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被遗忘的冷战铁幕:苏台德
匈牙利的马扎尔人把自己塑造成来自中亚草原的民族。每一个匈牙利教师都在向学生描绘着马扎尔人的迁徙史和他们的故乡。当学生被这种浪漫的乡愁所打动,他们当中的很多人真的踏上了走向亚洲的道路,比如布达佩斯的犹太人斯泰因,他一直走到了敦煌。

1938年曾在慕尼黑被迫向希特勒妥协的捷克总统爱德华·贝奈斯决心从根本上解决捷克斯洛伐克的民族问题,他的选择就是《贝奈斯法》。根据二战后的《贝奈斯法》,捷克斯洛伐克共和国把国内第二大民族的德意志人全部没收财产、驱逐出境。两百多万德意志人被赶出捷克来到德国后,捷克真的成了一个民族国家。也正是在他们离去的背影里,铁幕无声地降下。横亘在这些被驱逐者和故乡之间的就是这条被遗忘的“冷战的静谧边界”。

捷克和德国之间的这条边界北到瓦尔德萨森、南到帕绍。在很多时候,这条边界看起来和东西德国之间、东西柏林之间的分界线没什么两样。

对一个美国知识分子来说,即使是在中欧这样的多民族地区,民族国家依然被看作是最理想的选择。希特勒固然令人厌恶,但他们也不反对《贝奈斯法》,况且《贝奈斯法》还是以“反纳粹”这个名义下制定出来的。

即使西方的经济起飞让他们当中的很多人改善了自己的处境,但故乡依然是难以忘却的。“在柏林看不到一座像家乡的山”,他们开着汽车或租用大巴回到这条遍布山峦和森林的边界,目的只是看一看自己的家。他们甚至靠捐款在边界的西侧修建了眺望塔,那里站得更高,像是登上了蒂伦高耸的山峰。

在这条边界上,铁幕战胜了他们,等待着他们的只能是忘记自己的过往,也最终被别人遗忘。
ww2  nation  state  ethnic  deutschland  coldwar  nostalgia  population  czech  book 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
为什么历史上会出现先进文明被落后文明征服的情况? - 知乎

有观点认为宋朝市民阶层活跃,官学私学兴起,皇帝与士大夫共天下,在人文精神方面堪比文艺复兴。一连串的窝囊废皇帝确实缺少权威,官民发声也是好事,但宋朝搞来搞去的人文精神,结果居然是推崇圣人训的程朱理学。“为天地立心,为生民立命,为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平”。这种酸腐的呓语被当做时代的强音,哪里有文艺复兴中质疑上帝说的影子?

经济繁荣之下,很多人会有很多奇思妙想并付诸实践。宋人先记录再说,不管是否成熟或能推广应用。夸大的文字描述与真实的技术功效之间,经常在有意无意中充满了欺骗性,最典型的例子就是沈括在《梦溪笔谈》中记述毕昇的泥活字印刷术。

元朝没能像法兰克王国扭转欧洲进程那样扭转中国的进程,其新拓展的疆域与汉文化不能相容。蒙古人和汉人的交流也不成功,在元末农民起义的大潮中,又退回蒙古高原,成为固守漠北的最后一支民族。

辽宋金元更替时期的另一个深远影响是中国的政治中心发生了变化。唐朝后期,关中平原因千年持续开发,植被破坏及水土流失严重,已无地利可言。唐末,长安、洛阳毁于战火,五代中除后唐定都洛阳,其他四朝均定都于华北平原的汴梁,随后北宋也顺势定都汴梁,完成了政治中心的一次东移。但是汴梁地理条件较差,地势过低,靠近黄河和大运河的便利不能抵消水患连连,最终在辽金的持续冲击下被放弃。
region  theory  history  war  state  civ  question  song  china  han 
april 2019 by aries1988
战争重塑中国(南北战争三百年)书评

这仍然未能回答东西方为何选择不同的道路,在我看来,这个问题的答案必须回到不同政治文化传统中去寻找:如果说在欧洲,在罗马帝国的废墟上能有效应对战争挑战的是封建军事传统,那么在中国北方,战争所激活的却是一个强国家传统,最终再次证明只有政治力量能有效整合各种资源转化为战斗力。
west  war  state  history  origin  comparison  question  book  review 
january 2019 by aries1988
How to Control Your Citizens: Opportunity. Nationalism. Fear. - The New York Times
“Today you have the largest bureaucracy in history, with a capacity to intrude in anything,” said William C. Kirby, a professor of China studies at Harvard. “It isn’t just ideology. There are now enormous numbers of interest groups that don’t like competition.”

For guidance, Mr. Ni often looks to Jack Ma, the executive chairman of Alibaba, who is China’s richest man and a cultlike figure among many businessmen. Mr. Ni is currently enrolled in a business school program that Mr. Ma established to cultivate China’s next generation of entrepreneurs.

Over the years, Mr. Ma has spoken publicly about the push-pull relationship between private companies and the government, though there is one piece of his advice for entrepreneurs that Mr. Ni seems to have especially taken to heart: “Fall in love. But don’t marry.”

part of it was something deeper: a desire to help the country catch up with the West and to reconnect with her Chinese roots.

Exposed to liberal democracy, Ms. Hua’s generation was supposed to be the one that demanded it at home. Middle-class Chinese students poured into universities in the United States and Europe — then seen as the most promising path to wealth and prestige — and some Western analysts predicted that they would return to China as a force for political change.

Like many other middle-class parents, Ms. Hua worries about repression and rampant materialism in Chinese society. Yet many of these parents say they want their children to see themselves as Chinese above all else — to understand China’s roots as an agrarian society and to have a sense of pride in the perseverance of the Chinese people through decades of poverty and strife.

Even as some analysts argue that China’s success has more to do with the resilience of its people than the Communist Party and its policies, leaders have been adept at shaping a politicized nationalism that reinforces the primacy of the party — and defends the authoritarian model as the best bulwark against chaos.

“Chinese nationalism binds the people with the state, not to each other,” said Minxin Pei, a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College.
entrepreneurial  china  jiangsu  portrait  rich  conflict  state  parents  children  education  identity  chinese 
november 2018 by aries1988
東亞在世界史中的角色 – Zhongjing Liu | 劉仲敬 – Medium
從現在的這個中國核心去看待世界
把近代以前的中國看成一個自給自足的完整的實體,在十九世紀中葉以前一直是獨立和連續的,然後在十九世紀中葉以後受到歐洲外來者的侵略或者打擊

歐洲國際體系,它本質上講是一個自發演化的多國體系,
歐洲最初產生的威斯特伐利亞體系散播到整個世界,包括亞洲。在這個過程中,亞洲原有的政治結構需要重組,這就是我們所說的「中國」產生的原因。
以前所謂的「中國」,就是中央的城池,就是首都,或者是中原,就是指的中部的、首都周圍的土地,它是一個模糊的地理名詞,並不是現在所謂的民族國家的那個「國」。
大清漸漸解體,直到現在,王朝解體了,歐洲意義上的國家卻沒有真正建立起來。這就是近年來中國為什麼會發生對外緊張關係的根本原因。
民族國家所需要的那些基本要件,例如明確和穩定的邊界,例如排他性的主權
如果中國要建立民族國家的話,那麼很多缺乏認同感的原先的前藩屬地帶,就可以像是對待韓國一樣,讓它自己去獨立,今後建立平等的民族國家的新型關係。

如果美國不採取所謂的再平衡政策,那麼中國方面投入更多力量的結果,就有可能導致周邊的某些小國,特別是東南亞某些小國,背離原來的原有體系,倒向中國,然後形成一個以中國為中心的類似朝貢貿易的體系。而美國為了維持原有體系的平衡,就是說,你加碼我也得加碼,這樣原有體系才能夠維持平衡。
nation  state  china  geopolitics 
october 2018 by aries1988
One is the loneliest number: the history of a Western problem | Aeon Ideas
loneliness is not a universal condition; nor is it a purely visceral, internal experience. It is less a single emotion and more a complex cluster of feelings, composed of anger, grief, fear, anxiety, sadness and shame. It also has social and political dimensions, shifting through time according ideas about the self, God and the natural world. Loneliness, in other words, has a history.

The contemporary notion of loneliness stems from cultural and economic transformations that have taken place in the modern West. Industrialisation, the growth of the consumer economy, the declining influence of religion and the popularity of evolutionary biology all served to emphasise that the individual was what mattered – not traditional, paternalistic visions of a society in which everyone had a place.

In the 19th century, political philosophers used Charles Darwin’s theories about the ‘survival of the fittest’ to justify the pursuit of individual wealth to Victorians. Scientific medicine, with its emphasis on brain-centred emotions and experiences, and the classification of the body into ‘normal’ and abnormal states, underlined this shift. The four humours (phlegmatic, sanguine, choleric, melancholic) that had dominated Western medicine for 2,000 years and made people into ‘types’, fell away in favour of a new model of health dependent on the physical, individual body.

my claim is that human emotions are inseparable from their social, economic and ideological contexts. The righteous anger of the morally affronted, for instance, would be impossible without a belief in right and wrong, and personal accountability. Likewise, loneliness can exist only in a world where the individual is conceived as separate from, rather than part of, the social fabric. It’s clear that the rise of individualism corroded social and communal ties, and led to a language of loneliness that didn’t exist prior to around 1800.
mind  state  modernity  19C 
october 2018 by aries1988
Xi Sets China on a Collision Course With History - The New York Times
Known as “modernization theory,” it says that once citizens reach a certain level of wealth, they will demand things like public accountability, free expression and a role in government. Authoritarian states, unable to meet these demands, either transition to democracy or collapse amid unrest.

So China is instead promoting “ideology and collective social values” that equate the government with Chinese culture, according to research by the China scholar Heike Holbig and Mr. Gilley. Patriotic songs and school textbooks have proliferated. So have mentions of “Xi Jinping Thought,” now an official ideology.
today  china  2018  xi  politics  state  people 
september 2018 by aries1988
中产阶级轻松 社会没有未来:评《作为中产我对国家有哪些不满》
房价除了反映土地稀缺度,更反映基础建设水平。中国人都知道炒房要炒地铁房,说明即便是有投机心态,房价也得和基建投资挂钩。但问题在于,中国的城市基建不是天上掉下来的,不是全世界殖民地养的,不是世界大战的财富买单的,很大程度上是我们在一代人的时间里快速造出来的。这笔投资让目前享用城市基建的人口买单,是唯一的出路。

在一个大多数家庭都意识到教育重要性的年代,在一个阶层流动还非常明显的年代,中产阶级——从你的描述看,其实是顶层中产,占人口5%以内——要保持住自己的教育优势,本来就要比下面的人多花一些力气,多承受一些成本。

中产之所以是中产,有两种可能。一是在快速增长的经济体内,提供产业升级过程中稀缺的技术劳动和知识,从增量中获得超出平均水平的工资。另一种中产在稳定乃至停滞的经济体内,占据垄断性技术和人脉,用或明或暗的“编制”来凭空“制造稀缺”,维持远超平均水平的工资。这第二种中产,其实就是封建时代末期的小地主,清朝中期的盐业分销商,19世纪末的奴隶种植园打手,对生产力发展是绊脚石而不是推进剂。对于这种社会集团,我读书时的课本有一个简洁明了的描述:

反动
state  middle-class  china  today  debate  shenzhen 
august 2018 by aries1988
赵鼎新:加州学派与工业资本主义的兴起
笔者强调的是经济行动者的特性,以及与军事和经济竞争相关联的机制的重要性;笔者同时强调以私利为导向的工具理性成为可被正面价值观是工业资本主义兴起中的一个关键。

反事实思维在历史分析中按说是破坏目的论思想的利器,但实际上,它更多地被用来制造另一种奇思幻想的目的论,在其中,某一因素被无限地从历史情境中抽离、拔高,成为历史进程的主要推动力。

儒家学者则更多地将儒家思想视为道德体系而非超验真理。当李贽表达他的非正统的观点时,它引起的是李贽和与他交好的耿定理的哥哥耿定向之间带有私人性质的争论。主流儒生更感兴趣的是掌握理学经义以通过科举考试,而不是这种辩论。明朝中央政府甚至没有插手其间。

中国的城市仍有不同于欧洲城市的几个关键方面。最明显的是,中国的城市从来没有拥有过自治的政治和法律地位,并且它们也没有像中世纪一些获得特许状的城镇或自由城镇那样拥有属于自己的军队。因此,研究中国城市的学者都承认政治和行政命令对中国城市的命运有着决定性的影响。

面对国家的政治主宰和理学思想的统治地位,明清商人非常热衷于让他们的孩子接受儒家教育,取得科举功名并致仕。他们与地方官员建立密切的关系,并且与仕宦家族联姻。他们为政府征收税款,并且介入乡镇治理活动。他参与地方慈善活动,仿效士人的生活方式,旨在获取尊重与信任,并使得商业活动能更顺利开展。然而,这些经济行动者无法构建诸如自由主义或“看不见的手”这样的非正统的价值观来为他们的经营性行为正名,而且他们必须严格隶从官府。这些都显示了中国经济行动者的弱势,更进一步表明在西方到来之前工业资本主义很难在中国自发地崛起。

由于商业发展和繁荣,中国的富庶地区有着较高的生活水准,然而,明清时候的中国,技术创新并没有鼓励性的回报,理论/形式理性极不发达;最重要的是,新儒家意识形态没有面临重大的挑战,而商人无法利用他们的财富来获取政治、军事和意识形态方面的权力从而抗衡国家的权力。与欧洲情况不同的是,晚期中华帝国维持灿烂的商业的原因不是新儒家世界的衰弱和资产阶级力量的崛起,而是帝国庞大的领土和人口所带来的巨大市场和王朝中期特有的长期政治稳定。当欧洲人在19 世纪持着现代武器抵达中国时,中国并没有走向工业革命而是走向王朝的衰落。中国并非自发地迈入现代化,而是被西方和日本帝国主义拖入到工业化和现代化的历史进程当中。
debate  china  qing  ming  capitalism  modernity  society  state  question  europe  confucianism  to:pdf 
july 2018 by aries1988
Looking Through the Eyes of China’s Surveillance State - The New York Times
Many critics call China’s surveillance ambitions Orwellian, and they are. But for China today, the world imagined by Franz Kafka offers a closer vision: bureaucratic, unknowable and ruled by uncertainty as much as fear.
opinion  china  today  politics  state 
july 2018 by aries1988
What if the Government Gave Everyone a Paycheck? - The New York Times
A world inhabited only by robots, their billionaire owners and a large and increasingly restive population is the plotline for countless dystopian fantasies, but it’s a reality that appears to be drawing closer. If we continue on the path we’re on, we will need to make fundamental choices about how to support human livelihoods and ensure equal participation in our economy and society. Most basically, we will have to confront the realities of vastly unequal economic and political power. Even if we manage to enact a U.B.I., it will not be nearly enough.
poverty  ai  future  money  wealth  state 
july 2018 by aries1988
Why some countries come together, while others fall apart | Aeon Essays

A comparison between Switzerland and Belgium, two countries of similar size, with a similar linguistic composition of the population, and comparable levels of economic development, provides an example. In Switzerland, civil society organisations – such as shooting clubs, reading circles and choral societies – developed throughout the territory during the late 18th and first half of the 19th century. They spread evenly throughout the country because modern industries emerged across all the major regions, and because Switzerland’s city-states lacked both the capacity and the motivation to suppress them. In Belgium, by contrast, Napoleon, as well as the Dutch king who succeeded him, recognised the revolutionary potential of such voluntary associations, and suppressed them. Even more importantly, the associations that did exist in Belgium were confined to the more economically developed and more educated French-speaking regions and segments of the population.

In 1831, when Belgium became independent of the kingdom of the Netherlands, most of the new rulers of the country had long been members of these French-speaking associational networks. Without giving it much thought, they declared French the official language of the administration, army and judiciary. Despite forming a slight demographic majority, those who spoke only Flemish were not part of these networks, and were therefore excluded from the central government. Until the end of the 19th century, the Flemish were ruled as an internal colony of Francophone Belgium. Early nation-building failed, the language divide became heavily politicised during the 20th century, and the country is now close to breaking apart.

Generations of political ties across linguistic divides allowed nationalist intellectuals and politicians to imagine the Han nation as multilingual, but ethnically homogenous.

Supporting civil society organisations can lead to backlash against foreign influence and political interference. The recent crackdown on foreign-funded NGOs in many eastern European countries is just one example of the risks run by a strategy of cultivating civil society organisations from outside. In the long run, however, such organisations help to provide a political infrastructure to establish ties across ethnic divides and move toward national political integration. A consistent and long-term strategy, such as that pursued by Germany’s political foundations or the Soros foundation, might still be the best way to help citizens connect with each other based on a shared cause, rather than shared ethnicity.
book  nation  state  origin  irak  afghanistan  howto  today  aids 
june 2018 by aries1988
中国面壁者:西南大山深处的核九院年轻人_能见度_澎湃新闻-The Paper
中国面壁者:西南大山深处的核九院年轻人_能见度_澎湃新闻-The Paper 下载APP 进入原新闻 进入原话题 下载APP 去提问 / 下载APP 打开澎湃客户端提问 视频 时事 财经 思想 生活 上直播 @所有人 温度计 一级视场 World湃 湃客科技 围观 七环视频 大都会 追光灯 运动装 健寻记 城市漫步…
2018  scientist  chinese  state  propaganda  reportage  youth 
may 2018 by aries1988
【林忌书评】《丝路、游牧民与唐帝国》
然而要理性讨论上述问题最困难的,正由于民族主义对窜改历史以至对大家的洗脑,都是非常彻底的;每一次要讨论这些问题,必须先提醒大家一个最基本的历史事实︰民族主义,即要建立以民族为本位的国家,其实是来自唐朝灭亡近千年后的法国大革命;在此之前,只有皇朝,没有国家;因此异族作为君主,从来都不是甚么问题;因此唐朝来自拓拔家的帝国,不会影响其作为「中国地区」的皇帝的身份问题,但更不能因此把「唐朝」就当成是中国这个民族国家,两者的错误,其实是相同的。

举例说,英国今日的皇室,在一次大战才「本土化」改名为温莎皇朝,而摆脱本身出自德意志诸候萨克森—科堡(Saxe-Coburg),以至较早前的汉诺威(Hannover);再早之前,奠定之后英格兰一千年历史的征服者威廉(1066),在登陆时的爵位,正是法兰西的诺曼第公爵,因此异族入主一个帝国或王国,取得该国的王位,其王室本身并不是重点,原因就是当年根本没有民族主义;出问题的,其实是后代受到民族主义洗脑式的影响,如把狮心王查理视为「英国民族英雄」,或把唐太宗李世民视为「中国民族英雄」,这才是最大的问题。
history  tang  china  nation  state 
april 2018 by aries1988
Why did we start farming?
What if the origin of farming wasn’t a moment of liberation but of entrapment? Scott offers an alternative to the conventional narrative that is altogether more fascinating, not least in the way it omits any self-congratulation about human achievement.

The perfectly formed city-state is the ideal, deeply ingrained in the Western psyche, on which our notion of the nation-state is founded, ultimately inspiring Donald Trump’s notion of a ‘city’ wall to keep out the barbarian Mexican horde, and Brexiters’ desire to ‘take back control’ from insurgent European bureaucrats.
CPR 都市帝国 宫崎市定

His account of the deep past doesn’t purport to be definitive, but it is surely more accurate than the one we’re used to, and it implicitly exposes the flaws in contemporary political ideas that ultimately rest on a narrative of human progress and on the ideal of the city/nation-state.

domesticated goats had begun to eat up the local vegetation – the first step to today’s barren landscape.

although farming would have significantly increased mortality rates in both infants and adults, sedentism would have increased fertility. Mobile hunter-gatherers were effectively limited by the demands of travel to having one child every four years. An increase in fertility that just about outpaced the increase in mortality would account for the slow, steady increase in population in the villages.

Collapse could mean nothing more than the abandonment of the centre and the redistribution of the population into independent settlements, to be followed by the next cycle of annexation.

According to Scott, the period of early states was the Golden Age for the barbarians.
book  agriculture  human  debate  evolution  question  civ  idea  invention  destiny  whatif  history  origin  state  read  instapaper_favs 
february 2018 by aries1988
於淵:走不出的「邊疆中國」|讀書時間|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

孙中山在辛亥革命后所提出的五族共和,

章炳麟则更加极端,他不赞同继承异族王朝的疆域,而要恢复到汉、明时期的疆域,那才是汉族正统。于是在章炳麟眼中,在清朝与中国形同异国的缅、朝、越,变成中华民国必当恢复的领土;而在清代内附且至清末已明白划在中国近代国际疆界之内的蒙、回、藏部,反而成了可以任其去来的荒服。

首先,中国国内民族的数量远远多于五族;其次,五族共和是汉、满精英的妥协,并不是五族之间达成的。五族共和最直接的目的是将清帝国五域维系在民国之内,而中国实际上却进入了以分离为开端的大分裂时期──外蒙直接独立,最终成为无可挽回的结局。
qing  china  state  nation  challenge  history  today  ethnic  book  chinese 
january 2018 by aries1988
元清非中國論 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

至明朝末期,「中國」一詞已經有著約三千年的使用歷史,最早只是作為一種地域專屬名稱,專指中原地區,此「國」意為「地域」,同「南國」、「北國」用法。後來隨著大一統思想的發展和鞏固[註 1],「中國」逐漸成為正統朝代的標誌性稱呼,例如宋金對峙時期,金國為表示正統,往往自稱「中國」。

清朝以前,「中國」兩字并不曾被作為任何某一個朝代的專屬名稱。自清入主中原、代明而立以來,清政府以中華正朔自居,開始以「中國」自稱其全部統治區域[11]。

1689年,中俄兩國簽訂《尼布楚條約》,國體意義上的「中國」首次正式出現在國際法條約文件上[13]。《尼布楚條約》是中國第一次與歐洲國家按照國際法原則、以對等方式談判達成的平等條約,該條約也被指是最早明確使用「中國」一詞來指代大清的國際法文件。條約中的「中國」指蒙古和中國東北在內的整個清帝國[14]。

矢野仁一認為,中國不能稱為所謂的民族國家,又宣稱滿、蒙、藏等原來就非中國領土,表示如果要維持大中國的同一性,那就根本沒有必要推翻清王朝,如果要建立民族國家,則應當放棄邊疆地區的控制,包括政治上的領屬和歷史上的敍述[5]。

徐明旭亦表示把國家與民族混為一談的觀點不見於國際法上,指出“蒙古民族”與“中國”是兩個概念,根據國際公法,民族與國家是完全不同的兩個概念,又引用比喻駁斥相關論調:「假如有人在美國聲稱:美國的愛爾蘭、猶太人等都不是美國人,只有盎格魯-撒克遜裔才是美國人,他一定會遇到麻煩,甚至被斥為種族主義者。中國像美國一樣,也是個多民族國家,有五十六個民族,為什麼漢族以外的民族就不算中國人呢?」[37]

1912年,清政府發布《大清國皇帝退位詔書》,宣布:「總期人民安堵,海宇乂安,仍合滿、漢、蒙、回、藏五族完全領土,為一大中華民國」,簡稱「中國」的中華民國繼承了大清國的全部領土、主權,以及自《尼布楚條約》以來,多個邊界條約規定的國界。二次大戰後,中華民國根據《開羅宣言》和《波茨坦公告》收復了被日本佔領的中國東北、台灣、澎湖以及南海諸島,同時外蒙古獨立。後來中華人民共和國在習慣線與條約線的基礎上,與其鄰國簽訂了一系列的邊界條約,確立了現在的領土範圍[66]。
debate  historiography  china  history  mongolia  manchuria  today  japan  historian  ethnic  state 
january 2018 by aries1988
刘仲敬:大清是如何输给日本的
从宏观角度来看,我们可以说当时世界存在的不只一种世界体系,欧洲的世界体系在签订了威斯特伐利亚条约,解构了教皇和皇帝在基督教世界最高权力以后,渐渐的创造了民族国家实体概念,由民族国家实体比较平稳地组成一个没有确定权威的国际关系网络,取代了教皇和皇帝领导的基督教文明共同体这个有最高权力体系的概念。然后这个体系随着时间推移,逐渐扩散到全世界。

与此同时,中国或者说是大清承袭了中国自古以来的天下国家或者说宇宙国家的体系,同时又加上了满蒙部族联盟这个统治核心的特点。天下国家的根本特点是它没有确定的行为主体,也没有确定的边界和主权的。

首善之区就是京师,离皇恩最近,所以它的道德水平是最高的,甚至皇帝作为天下的领袖,他的道德是最高的,他主要凭他的道德感召力量而不是凭他的赤裸裸的武力来迫使各地屈服。内环到外环的道德程度和管控能力都要相应的削弱,最后的“化外之地”蛮夷肯定是像没有长大的小孩一样,是完全不听话、捣乱的。

如果你承认英国跟清国是平行的国家,那么你肯定是大逆不道的,因为普天之下莫非王土,英国这些人虽然是不懂中文而且是蛮夷,毫无疑问也是皇上的臣民,你说它是跟皇上独立的国家,那你就是大逆不道。割地赔款反倒不是,因为割地赔款是一种犒赏性的行动,是教育小孩子懂得教化的一种贿赂性的做法,而且在天下国家体系当中没有入侵这件事情,因为没有在皇权之外存在着同等的权力,只有叛乱这回事,

所以撤换林则徐非但不是丧权辱国的行动,反而是皇帝遵守儒家教化和宪法原则的结果,因为英国人上X访是到皇帝面前鸣冤告状,因为林总督没有公正的对待他们,所以皇上在弄清是非曲直之前,一定要各打五十大板,首先要把主管官员撤掉,就好像说是某个地方有访X民到中央告状,中央处理问题一定是要回避,处理这个问题的官员先让他停职审X查,要不然有他在那里从中作梗的话,访X民绝对不可能得到公正待遇。道光皇帝当时就是这样的思维。

清廷人有双面性,他在面对内地的时候仍然要坚持他的德教原则和文治的原则,也就是说不能使用武力,或者说是不能过度的使用武力,只能维持一个极小规模的政府和军X队

一个共X产X党的政X权,你应该是不承认民主国家的原则,就像苏联一样,它和整个无产阶级世界处在战争状态,只有在共X产主义实现以后才能够按照共X产主义兄弟原则处理内部关系,对外的关系应该是一种永恒的无限制的战争,像列宁说的那样,是根本不受任何法律和规则约束的战争。事实上这个做不到。你要和占据绝对优势的西方国家打交道的话,你想完全拒绝接受西方的游戏规则和国际惯例的话,你将会陷入极其被动甚至有亡国之祸的情况下,所以你必须部分接受。

英国人要代表西方教会清国怎样在西方的游戏规则中作为一个普通国家生存而玩这种游戏

内地的保守派包括满族亲贵来允许它进行有限改革,因此它加入国际体系是半心半意的,这个强大的集团是隐性的,没有出现李鸿章这样杰出的首领,实际上他们的权X势要比李鸿章这方面要强大得多。而英国这一方面过高的估计了李鸿章这一系在清廷内部体制内的影响力,觉得他们的课业是很快就会成功的,因此在外交上往往是比较袒护清政府的。

清廷内部有强烈的声音说疏远的外藩我们本来就不在乎,但朝鲜不是,朝鲜是关系密切的内藩,我们如果再也维护不了大清的权威的话,那实在是说不过去

凡尔登大战死了几十万人,但是意义还没有攻占冬宫来得重要,攻占冬宫那次战役中间,其实列宁和克伦斯基双方的损失都是非常少的,但是严重的影响了历史路径

甲午战争这件事情,它的意义不在于它当时死了几个人,也不在于当时赔了点钱,其实从长期来看,这点钱其实也是无所谓的,关键在于它把日本推上了它渴望已久的地位,而清政府方面却根本没有意识到自己丧失了什么东西,它丧失的是机会。如果你丧失的是具体的钱和人,你知道你死了多少人,亏了多少钱,但是你丧失了机会的时候,如果你知识结构不完整的话,很可能你意识不到。而对于人或者对于国家来说,无形的机会才是最宝贵的,你丧失机会造成的损失远比你丧失钱或者丧失具体物品来得重要。

这条没有出路的道路从根本上讲就是清室无法割舍他自身维持的那个国际体系的结果,这一点不单单是清室自己的昏聩,应该说维持这种体系,在清廷内部应该是一个占据主流地位的舆论,清政府如果根据李鸿章的思路进行改革的话,反倒是非常不得人心、不得军心的。
japan  china  history  war  qing  19C  theory  civ  politics  state  comparison 
december 2017 by aries1988
胡平:如何解读中国之崛起-墙外楼

用托克维尔在《旧制度与大革命》中的话来讲:一个坏政府最危险的时候,不是它政绩最恶劣的时候,而是它试图改革的时候。因为改革本身,使它的弱点显露于天下,改革本身会释放出一些原来被压制的力量,所以反而会促成它的灭亡。这是一个一般性的规律。

在中国,由于采用了权贵私有化,倒是一步到位地解决了这个问题。它没有通过大众私有化,把资产分给大家,再通过市场运作把资产集中到少数人手里,而是直截了当地把资产分给了党委,给了党委书记,所以中国成了这个样子,共产党成了中国的唯一的大股东,党委会成了董事会,书记成了CEO,免除了大众私有化过程中资产零碎化的问题。因此在它的经济发展中,就没有资产零碎化导致的经济衰退,得以保持持续的发展。当然这种转变是特别恶劣的,因为共产党就是靠打倒地主资本家起家的,现在你怎么成了地主资本家了呢?所以这种做法,如果没有六四造成的那种威慑背景,根本不可能发生。但是因为中国有那么一个背景,这个情况就在我们眼前发生了。

避免了大众私有化造成的资产零碎化所带来的问题。它使得大资本一步到位地从所谓的全民的手中集中到了少数权贵的手中,就完成了资本主义的变化。

环球日报写得很清楚,实行民主对于别的国家就是政党轮替的问题,对于中国就是翻天覆地。因为它很清楚,它整个的统治,都是建立在这种压制之上的。现在不谈它政治上的压迫引起人们的反感,单单它的经济上、财富上的这种配置,就是建立在高压之下,完全是不公不义的。

大部分就是建立在对所谓全民资产的这种掠夺之上的。尤其是在六四之后,这种掠夺几乎是公开进行的。因此这些权贵不得不担心,一旦政治开放了,且不说以前当局犯下的政治错误会受到追究,单单是目前这种不合理的财富分配的格局,人们就不可能接受。也就是说,一旦中国人民有了发言权,他们很有可能就会要求对过去的经济问题进行清算,要求获得不义之财的权贵们把不义之财交出来。这一点让权贵们更难以接受。因此他们对政治的自由化、政治开发就抱有比原来更为敌视的态度。
opinion  china  politics  state  party  history  1990s  economy  future 
december 2017 by aries1988
专访王柯:极端的民族主义,一定是与世界为敌|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
实际上,本身中华文化是多重的,其最早就是由不同的异民族创造,并不是汉人自己创造的文化,而是来自于异民族向这个地方的移动。他们到达之后,为了说明自己建立政权的正当性,用神话来解释自己的历史,才导致了“权威的产生”。

夏商周三代,都是异民族开始的政权,他们到中原来建立政权的时候,就一定要对中原的人说他们建立政权的正当性。说明正当性的方法是什么呢?就是天命,我们应天命而来。

所以在清朝,北京叫顺天,南京叫应天,满洲就叫奉天。

所谓的天,日本说的“天无私照”,这就是日本的大神──“天照大神”的来源。所以实际上,向心力不是别的东西,其实就是一种对公平正义平等的向往。

最后,我对民族主义深恶痛绝。

也许从小的方面来看,对一个民族或有好处,但从整体来看,民族主义一定是需要敌人的。这个角度来看,我对中国过去通过民族主义来建国这条路,是深恶痛绝的。
opinion  research  politics  history  china  chinese  japan  nation  state  religion  ethnic  crisis  bio 
november 2017 by aries1988
Le syndrome catalan | Le blog de Thomas Piketty
La crise catalane est-elle due à un excès de centralisation et à la brutalité du pouvoir madrilène ? Ou bien plutôt à une logique de mise en concurrence généralisée des territoires et des pays qui a déjà été beaucoup trop loin, en Espagne comme en Europe, et qui conduit à toujours plus de surenchère vers le chacun-pour-soi ?
europe  region  government  state  taxe  debate  crisis 
november 2017 by aries1988
What Happens If China Makes First Contact?

Science fiction is sometimes described as a literature of the future, but historical allegory is one of its dominant modes. Isaac Asimov based his Foundation series on classical Rome, and Frank Herbert’s Dune borrows plot points from the past of the Bedouin Arabs. Liu is reluctant to make connections between his books and the real world, but he did tell me that his work is influenced by the history of Earth’s civilizations, “especially the encounters between more technologically advanced civilizations and the original settlers of a place.” One such encounter occurred during the 19th century, when the “Middle Kingdom” of China, around which all of Asia had once revolved, looked out to sea and saw the ships of Europe’s seafaring empires, whose ensuing invasion triggered a loss in status for China comparable to the fall of Rome.

Every so often, a Hans Zimmer bass note would sound, and the glass pane would fill up with the smooth, spaceship-white side of another train, whooshing by in the opposite direction at almost 200 miles an hour.

seti does share some traits with religion. It is motivated by deep human desires for connection and transcendence. It concerns itself with questions about human origins, about the raw creative power of nature, and about our future in this universe—and it does all this at a time when traditional religions have become unpersuasive to many.

China could rightly regard itself as the lone survivor of the great Bronze Age civilizations, a class that included the Babylonians, the Mycenaeans, and even the ancient Egyptians. Western poets came to regard the latter’s ruins as Ozymandian proof that nothing lasted. But China had lasted. Its emperors presided over the planet’s largest complex social organization. They commanded tribute payments from China’s neighbors, whose rulers sent envoys to Beijing to perform a baroque face-to-the-ground bowing ceremony for the emperors’ pleasure.
astronomy  seti  china  alien  chinese  project  state  scientist  scifi  technology  development  2017  future  human  discovery  history  Space  interview 
november 2017 by aries1988
Japan: the next big quake
The government’s figures put the odds of a magnitude 8.0-plus Nankai Trough earthquake at 50 per cent in the next 20 years, 70 per cent in the next 30 years and 90 per cent in the next half century.

In the worst case of a magnitude 9.0 quake, close to land, Tokyo puts losses at ¥220tn ($2tn) for the first year alone. The amount is hard to imagine: 40 per cent of Japan’s GDP, equal to the market capitalisation of Apple, Microsoft, Berkshire Hathaway, ExxonMobil and Facebook combined. Around three-quarters of that is property damage, most of it privately owned, and the rest is lost economic activity.

The worst fatality rates in Tohoku towns were about 10 per cent, whereas historic records suggest fatality rates of half or two-thirds for unprepared fishing villages after a similar tsunami in 1896. In total, 97 per cent of people in the Tohoku inundation area survived.

That reflects the benefits of engineering, early warning and evacuation.
japan  gis  government  planning  disaster  state  policy  manufacturing  infographics  earthquake 
october 2017 by aries1988
Interview with Emmanuel Macron: 'We Need to Develop Political Heroism' - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International

Nothing here should become habitual, because routine lends one a deceptive feeling of security. You begin not noticing certain things and lose your focus on what's important. Uncertainty and change keep you attentive.

It is a place laden with history. The emperors spent time here, Napoleon I and Napoleon III. In the Fourth Republic, it was the palace of a president without powers. Only in the Fifth Republic did Charles de Gaulle move back in.

Germany is different from France. You are more Protestant, which results in a significant difference. Through the church, through Catholicism, French society was structured vertically, from top to bottom. I am convinced that it has remained so until today.

France is a country of regicidal monarchists. It is a paradox: The French want to elect a king, but they would like to be able to overthrow him whenever they want.

I am a strong believer that modern political life must rediscover a sense for symbolism. We need to develop a kind of political heroism. I don't mean that I want to play the hero. But we need to be amenable once again to creating grand narratives. If you like, post-modernism was the worst thing that could have happened to our democracy. The idea that you have to deconstruct and destroy all grand narratives is not a good one. Since then, trust has evaporated in everything and everyone.

I am putting an end to the cronyism between politics and the media. For a president, constantly speaking to journalists, constantly being surrounded by journalists, has nothing to do with closeness to the people. A president should keep the media at arm's length.
interview  français  deutschland  newspaper  2017  macron  democracy  europe  politics  france  state  president  opinion  comparison  protestant  society  hierarchy  narrative  post  modernity  trust  media  idea  reform  heroism 
october 2017 by aries1988
Why Land on the Moon? - The Atlantic
THOUGHTFUL critics, concerned over the allocation of limited national resources, ask whether this is a good way in which to spend funds that might otherwise be used for the betterment of man's lot on the surface of the earth. Could some of the money going into space research be diverted into other programs of public interest -- medical research, education, housing, technical aid to emerging nations -- a variety of projects contributing to the welfare of our society?

But if space money cannot readily be rerouted into other channels, that negative consideration in itself is not a reason for these large expenditures. What are the positive values which we derive from this investment?

The current discussion of these values of the space program has served the United States well in directing its attention to questions of national purpose. But, however we may try to break the program down into its elements and to attempt a detailed balancing of debits and credits, the fact remains that the space effort is greater than the sum of its parts. It is a great adventure and a great enterprise, not only for the United States but for all humanity. We have the power and resources to play a leading role in this effort, and it is inconceivable that we should stand aside.
science  politics  policy  discovery  state  moon  astronomy  nasa  space 
october 2017 by aries1988
The end of a world of nation-states may be upon us – Jamie Bartlett | Aeon Essays

Yes, there are dictatorships and democracies, but the whole world is made up of nation-states. This means a blend of ‘nation’ (people with common attributes and characteristics) and ‘state’ (an organised political system with sovereignty over a defined space, with borders agreed by other nation-states).

Until the mid-19th century, most of the world was a sprawl of empires, unclaimed land, city-states and principalities, which travellers crossed without checks or passports.

as Karl Marx observed, if you change the dominant mode of production that underpins a society, the social and political structure will change too.

John Perry Barlow’s ‘Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace’ (1996) sums it up well: the internet is a technology built on libertarian principles. Censorship-free, decentralised and borderless. And now ubiquitous.

This is the crux of the problem: nation-states rely on control. If they can’t control information, crime, businesses, borders or the money supply, then they will cease to deliver what citizens demand of them. In the end, nation-states are nothing but agreed-upon myths: we give up certain freedoms in order to secure others. But if that transaction no longer works, and we stop agreeing on the myth, it ceases to have power over us.

Clearly, nation-states won’t go down tamely. Carving out a new form of sovereign authority from an existing one is extremely difficult, and is generally frowned upon by the UN.
debate  state  origin  today  death  government  world 
october 2017 by aries1988
The Interpreter Thursday, October 5, 2017
And conversely, how much attention should we pay to the fact that today’s nascent democracies are held to a much higher moral standard than more established ones were in their earliest days? The early United States, for instance, relied on slave labor and waged brutal ethnic cleansing campaigns against Native Americans. European nations used slavery, torture and political oppression to maintain control over their colonies.

We now recognize, rightly, that those atrocities were abhorrent and shameful. But it is easier to do that from today’s comfortable vantage point of wealth and stability. We rarely reckon with how much of what we have today was derived from the oppression of others. So should we take a cold, hard look at the difficulties of establishing democracy, freedom and equality all at the same time?
question  debate  democracy  nation  state  2017  history  future  government 
october 2017 by aries1988
Myanmar Follows Global Pattern in How Ethnic Cleansing Begins - The New York Times
National self-determination, the idea that a nation should have the right to freely choose its political status, is a central tenet of the international system. It is enshrined in Article 1 of the United Nations Charter, which states that its purpose is “to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.”

Self-determination means not only defining what a nation is, but also who belongs in that nation and who is an outsider. And during times of political upheaval, when national identity comes under pressure and different groups compete for claims to self-determination, such definitions can provide an impetus for mass violence and even genocide against those deemed to be outsiders.

It is easy enough to define a “state” — a place with borders, territory and a sovereign government. But a “nation” is a hazier concept — a group of people bound together by some common characteristic, which may or may not match up precisely with state borders. That is where things get tricky.

Stefan Wolff, a political scientist at the University of Birmingham in England who studies ethnic conflict, has found that many of the world’s worst conflicts have arisen when ethnic and political borders do not line up with one another. “From Kosovo to Silesia,” he wrote in a 2004 article, “the competing claims of distinct ethnic groups to self-determination have been the most prominent sources of conflicts within and across state boundaries.”
2017  nation  state  banyan 
september 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:和朱元璋學國學

尤其大陸正在流行所謂的「國學教育」,傳聞連習近平也很欣賞近年大熱的《弟子規》,要孩子們多多誦讀這類「經典」,簡直就是蔣介石昔年在台灣發動「中華文化復興運動」的翻版。香港若是也來這套,我們的學生乖乖地跟着學嗎?他們多半是要把「國學」等同於洗腦的吧。

如果國學教育教的就是《弟子規》,我會很同情那些受苦的學生的。因為這本清朝一個秀才寫給販夫走卒看的識字讀本,不只不能代表國學,甚至連符不符合儒家精神都很難講。

要知道在傳統秩序的框架底下,忠往往是孝的延展,所以要人無條件地孝,也就相當於要人無條件地忠。如果說這就是中國文化的精粹,是儒家的真精神,那就真是太過冤枉列代聖賢了。

真正的儒家不接受無條件的忠順,正所謂「君君、臣臣、父父、子子」,當國君的要有當國君的樣子,做臣子的也才能有做臣子的表現。這一切倫常政治關係皆是相互規約,要求雙方各盡本份的。

儒門弟子真正值得獻身景從的對象,不是一個人甚至一個政權,而是充盈於宇宙之間,萬古恒健的天地正道。

不過,要是這麼教儒家,這麼教國學,學生又會不會變得容易激進,破壞了社會的繁榮安定呢?所以除了鼓勵他們好好背完《弟子規》算數,不妨也參考一下明太祖朱元璋的辦法。
2017  china  education  children  confucianism  state 
september 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:結局之後的劇情

這種宣傳,這個版本的劉曉波故事,對於香港、台灣和其他地方的人而言,應該沒有多大作用,因為我們有另一套截然不同的劉曉波故事。但是對於言路閉塞,信息封鎖,浸泡在主旋律正能量大浴缸下的大陸居民,乃至於到了海外仍然不離這種心理環境的大陸居民來講,這可能就是他們所知的劉曉波生平了。
2017  narrative  democracy  leader  death  china  today  politics  state 
july 2017 by aries1988
Catalonia’s referendum exposes a divided Spain 
Catalonia has been part of the Spanish state for centuries, yet many Catalans regard themselves as a nation apart, with their own language, culture and history. The region is one of the country’s 17 “autonomous communities”, with powers over matters such as education, healthcare and welfare, and a police force of its own. Despite occasional rumblings of discontent, the arrangement was, until recently, broadly accepted by Catalans and Spaniards alike. 

Catalans express their views from balconies and windows, thousands of which are covered with the distinctive red-yellow-and-blue estelada, the flag of Catalan independence. To know the political allegiance of a city, village or street in the region, all you have to do is look up.

Five centuries after the Catholic kings united the crowns of Castile and Aragon, Spain has to live with the fact that Basques and Catalans have not only preserved their languages but that many still see themselves as nations apart. For some Spaniards, who dream of a monolithic nation state à la française, this is hard to accept. For others, it offers an opportunity to overhaul old structures, both mental and constitutional, and turn Spain into a state that provides more room for different identities and nations, even the Catalan one.

The problem, he tells me, is that each camp looks at distant historical events through the lens of contemporary politics, and “projects back in history a kind of relationship that is anachronistic . . . History does not move in a steady direction. It is full of twists and turns.”

Even today, more than half the Catalan population says Spanish is the language of daily use. Their children, however, have mostly been through Catalan schools, exposed to lessons and texts that have little in common with the vision of Spain their parents grew up with. In some cases, schoolbooks replicate the broader Catalan narrative — of a nation apart, suppressed by Spain.
espagna  history  state  catalonia  barcelona  crisis  identity  2017 
july 2017 by aries1988
访谈|顾彬:宋朝是近代的开始 | 东方历史评论 - 历史的,批评的,审美的

按照德国汉学中国的古代到了秦朝结束。官员慢慢代替封建的代表帮助皇帝。汉朝是一种过程, 从古代到中世纪。中世纪 (220—907)是一个贵族时代。宋朝是一个官员时代。因此那里开始近代。欧洲很晚才有官员能代替贵族。

德国汉学界把中国历史分得跟中国汉学家不一样。原因是我们对封建社会的理解有很大不同。宋朝没有贵族。当时的社会是一个以官员为主的。哲学是一个民主化的,因为君子不再是统治者的意思,现在有人的意义。谁都可以作为君子。宋、元朝慢慢出现银行、纸币、养老院、医院等。
opinion  china  history  dynasty  song  comparison  deutschland  state  to:check 
june 2017 by aries1988
南方周末 - 统一文字是果,统一国家才是因
李俊慧
从语言还可以进一步推广到更深远的制度。欧元这种后天人为的货币,从一开始就没有实体国家的支持,可想而知除非统一出一个实体国家,其消亡不可阻挡!统一的国家,才是一切统一——无论是统一的文字,还是统一的货币——的原因与根源,我们不可倒果为因啊!当然,为什么中国比西方更早地出现统一的国家,有关的解释我在《贸易的真相》一书(中信出版社出版)的“重商主义”一章里有详细的讲解,这里就不再重复了。
language  nation  state  comparison  europe  china  chinese  latin  opinion 
may 2017 by aries1988
Colin Kaepernick Is Lucky He’s Not Japanese | Foreign Policy
Over the past two years, several people have been thrown out of cinemas for refusing to stand for the national anthem, “Jana Gana Mana” — a song that seems to be playing an increasingly public role with the resurgence of Hindu nationalism under Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Playing the anthem before screenings is compulsory in Maharashtra (the state that includes Mumbai) and common in other states like Kerala.

it could also be that few actually understood the point the teachers were trying to make. The war was more than 70 years ago, after all. The anthem, to most modern ears, simply sounds like a call for a much loved emperor’s reign to last for a geologically impossible (stones turning into boulders) length of time.
india  japan  cinema  state  education  school  history  usa  nationalism 
september 2016 by aries1988
The burkini row shows the depth of west’s crisis of confidence
Instead, the growing visibility of Muslims in western society reflects an ownership over their European and Muslim identities in a manner their first-generation immigrant parents and grandparents did not dare display. A headscarf is a mark of self-confidence not illiberalism. The Islam practised by many young European Muslims today is flexible, tolerant and accepting of the west’s prevailing norms, whether on homosexuality, abortion or atheism.

The burkini has gained prominence in recent years because Muslim women make Islam work for them: at the beach, in the workplace or at the Olympic Games. Previous generations, including my mother, would never have thought of going to the beach.
opinion  muslim  france  society  state  ban  malaise  conservatism 
august 2016 by aries1988
许纪霖:没有政治正确,这个世界将变得更加野蛮_爱思想
人生的意义不再与神圣的终极价值关联,工具理性替代了价值理性,世俗的快乐与幸福成为了去魅化人生的追求目标。公共生活也与特定的宗教价值脱钩,国家在各种宗教信仰之中保持中立,每个公民可以按照自己的自由意志选择自己的信仰、群体归属和个人偏好。
politics  religion  life  human  ideology  state  opinion  government 
august 2016 by aries1988
David’s Ankles: How Imperfections Could Bring Down the World’s Most Perfect Statue
For several hundred years, the David leaned at an angle of several degrees. That doesn’t sound like much, but when you’re dealing with six tons bearing down every second of every minute of every day of every year of every century, it is plenty. Hairline fractures worked their way slowly through the stone. The right leg is significantly worse than the left. As the tilt of the statue increases, the stress will move higher and higher up that leg, until — at the moment of failure — it will break off just below the knee.

for no discernible reason, my eyes would dart away from my interlocutor, urgently, right over one of his or her shoulders, and the shift would be so sudden that the person would whip his or her head around to see what on earth I was looking at — a policeman or an exotic bird or a runaway train — but it would turn out that there was nothing there at all. My gaze had been flicked away by a little spasm of social discomfort.

The David’s journey took four days, at the end of which it was installed, to much fanfare, out in the public square. It would stand in that same spot for the next 369 years, a period during which it would be shaken by thunder, hit by carts and smeared with bird feces.
social  self  anxiety  perfection  journalsim  florence  italia  history  art  state  today  preservation  earthquake  youth  philosophy  book 
august 2016 by aries1988
Pourquoi les sirènes sonnent-elles ce mercredi midi ? - Libération
Dans toutes les préfectures, c’est le même rituel. Chaque premier mercredi du mois, un fonctionnaire de la direction de la sécurité civile, accompagné souvent d’un militaire réserviste de l’armée de l’air, ouvre une armoire contenant «une vieille console digne d’un James Bond, avec des boutons rouge et jaune», décrit un agent.

En appuyant, il déclenche automatiquement les sirènes de tout le département. On en compte 10 000 en tout réparties dans 7 222 communes de la métropole, selon le dernier recensement datant de 2010. Un peu moins de la moitié (3 600) appartiennent à l’Etat. Les autres sont la propriété des communes, ou de certaines entreprises dont l’activité présente un risque (centrale nucléaire, usine classée Seveso, exploitants de barrage…).

Le réseau national d’alerte (RNA) est un héritage de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il a été conçu pour prévenir la population d’une menace aérienne, une attaque nucléaire ou un bombardement classique. A l’époque, la crainte venait surtout de l’est… Du coup, les communes proches du Rhin sont bien plus équipées en sirènes que la façade ouest de la France. Or, aujourd’hui, les risques sont multiples (inondations, explosions d’usines…) et certaines régions sont sous-équipées.
france  explained  state  public  security 
august 2016 by aries1988
Three-piece dream suit | The Economist
After years of falling prices and fitful growth, Japan’s nominal GDP was roughly the same in 2015 as it was 20 years earlier. America’s grew by 134% in the same time period; even Italy’s went up by two-thirds. Now Japan is in the spotlight for a different reason: its attempts at economic resuscitation.

Japanese seem to prefer kaizen, or continuous improvement, to kaikaku, a pejorative word for reform.
2016  japan  leader  reform  state  economy  opinion 
july 2016 by aries1988
关于教育,中国人很少会质疑的信念_维舟_腾讯大家
反过来,在19世纪的俄国,社会的发展使许多贵族阶层的年轻人开始受到良好的文化教育,他们看到了俄国现状的不足与落后,也不是不想推动社会的发展,然而却发现根本没有适合他们发挥才能的职位,他们所受的教育虽好,却是与社会脱节而不被需要的,因而成了一群苦闷的所谓多余人,除了文化事业的进步外,似乎也并未推动国家的富强,俄国一如既往地大大落后于西欧。

教育发展仅是社会发展的一个必要但不充分的条件。像菲律宾和前苏联-俄罗斯这样,虽然培养出了高素质的人才,但本国社会的发展却使他们找不到用武之地,甚至博士研究员为了谋生被迫去开出租车,那在这些结构性的制度问题得到解决之前,仅仅提升人口的受教育水平是无法产生明显的经济效应的。
education  state  development  history  comparison  russia  fail  future  youth 
july 2016 by aries1988
【网络民议】怎样定义“赵家人”,这个词来自于哪里? - 中国数字时代
简而言之:“赵家人”是既得利益者,实际掌权者的意思,“精赵”,即精神赵家人,自认为能在执政集团的强势下能沾光的人。尤其用于嘲讽那些兴奋于军力强盛,望着国旗顶风流泪那种人。
explained  chinese  today  state  society  opinion  politics 
may 2016 by aries1988
China's Ancient Lifeline
The 1,400-year-old Grand Canal is a monumental project that bound north and south China together. It’s still in use today.
BY IAN JOHNSON
infrastructure  transport  canal  history  china  state  project  region 
april 2016 by aries1988
The truth about migration: How we lived without passports | New Scientist
But the main reason was that an individual’s nationality had little political meaning before the late 1700s. The passport as an instrument of state regulation was born of the French revolution of 1789. At first, ordinary people were issued passes to control internal movement, especially to Paris. But after the king tried to escape, and foreign aristocrats attacked the revolution, the authorities started requiring such papers for exit and entry to the country. The revolution created one of the world’s first “nation-states”, defined by the “national” identity of its people rather than its monarchs’ claims. “This novel importance of the people and their nationality made identity papers integral to creating the modern state,” says Torpey.
immigration  history  france  state 
april 2016 by aries1988
Please Cancel Your Vacation to North Korea
Americans don’t get dictatorships. They don’t know to be afraid.
story  korea  state  police 
march 2016 by aries1988
An interview with Ian Bremmer
Japan, not Britain, is best placed to sell services to the Chinese

The argument for the great Osborne charm offensive towards the Chinese is that their economy is evolving: where once it had a seemingly unquenchable thirst for the machine goods, the hard engineering exports, in which Germany specialises, now as its middle class grows, as it starts building up a welfare state, Britain’s strengths come into play. Financial, educational, business services are suddenly a larger part of China’s imports. And Osborne’s thinking is that now is therefore the time to try and beat the Germans at their own game.

Is Cameron able to promise that everyone who comes after him is going to have an equally benign view of a communist China? The Chinese absolutely know that what the Germans do is industrial policy. That’s what they focus on. So the Chinese feel much more certain, long term, that the Germans are not just a good bet; they’re a safe bet. Not only are the Brits not as good a bet, but they’re a very unsafe bet!

because Germany is clearly the leader of Europe, which by the way is the same reason the Chinese want to be with Germany; if you can make only one stop in Europe where do you go? You’re going to go to where things matter. To whoever’s taking a leadership role.

The average CEO lasts for less than five years, so they’re all looking at: what do we do to ensure we maximise shareholder value for now? How to we pump those stocks? Gotta make sure we make that money and right now. Doesn’t matter what it means in five or ten years. The problem is the British people are around longer than shareholders. And you can’t do that to your constituents, to your voters. That’s why this is not something they should be embracing.
future  uk  europe  usa  china  japan  india  state  decision  policy  opinion 
february 2016 by aries1988
Attaques à Paris : qu’est-ce que l’état d’urgence ?
Dans sa première déclaration après les premières attaques à Paris, vendredi 13 novembre, François Hollande a annoncé la mise en place de l’état d’urgence sur…
explained  state  emergency  france 
november 2015 by aries1988
Petites îles, gros enjeux
Les Maldiviens sont soumis a une version rigoriste de la charia: le port du niqab est obligatoire pour les femmes et la peine capitale pur les enfants a meme ete reintrocuite en avril 2014.
ocean  geopolitics  story  2015  state  list  explained 
august 2015 by aries1988
‘Defending the Faith’ in the Middle East
And yet, as new and disturbing as these developments may appear, the linkage of sectarian and secular interests is a return to the classic geopolitics of religion in the Middle East.

The politics of religion undermined the Westphalian order, based on the principles of state sovereignty and territorial integrity. At the same time, these policies subverted states, fueled divisions within them — and often ended in violence.
religion  state  middle-east  history 
may 2015 by aries1988
Old, New and Unusual Alliances in the Middle East
A look at where Iran exerts influence across the region and at the emerging Saudi coalition.
explained  state  diplomacy  middle-east  today 
march 2015 by aries1988
The wise man of the East
But four peculiarities of Singapore make it look like an anomaly. First is its size. It is a city with a foreign policy, which means it has a cohesion that vast, diverse countries cannot match. Second, this cohesion is reinforced by the turbulent circumstances of its birth. After a painful divorce from Malaysia in 1965, the government has never let Singaporeans forget that a Chinese-majority island, surrounded by Muslim-majority Indonesia and Malaysia, would always be vulnerable. Geography is third. Singapore has flourished in part because of the failings of the rest of its region. Rather as Hong Kong’s prosperity was based on being Chinese but not entirely part of China, so Singapore is in South-East Asia, but not of it.
state  leader  history  china 
march 2015 by aries1988
Drones and the Democracy Disconnect

There are few philosophers more clear-eyed, frank, even cynical when it comes to war than Niccolò Machiavelli.

Never have the American people been more removed from their wars, even while we are the most martial nation on earth, and drones are symptoms, and drivers, of this troubling alienation.
usa  american  war  ethic  drone  opinion  democracy  politics  state 
october 2014 by aries1988
Moving Argentina’s Capital From Buenos Aires Could Make Things Worse - NYTimes.com
To be sure, there may be mitigating factors. Take Argentina’s neighbor Brazil. Until the 1960s, the two countries had parallel histories of political instability, but their paths diverged when the Brazilian government relocated to faraway Brasília, where it has since enjoyed a more stable political system. (Whether the move was part of the reason for the stability, or merely a coincidence, is hard to say, of course.)
opinion  capital  americas  state  comparison 
september 2014 by aries1988
Bye-Bye, Brazil
Nobody doubts the Brazilian talent pool. What will be re-examined is the way they are utilized. Scolari built his squad with players like Luis Gustavo, Paulinho, Ramires — players whose tasks involved more running, defending, and fouling than creating or retaining the ball. At their expense he left out talented attack-minded players like Philippe Coutinho and Lucas Moura. When Brazil last lost in 2010, the immediate remedy was clear: bring in Neymar. Now the solution might be to surround Neymar with more creative talent, to elevate what he can do, instead of defensive talent to cover for what he can’t.

There’s every reason to believe the lead-up to Rio 2016 will be similar to what Brazil experienced before the World Cup unless, of course, the government has a super-secret plan to boost the economy, increase employment, and more aggressively address persistent inequality.
brazil  today  crisis  sports  state 
july 2014 by aries1988

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