百年的,甚至是一千年的历史。

马克思主义的论述方式和逻辑性对我们有影响,但是价值观大概影响很小,我们这一代人大概都会有这样的经历

您探索的这些关于身份认同、文化移入、跨文化现象、文化改变和文化的概念,这些问题从本质上而言都是人类学的问题。
像疆域民族国家宗教认同这样的问题,我们主要从历史角度来看,包括它的形成、变化和历史过程来看。但是,人类学会分析它的结构和现状这些问题。

在各个地方,你可以看到国家在塑造这些宗教的时候,它的力量很强。这一点跟西方的伊斯兰教和基督教很不一样。它们都是超越国家的宗教,超越了很多很多国家变成了一个宗教。可是佛教、道教本来都是一个宗教,但是在各个国家就变成了不一样的东西了,它们的命运也不一样。比如中国和日本的佛教完全不同,怎么理解这样的现象?
religion  ethnography  history  book  expert  china  today  interview 
july 2018 by aries1988
linsantu 5月27日 22:05 来自 微博

美国目前的教派势力图。最显眼的三家:红色天主教,蓝色美南浸会,土黄色摩门教。
usa  religion  today  numbers  list 
may 2018 by aries1988
蒙元佛道之争
在金庸先生的小说中,以七子为首的全真教道士都是以抵抗外族侵略的仁人志士面目出现的。历史真相并非如此。蒙元史博士鸣飞老师和《路书》主播一起,从文献、史迹这两个维度,细述蒙元时期的佛道辩论和全真教的兴衰。
taoist  religion  history  origin  china 
april 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:存在就是宣傳

中國信奉伊斯蘭的人真的很少嗎?當然不是,兩千五百萬人已經是世界上很多國家的總人口了。

有這種想法的大腦,是國家意識形態機器的天然容器,兩者可謂一拍即合,而且互相生成,彼此支持,雞生下了蛋,蛋又孵出了雞。因為他們全都相信,任何一種在公共領域當中出現的東西,必定都是宣傳。

因為根據公共領域當中「存在即宣傳」的原理,一部客觀詳實地去分析上述問題的書,就必然是一份台獨的政治宣傳。
2018  tourist  religion  propaganda  censorship 
march 2018 by aries1988
邢福增:下一代靈魂之爭──中國未成年人還可否信教?|端傳媒 Initium Media
中共正以保護未成年人的心身健康成長為名,藉強化社會主義核心價值觀,企圖進一步禁止未成年人參加宗教活動。
religion  china  policy  law  children  catholicism 
february 2018 by aries1988
He died as he lived: David Hume, philosopher and infidel | Aeon Ideas

Ever tactful, Boswell immediately brought up the subject of the afterlife, asking if there might not be a future state. Hume replied that ‘it was possible that a piece of coal put upon the fire would not burn; and he added that it was a most unreasonable fancy that we should exist for ever’.

Boswell persisted, asking if he was not made uneasy by the thought of annihilation, to which Hume responded that he was no more perturbed by the idea of ceasing to exist than by the idea that he had not existed before he was born.
scotland  death  religion  thinking  leader  philosophy  19C 
february 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:只准賣馬槽,不准過聖誕

一邊替全世界各種宗教生產他們最需要的東西,另一邊嚴格管控它們的流行;在我看來,想要瞭解今日中國社會境況,恐怕很難找到比這個看起來十分諷刺的矛盾更加鮮明的案例。「開放」的意思大概就是這個樣子:只要和錢相關,一切都好說;可是只要碰到意識形態,那就寸步難行。

卻照樣找得到安身立命之道。今天的問題是宗教也好,非宗教的精神傳統也好,所有能夠照顧終極關懷的精神資源,在中國似乎都沒有一片自由自在的立足之地。
trade  tradition  china  religion  spiritual  society  control  government  world  chinese  today  money 
december 2017 by aries1988
Opinion | Away in a Manger... Or Under a Palm Tree?

But we can know something: Jesus of Nazareth must have been an amazing man. Had he been a just a Jewish carpenter from rural Galilee or one of the many militants at his time pretending to be a political Messiah, today we would not be discussing where he was born.

Jesus of Nazareth must rather have been an amazing man who, with his striking persona and fascinating teachings, captured the hearts and minds of not just his contemporaries but also many more to come. His legacy is so great that two of the world’s great religions, Christianity and Islam, sing his praises — even if they disagree on his theological nature or his exact birthplace.

So this Christmas, say, “Glory be to him,” as Christians say — or “Peace be upon him,” as we Muslims do. And either way, merry Christmas to us all!
religion  christianity  islam  jesus 
december 2017 by aries1988
Opinion | Does Religion Make People Moral?

In the past, he noted, moral conservatives like him would argue that “there could be no morality without religion.” But now, he wrote, “there should be no religion without morality.”

My humble answer is: It depends. Religion can work in two fundamentally different ways: It can be a source of self-education, or it can be a source of self-glorification. Self-education can make people more moral, while self-glorification can make them considerably less moral.

Religion can be a source of self-education, because religious texts often have moral teachings with which people can question and instruct themselves.

But trying to nurture moral virtues is one thing; assuming that you are already moral and virtuous simply because you identify with a particular religion is another. The latter turns religion into a tool for self-glorification.
religion  morality  opinion  turkey 
december 2017 by aries1988
Martin Scorsese’s Strained “Silence” | The New Yorker

They hail from Portugal, although you might not immediately guess as much from their speech; should you wish to be charitable (and the movie is designed to kindle the conscience), you would describe Rodrigues’s accent as itinerant—it wanders freely between, say, Amsterdam and Trieste, seeking sanctuary where it may.

Of the two movies, Scorsese’s is infinitely the subtler and more elegantly wrought, patient and pensive where Gibson opts for pugnacity, yet Hacksaw Ridge exerts something—a basic grip on the audience, tugging at our nerves and our desire to forge ahead—that Silence cannot quite muster.

The image is doubly devotional. Scorsese is insisting on the lifelong urge to keep faith with God, but, equally, no film director can delve into a conflagration to find a single object—trusted and mislaid, though never forgotten—and not pay tribute to the end of Citizen Kane, where the sled once belonging to the young Charlie Kane is casually tossed into a furnace
movie  japan  critic  religion  director  moi 
december 2017 by aries1988
专访王柯:极端的民族主义,一定是与世界为敌|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
实际上,本身中华文化是多重的,其最早就是由不同的异民族创造,并不是汉人自己创造的文化,而是来自于异民族向这个地方的移动。他们到达之后,为了说明自己建立政权的正当性,用神话来解释自己的历史,才导致了“权威的产生”。

夏商周三代,都是异民族开始的政权,他们到中原来建立政权的时候,就一定要对中原的人说他们建立政权的正当性。说明正当性的方法是什么呢?就是天命,我们应天命而来。

所以在清朝,北京叫顺天,南京叫应天,满洲就叫奉天。

所谓的天,日本说的“天无私照”,这就是日本的大神──“天照大神”的来源。所以实际上,向心力不是别的东西,其实就是一种对公平正义平等的向往。

最后,我对民族主义深恶痛绝。

也许从小的方面来看,对一个民族或有好处,但从整体来看,民族主义一定是需要敌人的。这个角度来看,我对中国过去通过民族主义来建国这条路,是深恶痛绝的。
opinion  research  politics  history  china  chinese  japan  nation  state  religion  ethnic  crisis  bio 
november 2017 by aries1988
Comment Martin Luther a inventé le buzz, 500 ans avant Internet

Il y a 500 ans, Martin Luther publiait ses 95 thèses pour dénoncer le trafic de l'Eglise catholique qui vendait littéralement des places au paradis. Mais le père de la réforme protestante ne s'attendait pas à un si grand succès médiatique. Un entretien avec son biographe en démonte les ressorts.

Beaucoup de laïcs, de gens moyennement cultivés mais qui pouvaient au moins écrire en allemand, se sont faits les diffuseurs des idées de Luther, parce qu’il leur avait apporté un message qui les réconfortait.

C’est aussi quelqu’un qui a su donner une réponse pastorale, apaisante, réconfortante, cohérente, au tourment de ses contemporains qui se demandaient vraiment : "Est-ce que je peux réussir ma mort ? Comment est-ce que ça va se passer pour moi dans l’au-delà ?"

Ce que Luther a compris, c’est qu’il y avait un certain nombre de questions que l’on pouvait traiter dans de petits écrits destinés à un large public et rédigés en allemand. Et cela, ses adversaires ne l’ont pas compris d’emblée.

un bon nombre de clercs et de laïcs se sont mis à leur tour à écrire, à publier ce qu’on appelle des feuilles volantes, des Flugschriften, de petits écrits imprimés, dans lesquels ils exprimaient la manière dont eux avaient compris les idées de Luther. Donc ils se sont faits en quelque sorte des démultiplicateurs des écrits de Luther, et ça, c’est tout à fait nouveau à cette époque.
deutsch  media  communication  mass  religion  zeitgeist  middle-age  leader  movement  europe  history  explained  mentality  question  death  life  bio  book  français 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Martin Luther Changed the World

If the Ninety-five Theses sprouted a myth, that is no surprise. Luther was one of those figures who touched off something much larger than himself; namely, the Reformation—the sundering of the Church and a fundamental revision of its theology. Once he had divided the Church, it could not be healed. His reforms survived to breed other reforms, many of which he disapproved of. His church splintered and splintered. To tote up the Protestant denominations discussed in Alec Ryrie’s new book, “Protestants” (Viking), is almost comical, there are so many of them. That means a lot of people, though. An eighth of the human race is now Protestant.

Indeed, the horrific Thirty Years’ War, in which, basically, Europe’s Roman Catholics killed all the Protestants they could, and vice versa, can in some measure be laid at Luther’s door. Although it did not begin until decades after his death, it arose in part because he had created no institutional structure to replace the one he walked away from.

The Reformation wasn’t led, exactly; it just spread, metastasized.

Why had God given his only begotten son? And why had the son died on the cross? Because that’s how much God loved the world. And that alone, Luther now reasoned, was sufficient for a person to be found “justified,” or worthy. From this thought, the Ninety-five Theses were born. Most of them were challenges to the sale of indulgences. And out of them came what would be the two guiding principles of Luther’s theology: sola fide and sola scriptura.

Luther’s collected writings come to a hundred and twenty volumes. In the first half of the sixteenth century, a third of all books published in German were written by him.

Luther very consciously sought a fresh, vigorous idiom. For his Bible’s vocabulary, he said, “we must ask the mother in the home, the children on the street,” and, like other writers with such aims—William Blake, for example—he ended up with something songlike. He loved alliteration—“Der Herr ist mein Hirte” (“The Lord is my shepherd”); “Dein Stecken und Stab” (“thy rod and thy staff”)—and he loved repetition and forceful rhythms. This made his texts easy and pleasing to read aloud, at home, to the children.

His goal was not to usher in modernity but simply to make religion religious again. Heinz Schilling writes, “Just when the lustre of religion threatened to be outdone by the atheistic and political brilliance of the secularized Renaissance papacy, the Wittenberg monk defined humankind’s relationship to God anew and gave back to religion its existential plausibility.” Lyndal Roper thinks much the same. She quotes Luther saying that the Church’s sacraments “are not fulfilled when they are taking place but when they are being believed.” All he asked for was sincerity, but this made a great difference.
book  bio  reform  leader  religion  history  europe  medieval  story  printing 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Martin Luther has shaped Germany for half a millennium

Start with aesthetics. For Luther this was, like everything else, a serious matter. He believed that Christians were guaranteed salvation through Jesus but had a duty to live in such a way as to deserve it.

Ostentation was thus a disgraceful distraction from the asceticism required to examine one’s own conscience. The traces of this severity live on in Germany’s early 20th-century Bauhaus architecture, and even in the furniture styles at IKEA (from Lutheran Sweden).

The Swiss Protestants John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli viewed music as sensual temptation and frowned on it. But to Luther music was a divinely inspired weapon against the devil. He wanted believers to sing together—in German, in church and at home, and with instruments accompanying them. Today Germany has 130 publicly financed orchestras, more than any other country. And concerts are still attended like sermons, sombrely and seriously.

Germany, the world’s 17th-most populous country, has the second-largest book market after America’s. After he translated the Bible into German, Luther wanted everyone, male or female, rich or poor, to read it. At first Protestants became more literate than Catholics; ultimately all Germans became bookish.

To Luther, Christians were already saved, so wealth was suspect. Instead of amassing it, Christians should work for their community, not themselves. Work (Beruf) thus became a calling (Berufung). Not profit but redistribution was the goal. According to Gerhard Wegner, a professor of theology, this “Lutheran socialism” finds secular expression in the welfare states of Scandinavia and Germany.
deutschland  deutsch  leader  religion  reform  anniversary  protestant  comparison  music  legacy  culture  society  mentality 
november 2017 by aries1988
What did Luther ever do for us? Not as much as we like to think

What is true of Luther, 500 years ago, is that backed by the painstaking detail of a scholar, he took an intellectual stand against the most powerful forces of his day. He was not a 21st century free-speech hero; he condemned those he saw as heretics. But Lutheranism ushered in an age in which debates were won by those who read the sources and rejected received interpretations.
twitter  history  religion  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
The Islamic World Doesn't Need a Reformation - The Atlantic

There is simply is no “Muslim Pope,” or a central organization like the Catholic hierarchy, whose suffocating authority needs to be broken. Quite the contrary, the Muslim world—at least the Sunni Muslim world, which constitutes its overwhelming majority—has no central authority at all, especially since the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924 by Republican Turkey. The ensuing chaos in itself seems be a part of “the problem.”

The contemporary Muslim world needs not a Martin Luther but a John Locke, whose arguments for freedom of conscience and religious toleration planted the seeds of liberalism. In particular, the more religion-friendly British Enlightenment, rather than the French one, can serve as a constructive model.

Islam, as a legalist religion, has more commonalities with Judaism than with Christianity.

in a reality where the state is already deeply involved in religion, its steps toward moderation and liberalization should be welcome. It’s also worth remembering that the success of the Enlightenment in Europe was partly thanks to the era of “Enlightened despots,” the monarchs who preserved their power even as they realized crucial legal, social, and educational reforms.
from:rss  religion  islam  opinion  enlightenment  future  comparison  christianity  history  politics 
november 2017 by aries1988
A Brooklyn Gospel Choir Goes to China | ChinaFile
This was the first of many surprises for the choir as it traversed China. Haye’s experience illuminates the contradictions and idiosyncrasies of the ongoing surge in spirituality in the nation of 1.4 billion people.

Amidst fast-paced economic development, a new generation in China is seeking more from life than material pleasure alone, and some are turning to religion. Christian fellowships are growing fastest among all faiths, at about 7 percent a year.

At this rate of expansion, in a few years China’s estimated 70 million Christians will outnumber members of the Communist Party, whose 90 million head count grew by just over 1 percent in 2015.

“I thought of communism, I thought of people being deprived or people not having personal identity or people having boundaries. I thought that communism meant that the government was oppressive,” said Haye.

It may be, Haye said, “But what I saw was people that, if given lemons, they made lemonade. They adapt.”

“We don’t think too much about how the government will treat us. We just have peace and joy and God. We just do everything we must do.”
china  concert  festival  suzhou  music  religion  christian 
november 2017 by aries1988
The Bloody End of the Islamic State's Utopian Dream

Like most utopian movements, the Islamic State was barbaric and iniquitous, precisely because it held its own refinement and egalitarianism in such high regard. Assume eventual absolution by history or God, and anything goes in the meantime.
2017  isis  comparison  ideology  religion 
october 2017 by aries1988
British Museum and BBC team up to explore belief through objects | Culture | The Guardian
MacGregor – an acclaimed art historian, curator and devout Christian – examines shared rituals, festivals, pilgrimages and sacrifices and the relationship between belief, society and politics.

People at the time were “living on the edge. What they most need to do is find food and keep warm and yet they allow someone amongst them to spend over 400 hours making a sculpture … Clearly, people are trying to come to terms with their environment, to reshape or transcend their environment. They’re thinking, believing, trying to transcend the daily grind of keeping their lives together.”
society  religion  history  podcast  bbc  museum 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Atheist Who Strangled Me - The Atlantic

Along the way, Harris developed an interest in the Ultimate Fighting Championship, a freestyle martial-arts competition, begun in 1993, that he describes as “a science experiment that martial artists had waited centuries to have happen.” Would a boxer win? A karate guy? A wrestler? “It was everyone’s fantasy,” Harris told me. “Who’s stronger: Batman or Superman?” The outcome of the first UFC was clear: Royce Gracie, Ryron’s uncle, won handily, and the Gracie school of jiu-jitsu established itself as first among equals.

“The great strength of jiu-jitsu,” Harris told me, “is that there really are no illusions.” BJJ practitioners generally don’t punch or kick, but the holds and locks they do use can be tested as if in real-world conditions. As a result, “Ryron knows that if he puts you in a triangle choke, you’re going to sleep in six to 10 seconds.”
religion  interview  story  debate  martial-arts 
september 2017 by aries1988
Growing Up As An Untouchable
What I was told was that we were Christians. Christians, untouchables—it came to the same thing. All Christians in India were untouchable, as far as I knew (though only a small minority of all untouchables are Christian).

Christians, untouchables—it came to the same thing. All Christians in India were untouchable, as far as I knew (though only a small minority of all untouchables are Christian).

I knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu. I knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.

Excerpted from Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India by Sujatha Gidla. Published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Copyright © 2017 by Sujatha Gidla. All rights reserved.
india  book  story  family  caste  revolution  religion  children  teenager 
august 2017 by aries1988
Southeast Asia enters the danger zone
what is good about Southeast Asia — including kindness to strangers, humour, inclusiveness and flexibility — but rather that he sees these very qualities being eclipsed by a mixture of old-fashioned tyranny and baneful new influences from abroad.

inequality — and the selfishness of the business-political elites that have benefited disproportionately from economic growth both before and after Asia’s financial crisis.

America, in Brexit Britain and in oligarchical Hong Kong, so the 40 per cent of Indonesians clustered around a poverty

the 40 per cent of Indonesians clustered around a poverty earnings line of $2 a day are easy prey for demagogues. It is true that prosperity has also swollen the ranks of Asia’s middle class, but this aspiring and increasingly educated bourgeoisie is governed by the same set of authoritarian leaders and their coterie of tycoons. “This is not a sustainable paradox,” the author writes. It sounds like a recipe for revolution.

As for religion, the increasing influence of extremist Sunni interpretations of Islam over the past 30 years is startlingly visible in the dress codes and religiosity of the Muslims who make up 40 per cent of the region’s population
asia  banyan  geopolitics  today  book  opinion  economy  politics  religion  numbers  crisis  inequality 
july 2017 by aries1988
How Might Ethnonationalism Replace Religion?
If you are like me, you were transfixed by Shadi Hamid‘s NPR interview this morning. He touched broadly on two issues: the compatibility of Islam and democracy, and the consequences of the declining religious support in the West for the rise of ethnonationalism.
ethnonationalism, white pride, and other forms of identity politics fill the void in meaning where religion once was.

First, religion might provide individual psychological benefits, creating what we might term meaning-in-belief.
religion creates social structures that provide collective social benefits to those who participate.

There is a stronger argument here, but that contemporary expressions of ethnonationalism in the U.S. remain too disjointed and episodic to be convincingly doing this work.
The distinctive thing about Nazi Germany was not the presence or celebration of anti-Semites, it was the organization of anti-Semites into a team.
comparison  nazi  germany  opinion  usa  today  politics  racism  ethnic  religion  conflict  future  society 
june 2017 by aries1988
His Kampf

Was Hitchens’s critique of Christianity, he said, not as wan and naive as Christianity itself? Christianity had bound together the civilizations of Europe, and now Hitchens wanted to replace it with—well, what exactly? American neoliberal internationalism? Why should anyone care if Christianity was irrational and illiberal, when rationality and liberalism had never been its purpose? Hitchens had missed the point.

In his view, the Bush administration had manipulated the country into war. “Spreading democracy” and “freedom” are, Spencer said, false ideals, distracting Americans from what really matters—namely, a consciousness of their identity as whites with a shared Christian heritage.

In December, the hipster-Marxist magazine Jacobin published an online essay, “The Elite Roots of Richard Spencer’s Racism,” that sought to understand his white supremacy. “He represents a common and longstanding (if overlooked) phenomenon: the well-educated and financially comfortable bigot,” the author, Michael Phillips, wrote. “His blend of racism and elitism represents only an extreme version of a worldview that has long prevailed among the affluent in Spencer’s hometown.”

Among the German ideas he adopted was a concept of race different from the one he and I had been taught in our multicultural workshops in the ’90s. In the modern era, American discussion of race has limited itself, by convention, to a few canonical categories: black, white, Asian, American Indian, Hispanic. “Race isn’t just color,” Spencer told an audience in December. “Color is, in a way, a minor aspect of race.”

For Spencer, race is more akin to the German Volksgeist, literally “the spirit of a people.” Volksgeist is associated, historically, with Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803), and Germans became enchanted with it during the 19th century. Some would say the Second World War was the culmination of German devotion to their own Volksgeist. Herder’s followers proposed that each people has an essence that distinguishes it from others.

As one who knew Spencer when we were both hapless, overprivileged adolescents, sharing a desire to transcend our origins, what interests me the most about him is his self-reinvention, the intellectual costume changes (foppish actor, grad-school blowhard, opera-director manqué, and now architect of a white utopian dream of world-historical consequence) spanning three decades. After all, it is said that one of the great advantages of America is that its daughters and sons can escape the strictures of the world in which they were raised, be unlike their forefathers. Spencer has certainly done that.
portrait  altright  leader  university  idea  opinion  religion  usa  west  african  racism  Philosophy  intelligentsia  nazi 
june 2017 by aries1988
To be happier, focus on what’s within your control

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change,
Courage to change the things I can,
And wisdom to know the difference.

once you begin paying attention, the dichotomy of control has countless applications to everyday life, and all of them have to do with one crucial move: shifting your goals from external outcomes to internal achievements.

That’s why your goal should be internal: if you adopt the Stoic way, you would conscientiously put together the best résumé that you can, and then mentally prepare to accept whatever outcome with equanimity, knowing that sometimes the universe will favour you, and other times it will not. What do you gain by being anxious over something you don’t control? Or angry at a result that was not your doing? You are simply adding a self-inflicted injury to the situation, compromising your happiness and serenity.
life  choice  howto  happiness  philosophy  advice  psychology  religion  prayer  stoic 
june 2017 by aries1988
American Gods is wondrous and completely bonkers | 1843

as the character Shadow remarks at one point, In America everything goes on forever.

Anderson was clearly doing his best to convey the woozy, underslept, overstoned, sometimes visionary feeling that one gets from actually reading a Pynchon book. It’s usual for adaptations to transpose or transplant a story, but rather fewer concentrate so dedicatedly on capturing a mood.

And mood is something that the ravishing, exasperating, mysterious, baggy and weird American Gods seems to understand perfectly.
tv  2017  religion  imagination  scifi  book 
may 2017 by aries1988
The True Believers: Sam Harris
# Instapaper (2017/02/24)
## Added on Saturday, February 24-25

What I’m arguing for in the piece is not to discard either type of explanation but to remember the latter one and take the words of these ISIS people seriously. Even though at various points in the past we’ve ignored political or material causes, this doesn’t mean that ideology plays no role, or that we should ignore the plain meaning of words.

that’s really one of the things that social sciences have triumphed in doing: explaining that within certain boundaries, rationalities lie behind what at first looks like mere craziness or barbarity. Just calling behavior craziness is a trap that a lot of ISIS-watchers have fallen into. If you see members of the Islamic State as thrill-kill nihilists, then you’re not giving them enough credit.

There’s also a deep urge to deny agency to the Islamic State, and I think it’s fundamentally connected to a reluctance to see non-Western people as fully developed and capable of having intelligent beliefs and enough self-knowledge to express them. These people articulate well-thought-out reasons for what they do. And yet ignoring what they say somehow gets camouflaged in the minds of liberals as speaking up for them. It’s delusional.

although the Islamic State wants a civilizational war, of Muslims versus Crusaders, I think they’re consciously avoiding terrorist attacks on Western targets that would provoke too strong a response too soon. If they bombed the Super Bowl, they’d probably be looking at a ground invasion within weeks. They want the invasion, but on their own schedule.

I think we might be in a situation analogous to seeing someone writhing around on the ground in front of us, showing every symptom of having appendicitis. But instead of being surgeons, armed with sterile scalpels, we are just laymen who once read a first aid manual and have no tools other than a rusty soup can. There’s no good option, even though we recognize the problem. The overwhelming probability is that the patient will die a terrible death, and we will have to watch.

it’s abundantly clear that we are not good at massive occupations of countries we poorly understand. Not only that, we just don’t have the appetite for it.

The point of all propaganda is to create narratives about the world. Their view—and the view of jihadis everywhere, really—is that Muslims are under attack by a Crusader West.

confirm their narrative for other Muslims who are already inclined to believe that the West is at war with Islam. That’s not a view I would like to encourage.

The idea is that if we don’t walk on eggshells until the end of history as we fight jihadis, taking great pains to deny any link between the chaos they cause and the doctrine of Islam, then we’re doomed to provoke more-mainstream Muslims into choosing the wrong side in this conflict.

One of the things that is so refreshing about your article is that you didn’t do that. But you now seem to be saying that we must be very careful not to do anything that could give fodder to a “clash of civilizations” narrative.

The Islamic State leader identifies as Salafi, which means that he takes as his sources of authority the Qur’an, the hadīth of the Prophet Muhammad, and the actions of the generations immediately succeeding Muhammad.

The percentage of the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims who identify as Salafi—who subscribe to this literalist version of Islam—is quite small, probably single-digit. The percentage of Salafis who would identify as jihadis is vanishingly small. And then, of course, within that population a lot are going to be noncombatants because they’re too old, or too young, or whatever. So we’re still talking about large, but perhaps now manageable, numbers.

The point of bringing up this quietist group is to say that the problem isn’t Islam, or even Islamic literalism. Most literalist Muslims are essentially harmless, or even better than harmless—nice people you would like to have as neighbors. So the specificity of interpretation that leads to the Islamic State is really quite narrow.

What you seem to be expressing is a fear that there could be a mass changing of sides based on some secret sympathy, or some susceptibility to moral confusion, even in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

The Salafi neighbor may not be the neighbor you’d choose, if you could pick from a menu of atheists and liberals and, more generally, people who didn’t care what you thought about god.

there are many religious people whose beliefs about a far-off apocalyptic battle, and mass conversion at the sword, do not affect their lives much at all. People are good at compartmentalizing, and if they weren’t, the world would hardly be livable.

it is a lack of meaning or fulfillment in their lives, related to deep malaise and feelings of rejection or dissatisfaction with the worlds where they live.

If you think the high point of your life in England is going to be eating KFC, the promise of joining the greatest battle the world has ever known might be pretty attractive.

many of us experience such existential concerns early in life.

Where are your scholars?

huge numbers of scholars have been co-opted by politics—either the politics of the Middle East or the politics of the United States.

These differences between the palace scholars and ISIS seem minor, but I would encourage you to see them as significant.

I try studiously not to take a position on which one of these views is correct. I just don’t have any credibility as a non-Muslim to say whether one scholar or another espouses the best form of Islam. However, if I were able to choose what people believed, I’d hope it was the caliphate-later view.

Of course, there are Christians who think about the end times, which are also not envisioned as very pleasant. If you ask them, “Is it happening now?” some of them will say yes. But very few of them will act as if they actually believe it’s happening now. If they’re envisioning a terrible bloodbath at some unimaginably distant time, I can live with that.
illusion  debate  to:marginnote  islam  warrior  middle-east  religion  war  crisis  terrorism  explained  interview  muslim 
february 2017 by aries1988
李约瑟对李约瑟难题的回答 -上海书评-东方早报网

曾经高度发达的中国科学为什么没有发展出现代科学,反倒是科学发展并不领先的欧洲取得了突破,发展出了现代科学?这就是李约瑟难题,也称李约瑟之问、李约瑟之谜。

“中国礼仪之争后,大多耶稣会士被驱逐出境,中欧文化交流的正式渠道被关闭”

FRD

所谓现代科学,最为重要的内核是把理性与经验结合起来,把经受住受控实验检验的关于外在世界的假说系统化(124页),简言之,数学假说与受控实验密切结合。

中国历史上公共工程(河流控制、灌溉、运河开凿)的空间范围一再超越了个体封建诸侯或原始封建诸侯的领地界限,水利社会总是倾向于中央集权,也就是用官僚制度来统治遍布各地的‘部落’乡村(189页)。中央集权虽然有助于对某些科学领域的发展提供国家支持,但是官僚主要由儒家知识精英充当,重义轻利的价值观不仅使逐利的商人处于边缘地位,君子不器的价值观也使科学家和工匠处于附属地位,中国文明中绝不可能出现一种以商业为主导的社会秩序(183页),其结果是即使是富商人家的孩子,其唯一志向也是做官,商人阶层显然不可能获得像欧洲文艺复兴时期的商人在国家中的那种权势和影响力(27页)。

正如尘世的君主颁布了实在法让人们遵守,天界至高的理性造物主也颁布了一系列的法让矿物、晶体、动植物和星辰遵守(280页),这一源自巴比伦和希伯来的自然法传统,为基督教神学所继承,启发了诸多基督教背景的科学家去寻找上帝赋予自然的法则,促成了牛顿范式的机械宇宙观的形成,进而对现代科学的兴起发挥了相当重要的作用。与此相对的,是传统中国几乎完全没有产生过机械宇宙观,而一直秉承有机宇宙观,万物之所以能够和谐并作,并不是因为有一个外在于它们的最高权威在发布命令,而是因为它们都属于一个等级分明的整体,各个部分形成了一种有机的宇宙样式,它们服从的乃是自身本性的内在命令(309页)。

道家在未奠定牛顿式世界图景的基础之前就在摸索一种爱因斯坦式的世界图景,而科学沿着这条道路是不可能发展的(294页)。
civ  china  comparison  europe  history  science  religion  book  critic  chinese  theory  research  question  debate 
january 2017 by aries1988
The search goes on | The Economist
The West has gained a lot from Christianity. There is still more to learn
The Christianisation of Europe, he says, was not a bunch of reactionary clerics trying to shut down a noble, free, secular ancient world, but a new idea of “a voluntary basis for human association in which people joined together through will and love rather than blood or shared material objectives”. Christianity declared that humans “have access to the deepest reality as individuals rather than merely as members of a group”.

Out of this, with a reinjection at the Reformation, came the origins of the modern world: a belief in equality of status as the proper basis for a legal system and the assertion of natural rights leading to individual liberty, as well as the notion that a society built on the assumption of moral equality should have a representative form of government.




The Evolution of the West: How Christianity Has Shaped Our Values. By Nick Spencer. SPCK; 190 pages; £9.99.
book  religion  christianity  europe  Renaissance  history  mentality  study  society  opinion  debate  middle-age  antiquity 
november 2016 by aries1988
梁文道:畫的比吃的還好(go dutch之二)
以前我也曾經在此談過,西歐吃得好的國家多半是天主教國家,比如法國、意大利和西班牙;而吃得沒那麼好的地方則以新教為主,例如德國;界線大致分明。並非財富之多寡與食材之豐缺決定了他們的吃喝方式,而是宗教信仰與人生態度。社會學老祖宗韋伯在上個世紀初關於「新教倫理」的論述現在已經是常識了,現在我們都曉得,不像犯了罪還可以懺悔或者先去煉獄過一過火的天主教徒,十六世紀至十九世紀的新教徒總有一種道德緊張,時時刻刻得盯着自己有沒有過錯,在這個俗世上是否建立起了良好的人格與功業,平時生活又夠不夠節制等等,半點也不敢鬆懈。
食慾當然也是他們要小心提防的對象,稍稍放縱就是中了撒旦的誘惑,從腸胃開出一條直接邁向地獄的高速通道。恰好荷蘭在它最繁盛的年代還要和西班牙交戰,正想擺脫這個天主教國家的控制,謀求獨立,於是宗教信仰與愛國主義合一,逐步塑造出荷蘭人的飲食文化。過度的奢華和放縱皆是天主教王國西班牙的特徵,一個好荷蘭新教徒則恰恰相反,不只要對抗西班牙式的糜爛,還要對抗天主教式的無度,這一切你全都能在荷蘭人畫的麵包和芝士上面看到迹象。
history  food  people  religion  idea  cuisine  netherlands 
november 2016 by aries1988
A journey along Japan’s oldest pilgrimage route - FT.com

We talked about religion. She told me that like many Japanese people she had married in a Christian ceremony, and that on New Year’s eve she prayed for good luck in the year ahead at a Shinto shrine, the worship place of an indigenous faith that predates Buddhism. She said Japanese people believed in gods of trees and mountains, too. There’s even a toilet god, she added. She’s supposed to be very beautiful.

Hearn’s point about Japanese people, as Maeda saw it, was that their lifestyle, their way of thinking, is religious, but if you put it into words, they dispute that.

There is also a fuzzy line in Japan between the spiritual and the day-to-day. Rather than existing in some alternate realm, the spirit world envelops everyday experience like the weather. These are not things that Japanese people think about with great precision, said Shinichi Takiguchi, who publishes a monthly henro newsletter. People approach spirituality in a kind of foggy way. It’s a bit like they’re daydreaming.

Sociologists have talked about the privatisation of faith in the west, a shift from unified religions towards people concocting their own versions of spirituality in the same way they assemble their wardrobes. It has been lamented as an antisocial byproduct of too much individualism. But it is also happening in Japan, a place usually branded as too conformist, because it is a form of liberation.
japan  rando  idea  religion  today  history  numbers  society 
september 2016 by aries1988
What American Women Who Wear Hijab Want You to Know
In the short film Hijabi World, two Rutgers University students, Hamna Saleem and Dina Sayedahmed, filmed their friends—Muslim women who observe hijab—talking about the day-to-day challenges of wearing a headscarf. “Sometimes you itch in your own skin,” says one woman named Halima. These are the heartening testimonies of a handful of Muslim women about why they decided to wear the scarf and how it impacts their lives and religiosity.
usa  female  muslim  religion  video  story  temoignage  explained 
august 2016 by aries1988
许纪霖:没有政治正确,这个世界将变得更加野蛮_爱思想
人生的意义不再与神圣的终极价值关联,工具理性替代了价值理性,世俗的快乐与幸福成为了去魅化人生的追求目标。公共生活也与特定的宗教价值脱钩,国家在各种宗教信仰之中保持中立,每个公民可以按照自己的自由意志选择自己的信仰、群体归属和个人偏好。
politics  religion  life  human  ideology  state  opinion  government 
august 2016 by aries1988
The French Culture Wars Continue - The New Yorker
We are in a society that is so secularized that it no longer understands the reality of religiosity itself, Roy has said. It’s precisely there that we must make an effort, to normalize the Muslim reality as a religious reality and integrate it into the French cultural space.
debate  society  religion  muslim  islam  female  intelligentsia  culture  integration  conflict  instapaper_favs 
may 2016 by aries1988
The North Peak
Once one of Taoism’s holiest mountains, Mount Heng in Shanxi Province was a denuded wreck, seeming to consist of nothing but broken slate. I grumbled epithets as I climbed the steep trail wondering why I had bothered to come.
taoist  story  china  mountain  religion  hermit  instapaper_favs 
april 2016 by aries1988
The Reckoning
She played dead as the sound of gunshots reverberated around her, echoing off the red tile roofs and limestone walls. Dozens of students had run home to retrieve their deer rifles, and the echo of return fire rang out as they came back to take aim at the gunman.
killing  university  life  change  story  love  history  victim  trauma  usa  religion  guns  crime  reportage  psychology  texas  instapaper_favs 
april 2016 by aries1988
Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites
The geography of the two main branches of Islam is a key factor in the region’s conflicts.
Visualization  map  religion  middle-east 
january 2016 by aries1988
Is Christmas the Greatest Story Ever Told?
This story has everything—audacity, wonder, awe, journey, vulnerability, courage, tragedy—and they all collide in a single narrative, she says. If you were to direct this as a Hollywood movie, all the typical elements of great storytelling are there.

Buster compared the story’s components to beloved American films. She said it has the audacity of Schindler's List, the transformation of Shawshank Redemption, the complexity of It's A Wonderful Life, and the depth of the Star Wars franchise, which she adds, borrows the full template of the Christ story.
analysis  religion  story  explained  movie  question  instapaper_favs 
december 2015 by aries1988
For Immigrants, America Is Still More Welcoming Than Europe
Among the most notable is clearly Europe’s segmented labor market, difficult for newcomers to crack. In the United States, less-educated immigrants may work for little pay. But the vast majority of them work. The employment rate of immigrants is higher than that of natives. In Europe it is lower.

A report about the integration of immigrants issued over the summer by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development noted that more than a fifth of Europe’s immigrants from outside the European Union were unemployed, about double the rate of European Union citizens.

One in four of the economically active is out of work in France and one in three in Belgium and Sweden. And these poor employment prospects persist down the generations. Youth joblessness among the European-born children of immigrants is almost 50 percent higher than for those with native-born parents.

Employment is not the only barrier. Children from less-educated immigrant families are much less likely to succeed at school in Europe than the sons and daughters of natives, and much more likely to end up marginalized: out of school and out of work. Immigrants feel discriminated against more often in Europe. Perceived discrimination is particularly acute among the European-born children of immigrants, who in several countries still do not qualify for automatic citizenship.

In the United States, they write, “to be religious is to be in sync with mainstream norms.” Many Americans have more trouble accepting atheists than Muslims. In Europe, by contrast, “claims based on religion have much less acceptance and legitimacy.”

In June, President Obama hosted a Ramadan Iftar meal at the White House. In France, public schools still serve fish on Fridays. In some schools, the choice for Muslim children is pork or nothing.
religion  comparison  usa  europe  immigration  muslim  children  naturalization  job 
december 2015 by aries1988
From Muhammad to ISIS: Iraq's Full Story - Wait But Why
Kamil was from Mosul, like everyone at the camp. Mosul is Iraq’s second largest city, only 30 miles west of the camp—and as of June 9th, an ISIS stronghold. After taking over, one of the first orders of business for ISIS was rounding up government workers for execution. Kamil, a police officer, was lucky to get out with his family before they got to him. When I asked him if he thought he’d return to Mosul at some point, he shook his head and said, Fuck Mosul.

The nation of Iraq, on the other hand, was created by two dicks with a pencil and ruler, and its history is mostly unpleasant.

When borders are drawn this way, two bad things happen: 1) Single ethnic or religious groups are sliced apart into separate countries, and 2) Different and often unfriendly groups are shoved into a nation together and told to share resources, get along, and bond together over national pride for a just-made-up nation—which inevitably leads to one group taking power and oppressing the others, resulting in bloody rebellions, coups, and sectarian violence. This isn’t that complicated.

According to Iraqi intelligence, ISIS has assets worth $2 billion, making it by far the richest terrorist group in the world. Most of this money was seized after the capture of Mosul, including hundreds of millions of US dollars from Mosul’s central bank. On top of that, they’ve taken oil fields and are reportedly making $3 million per day selling oil on the black market, with even more money coming in through donations, extortions, and ransom.

They knew they were removing a lid, but they seemed to think it was off a tupperware container of cookies, not a pressure cooker. And their plan to replace the wrought iron lid with a fresh sheet of democracy cellophane would have worked fine if it were a tupperware container of cookies. Just not if it were a pressure cooker.
story  irak  2014  2015  middle-east  history  islam  religion  politics  explained  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
L’Arabie saoudite, un Daesh qui a réussi
On veut sauver la fameuse alliance stratégique avec l’Arabie saoudite tout en oubliant que ce royaume repose sur une autre alliance, avec un clergé religieux qui produit, rend légitime, répand, prêche et défend le wahhabisme, islamisme ultra-puritain dont se nourrit Daesh.

Le wahhabisme, radicalisme messianique né au 18ème siècle, a l’idée de restaurer un califat fantasmé autour d’un désert, un livre sacré et deux lieux saints, la Mecque et Médine. C’est un puritanisme né dans le massacre et le sang, qui se traduit aujourd’hui par un lien surréaliste à la femme, une interdiction pour les non-musulmans d’entrer dans le territoire sacré, une loi religieuse rigoriste, et puis aussi un rapport maladif à l’image et à la représentation et donc l’art, ainsi que le corps, la nudité et la liberté. L’Arabie saoudite est un Daesh qui a réussi.
opinion  middle-east  religion  politics  conflict  history  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
The Lessons of Anwar al-Awlaki
Four years after the United States assassinated the radical cleric in a drone strike, his influence on jihadists is greater than ever. Was there a better way to stop him?

Some government agencies have tried to boil the process of radicalization down to a few clear-cut and inevitable stages, but in reality, the journey to extremism is a messy, human affair that defies such predictability. This was true of Awlaki’s acolytes; it was also true of the great radicalizer himself. Before Awlaki could talk anyone else into violent jihad, he had to talk himself into it. One giant step came as the unintended result of surveillance by the United States government.
story  usa  religion  terrorism 
september 2015 by aries1988
地缘与文明:建立中国对中亚常识性认知
在中国主流知识界存在一个知识上的盲区,那就是希腊以东、新疆以西这块大区域,即中东与中亚。这种无知状态既是历史、语言、文化、地缘等方面的无知识,更重要的是也将那里变成了东方学意义上的异域情调,对主流知识界而言,那里不仅是地理上的边疆,而且也是心理-文化上的边疆与边缘地带。人们一方面在膜拜着欧西,一方面又没有突破那个知识盲区的动力和主观意愿,在这种状态下,就难以生产出关于这个地区的有效知识,更谈不上建立关于中亚的常识性认知结构。在陌生与隔膜成为常态的情况下,最终的结果就是一个民族的思想落后于现实,陌生导致无知,无知又将导致盲动。

明代虽以种族之别立国,强调华夏与夷狄之分,但其建国有赖于回民者甚多,开国大将即有很多回民,故在有明一代,伊斯兰教颇受礼敬。

伊斯兰教在中亚的成功,部分地可以通过大规模地使用骆驼来解释,也就是说,在西域,伊斯兰的骆驼战胜了甘肃马车,对此,后来的左宗棠有深刻认识。

汉-唐儒家文化乃是一种世俗的、依托于特定农耕-定居社会的人-地关系的文明形态。儒家文明的天下观与大同主张,体现出其普遍性;但是由于它对具体的地理空间的依附儒家天下观只有在中原汉地才可展开其所必须的物理空间的想象,脱开这里则难以落实其学理上的普遍性在现实政治中又是欠普遍的,具有特殊性。

三大启示宗教(犹太教、基督教和伊斯兰教)从根源上说都产生于中东沙漠的游牧民之中。沙漠与草原的环境有很大的相似性,即头顶是天,四周是开阔空旷的贫瘠土地,几无屏障,在寂静孤独的时候,容易产生聆听神音以及与神沟通的想法。

一神信仰的伊斯兰文明从根本上说是普世主义的,它没有种族、肤色的偏见,尽管伊斯兰帝国也曾贩卖奴隶,但只要奴隶皈依伊斯兰教,就成了教胞兄弟,再也不能被当作奴隶看待,这对很多作为军奴参加了阿拉伯军队的突厥人来说尤其具有吸引力。

伊斯兰教对待有经人(即拥有圣经的犹太教徒和基督教徒)是宽容其宗教社区的存在,条件是缴纳一定数额的税,而对佛教则视之为偶像崇拜,必欲彻底铲除之。所以,伊斯兰教在西域之取代佛教,不能单凭历史的结果就说伊斯兰教比佛教更具有吸引力。同样都是游牧民族,西边的蒙古人接受了伊斯兰教,而北边的就接受了喇嘛教。
explained  xinjiang  history  religion 
september 2015 by aries1988
Hiroshima
Of a hundred and fifty doctors in the city, sixty-five were already dead and most of the rest were wounded. Of 1,780 nurses, 1,654 were dead or too badly hurt to work. In the biggest hospital, that of the Red Cross, only six doctors out of thirty were able to function, and only ten nurses out of more than two hundred.

Hiroshima ... had been an inviting target—mainly because it had been one of the most important military-command and communications centers in Japan, and would have become the Imperial headquarters had the islands been invaded and Tokyo been captured.

As for the use of the bomb, she would say, “It was war and we had to expect it.” And then she would add, “Shikata ga nai,” a Japanese expression as common as, and corresponding to, the Russian word “nichevo”: “It can’t be helped. Oh, well. Too bad.” Dr. Fujii said approximately the same thing about the use of the bomb to Father Kleinsorge one evening, in German: “Da ist nichts zu machen. There’s nothing to be done about it.”
reportage  ww2  japan  japanese  disaster  religion  death  history  instapaper_favs 
august 2015 by aries1988
‘Defending the Faith’ in the Middle East
The politics of religion undermined the Westphalian order, based on the principles of state sovereignty and territorial integrity. At the same time, these policies subverted states, fueled divisions within them — and often ended in violence.

And yet, as new and disturbing as these developments may appear, the linkage of sectarian and secular interests is a return to the classic geopolitics of religion in the Middle East.
world  religion 
june 2015 by aries1988
‘Defending the Faith’ in the Middle East
And yet, as new and disturbing as these developments may appear, the linkage of sectarian and secular interests is a return to the classic geopolitics of religion in the Middle East.

The politics of religion undermined the Westphalian order, based on the principles of state sovereignty and territorial integrity. At the same time, these policies subverted states, fueled divisions within them — and often ended in violence.
religion  state  middle-east  history 
may 2015 by aries1988
Video: Katmandu: Before the Quake
Katmandu’s ancient sites were woven into the vibrant social and religious fabric of the city. Made of brick and timber, many of these iconic buildings were lost in the earthquake that rocked Nepal.
video  religion  life  earthquake  memory 
april 2015 by aries1988
Beijing's Winter Olympic Bid
Beijing will bid for the 2022 winter Olympics and will find out this year if it's made it on to the list of candidate cities. Reporter: Huey Fern Tay Camera…
china  chinese  religion  muslim  video  female 
february 2015 by aries1988
Can science prove the existence of God? — Starts With A Bang! — Medium
In other words, life is a fantastic bet, but intelligent life may not be. And that’s according to reasonable scientific estimates, but it assumes we’re being honest about our uncertainties here, too. So the conditions for life are definitely everywhere, but life itself could be common or rare, and what we consider intelligent life could be common, rare or practically non-existent in our galaxy. As science finds out more, we’ll learn more about that.

The truths of the Universe are written out there, on the Universe itself, and are accessible to us all through the process of inquiry. To allow an uncertain faith to stand in as an answer where scientific knowledge is required does us all a disservice; the illusion of knowledge — or reaching a conclusion before obtaining the evidence — is a poor substitute for what we might actually come to learn, if only we ask the right questions. Science can never prove or disprove the existence of God, but if we use our beliefs as an excuse to draw conclusions that scientifically, we’re not ready for, we run the grave risk of depriving ourselves of what we might have come to truly learn.
science  religion  cosmos  life 
january 2015 by aries1988
Obituary: Tashi Tsering: Between two worlds | The Economist
Much had impressed him about the Chinese in Lhasa: how quickly they built hospitals, bridges and the first-ever primary school, and how they did not take as much as a needlefrom the people. Even as they mocked and destroyed the culture, they also seemed to offer a route to the modern world.
spiritual  Tibet  china  story  religion  history 
december 2014 by aries1988
Chiites-sunnites, guerres ouvertes
Tout comme le conflit entre protestants et catholiques a déchiré l’Europe du XVIIe siècle, la guerre entre chiites et sunnites est en train de redessiner la carte du Proche-Orient en ce début de XXIe siècle et de définir l’avenir de l’islam politique à l’échelle mondiale.

Car en fait, tout a (re) commencé avec la Révolution islamique de 1979, qui a renversé le régime pro-américain du chah. En prenant le leadership de la contestation, puis en éliminant ses concurrents de gauche, l’ayatollah Khomeiny a imposé au clergé chiite et à l’Iran une vision politisée et révolutionnaire de l’islam.

Cheval de Troie de la présence iranienne dans le monde arabe, la Syrie a aidé l’Iran à fonder le Hezbollah, qui recrute dans la communauté chiite libanaise et s’est peu à peu imposé comme l’un des plus redoutables ennemis d’Israël.
religion  middle-east 
august 2014 by aries1988
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