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aries1988 : revolution   21

Mohamed Morsi, Who Brought the Muslim Brotherhood to the Egyptian Presidency | The New Yorker
Peter Hessler on the death of Mohamed Morsi, the former President of Egypt, who was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and came to power in the wake of the Arab…

The former President has been described as a martyr, but the term isn’t exactly appropriate. A martyr dies for a larger cause; a victim dies because of larger forces. There’s a tendency for some Americans to view the Muslim Brotherhood as a kind of negative essence of Islam, as if all of the flaws of the organization can be attributed to the faith that its followers espouse. But the group is a product of its history: it was founded during a period of colonial occupation, and then it was shaped by decades of government repression. The issue isn’t just that the institutions of the state were always opposed to the Brothers but that the group itself has internalized the brutality and dysfunction of its environment.

In a nation of splintered institutions, frustrated idealism, and dysfunctional governance, even the highest seat of power can turn into a trap—a caged man shouting, “I am the President of the Republic!”
portrait  president  egypt  revolution  islam  arab  politics  history  prison 
june 2019 by aries1988
Twitter
Free chart download - Timeline of French History 1789-1870:
france  revolution  infographics  history 
june 2019 by aries1988
Karl Marx, Yesterday and Today | The New Yorker

interpretation of his work made after his death by people like Karl Kautsky, who was his chief German-language exponent; Georgi Plekhanov, his chief Russian exponent; and, most influentially, Engels. It was thanks mainly to those writers that people started to refer to Marxism as “scientific socialism,” a phrase that sums up what was most frightening about twentieth-century Communism: the idea that human beings can be reëngineered in accordance with a theory that presents itself as a law of history. The word the twentieth century coined for that was totalitarianism.
politics  book  revolution  ideology  uk  19C  leader  communism  economy  capitalism  utopia 
october 2018 by aries1988
Revolutionary music, from rousing to mindless
WHEN the French revolt, they sing “La Marseillaise”. Penned in 1792 as European powers invaded the First Republic, it was composed with a view to rallying “our soldiers from all over to defend their homeland that is under threat”.
song  revolution  history 
november 2017 by aries1988
The courting of China’s powerful princelings
Still, Ms Ye and her contemporaries are careful to keep a low profile and live relatively plain lives. Although a great car enthusiast, she prefers to drive a low-key SUV and has a comfortable and fairly understated lifestyle.

“My grandfather and his generation were idealists and they created the new China from scratch,” Ms Ye says. “Even if times are different and the ideology has changed, it is still up to my generation to honour their memory with our actions and through our contributions to society.”
reportage  chinese  rich  entrepreneurial  revolution 
october 2017 by aries1988
What Ever Happened to the Russian Revolution?

Now I’ve traveled enough in Russia that my affections are more complicated. I know that almost no conclusion I ever draw about it is likely to be right. The way to think about Russia is without thinking about it. I just try to love it and yield to it and go with it, while also paying vigilant attention—if that makes sense.

My way to travel is to go to a specific place and try to absorb what it is now and look closer, for what it was.

The Decembrists were young officers in the czar’s army who fought in the Napoleonic wars and found out about the Enlightenment and came home wanting to reform Russia.

Lenin informed his listeners that they had pioneered the international Socialist revolution, and would go forth into the world and proselytize the masses. It was an amazing vision, Marxist and deeply Russian simultaneously, and it helped sustain the despotic Bolsheviks, just as building St. Petersburg, no matter how brutal the cost, drove Peter the Great 200 years before. After Lenin, Russia would involve itself aggressively in the affairs of countries all over the world. That sense of global mission, soon corrupted to strategic meddling and plain troublemaking, is why America still worries about Russia today.

Rumor and street culture—jokes, postcards, sayings, bawdy plays performed in saloons—changed the image of the czar and the czarina, desacralized them, before and during the war. Empress Alexandra’s dependence on Rasputin, the so-called crazed monk, had catastrophic consequences. Tales of the czarina’s debauchery with Rasputin (completely untrue), and rumors of the czar’s impotence, and her supposed sabotage of the war effort because she was born in Germany, all undermined the Romanovs, until finally nobody could be too sad when the monarchy went away. People sent each other erotic postcards of the czarina with Rasputin, audiences howled laughing at plays about his supposed sexual power. It resembled modern defamation by social media, and it did great damage. I call it the ‘tragic erotics’ of Nicholas’ reign. If you loved Russia you were obliged to love your czar. People were saying, ‘I know I must love my czar, but I cannot.’

Tourists came through in a constant stream. Nearly all were holding up their phones and taking videos or photographs. Sometimes a tourist would stop in the middle of the room, hold the phone up with both hands in the air, and slowly turn in a circle so the video could pan the entire room. This slow, unself-conscious video-making rotation in the room’s center with arms upstretched happened over and over, a new century’s new dance.

In 1967, a New York Times editorial titled “Russia’s Next Half-Century” congratulated the Soviet Union for becoming “one of the world’s foremost economic, scientific, and military powers.” The Times said it looked forward to a prosperous future for the country, but added, “Russia’s leaders, surveying the changes of fifty hectic years, surely understand that the vision of a monolithic, uniform world—whether Communist or capitalist—is a fantasy.”

Whoever wrote it must have known that as an adjective to describe the Soviet half-century, “hec­tic” did not suffice. But you can also see the problem the editorial writer faced. What could be said about such horrors? The United States had never known what to make of its cruel, sly, opaque World War II ally turned Cold War enemy. America even tried to like Stalin for a while. He appeared on the cover of Time magazine 12 times.

Russia, the country itself, inhabits a spirit as well. The visible location of this spirit’s existence in the world used to be the czar. The United States is a concept; Russia is an animate being. I think Nicholas II understood this, and it’s why he believed so strongly that his countrymen needed the autocracy. Nicholas not only ruled Russia, he not only signified Russia, he was Russia.

Today, on Victory Day, marchers show up in the hundreds of thousands in every major Russian city bearing portraits of their relatives who served. These portraits, typically black-and-white photographs, keep to a single size and are attached to identical wooden handles like those used for picket signs. As a group the photos are called Bezsmertnii Polk, the Deathless Regiment.

The portraits in their endless numbers evoke powerful emotions as they stream by, especially when you glimpse a young marcher who looks exactly like the young soldier in the faded photograph he or she is carrying.

Individuals change history. There would be no St. Petersburg without Peter the Great and no United States of America without George Washington. There would have been no Soviet Union without Lenin. Today he might feel discouraged to see the failure of his Marxist utopia—a failure so thorough that no country is likely to try it again soon. But his political methods may be his real legacy.

Lenin showed the world how well not compromising can work. A response to that revolutionary innovation of his has yet to be figured out.
russia  travel  interview  city  tourist  history  today  revolution  communism  instapaper_favs 
october 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:殺無赦(上)

極權政治的最大特點之一,就是徹底改變了人類文明自古以來的種種基本道德信條,例如將「不可殺人」變成「你應該殺人」。

他們掌控的機器全都非常成功,殺人無算,而且殺得理直氣壯,冠冕堂皇。他們之所以幹得如此出色,是因為那道以界定神聖政治目標為起點程序,被精心構造成了一套雖然經不起理性考驗,但卻非常誘人,在情感上極具號召力的意識型態。

當所有奠基社會的德目一一受到質疑、衝擊、否定、和改造之後,終於,那最不可突破的最後底線也就坍塌下來了。為什麼文革時期,就連一些還在襁褓之中的嬰孩都會遭到毒手呢?那是因為他們的父母身為政治敵人,其實已經不算是人了,殺了都不能叫殺。由於這些嬰兒非人所生,所以殺害他們也就沒有道德負擔了。這不是傳統意義上的殺人,而是明智的,合理的,剷草除根的,防患於未來。
china  ethic  killing  crime  ideology  mao  revolution  communism 
september 2017 by aries1988
Growing Up As An Untouchable
What I was told was that we were Christians. Christians, untouchables—it came to the same thing. All Christians in India were untouchable, as far as I knew (though only a small minority of all untouchables are Christian).

Christians, untouchables—it came to the same thing. All Christians in India were untouchable, as far as I knew (though only a small minority of all untouchables are Christian).

I knew no Christian who did not turn servile in the presence of a Hindu. I knew no Hindu who did not look right through a Christian man standing in front of him as if he did not exist.

Excerpted from Ants Among Elephants: An Untouchable Family and the Making of Modern India by Sujatha Gidla. Published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Copyright © 2017 by Sujatha Gidla. All rights reserved.
india  book  story  family  caste  revolution  religion  children  teenager 
august 2017 by aries1988
Aux origines du Front national
Où l'on voit que Mme Le Pen tire autant de force de l'histoire de France que de l'état du monde...
history  france  ww2  revolution 
may 2017 by aries1988
Could Russia have avoided revolution in 1917?
The very different circumstances of 1917-18 were of decisive importance. In these years, Germany did everything it could to foster the cause of revolution — most famously by engineering Lenin’s return to Russia in the “sealed train”. For a year, while the Great War raged on, the Bolsheviks were able to consolidate their hold on the Russian heartland untroubled by foreign intervention. It was control over the resources and communications of this heartland that was the decisive factor in Bolshevik victory in the civil war.

the visions of a transformed and better world evident in cultural expression as well as in everyday lives. But the problem is that we know what comes next, as Stalinist terror not merely inflicted vast additional suffering on the Soviet peoples but also snuffed out most of the Revolution’s gains as regards cultural expression and female emancipation.
russia  history  revolution  ww1  germany  book  tsar 
february 2017 by aries1988
Industrial Revolution Comparisons Aren't Comforting

The early to mid-19th century saw the rise of socialist ideologies, largely as a response to economic disruptions. Whatever mistakes Karl Marx made, he was a keen observer of the Industrial Revolution, and there is a reason he became so influential. He failed to see the long-run ability of capitalism to raise living standards significantly, but he understood and vividly described the transition costs and the economic volatility.

along the way the intellectual currents of the 19th century produced a lot of overreaction in other, more destructive directions. The ideas of Marx fed into the movements behind the Soviet Union, Communist China and the Khmer Rouge. Arguably, fascist doctrine also was in part a response to the disruptions of industrialization in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

an estimated 38 percent of the EU budget will be going to farm subsidies. Farms as a share of total employment are quite small (about 2 percent), but farmers as an interest group have not gone away, even hundreds of years after agricultural employment started to decline.
opinion  automation  revolution  industry  future  crisis  job  workforce  comparison  history  money  agriculture  economy 
february 2017 by aries1988
Lunch with the FT: Rob Rhinehart — FT.com
“Humans have this novelty bias where they think that new information is somehow more relevant, but most of the information generated in a day is noise and what’s really important is the patterns that have held true through generations. I feel like I could be reading a philosophy book that has held true for centuries or I could get stressed out by what’s on the news today.”

really creative work comes from states of flow and concentration, and it’s really hard to get into that and it’s really easy to become distracted from that. I think having that flexible day allows people to increase the chance of entering that creative flow, and that’s good for them and it’s good for the business.”
thinking  opinion  leader  entrepreneurial  food  revolution  body  nutrition  lifestyle 
july 2016 by aries1988
Can Netflix Survive in the New World It Created?

Cable networks like FX and AMC were developing expensive, talked-about dramas, the kind HBO pioneered with The Sopranos and The Wire. But these series, with their complex, season-long story arcs and hourlong format, seemed to be poor candidates for syndication, unlike self-contained, half-hour sitcoms like Seinfeld, which can be watched out of order.

Hastings and Sarandos realized that Netflix could become, in effect, the syndicator for these hourlong dramas: We found an inefficiency, is how Hastings describes this insight.
tv  revolution  online  streaming  netflix  business  internet  amazon  future  entertainment  time  competition  home 
june 2016 by aries1988
The Arab winter | The Economist
Five years after a wave of uprisings, the Arab world is worse off than ever. But its people understand their predicament better


The West’s naivety, which was shared—and paid for—by those hopeful demonstrators, lay in underestimating two things. One was the fragility of many Arab states, too weak in their institutions to withstand such ructions in the way that, say, South Africa did when apartheid fell. The other was the vicious determination with which established regimes would seek to retain or recapture control. Who could believe that a soft-spoken leader such as Mr Assad would prefer to destroy his country rather than leave his palace? Those were the truths that brought hope to the ground.


Arabs may take heart from the fact that in Europe, the supposedly revolutionary years of 1848 and 1968 produced little forward motion; indeed their immediate effect was to prompt a conservative backlash. A.J.P. Taylor, a historian, described 1848, a year of continent-wide insurrection against autocracy, as a moment when “history reached a turning point but failed to turn.”
middle-east  2015  history  conflict  movement  revolution  dream  crisis  opinion 
january 2016 by aries1988

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