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Good and Bad Muslims in Xinjiang - Made in China Journal

if China was pursuing an anti-Muslim policy, then wouldn’t we expect it to also sweep up the Sinophone Hui Muslims in Xinjiang? Uyghurs seem to be ending up in internment camps not because they are Muslims, but because they are Uyghurs.

Muslims who conform to the stereotype of the brown-skinned Muslim. Simply put, they will not be racialised as Muslim. Similarly, we might posit that in Xinjiang the Uyghurs have become racially Muslim in ways that the Sinophone Hui have not. Their Central Asian features increasingly signify the category ‘Muslim’, that is to say, more so than they do the category ‘Uyghur’, a classification which is losing its salience at administrative levels as the promises of China’s minzu (民族) system—the national (or ethnic) rights enshrined in the constitution—fall by the wayside.

even in times of conflict, it was rare for officials to attribute anti-state or anti-Han violence to any inherent flaw in the Islamic faith. While often disparaging of non-Chinese religions, China’s intellectual tradition had no ‘Orientalist’ discourse comparable to that of the West, which furnished explanations of Muslim anti-colonial violence in terms of a congenital ‘fanaticism’.

Just as Sufism did not necessarily cultivate a pluralistic pacifism, nor was the call to return to Islam’s founding texts—the Qurʾan and the Hadith—invariably accompanied by a rigid anti-Chinese militancy.
islam  xinjiang  china  2019  policy  world  terrorism  religion  critic  comparison  han 
5 weeks ago by aries1988
新疆的“再教育”:从“多元帝国”到“民族同化”|广场|端传媒 Initium Media




尽管所有维吾尔人的群体抵抗事件都会被中国官方声明和央视媒体贴上 “恐怖主义” 和 “分裂主义” 标签,但西方观察者对过去十年中发生的大多数暴力事件的解读更多是 “骚乱” 或 “抵抗” 而非“恐怖主义”——比如说街头示威或袭击当地政府办公室或农民持刀具、农具来袭击警察等行为。

新疆当局如今定义为“极端主义”表现的事物或行为有:面纱,头巾,“不正常胡须”,罩袍或类似罩袍的服饰,斋月禁食,问候时说assalam alaykum(阿拉伯语中的‘愿平和安宁与你同在’ ),避开酒精,不吸烟,给新生儿取有“伊斯兰”意味的名字,如穆罕默德或法蒂玛,星星和新月的符号,宗教教育,出入清真寺,举办过于简单的婚礼,举办有宗教意味的婚礼,举办没有音乐的婚礼,埋葬前清洗尸体,埋葬尸体(而非火化),参观苏菲圣陵 ,苏菲宗教舞蹈,双脚分开祷告,有国外游学或旅行经历,对国外游学或旅历感兴趣,与身居国外的朋友或亲戚有联系,家中有禁书或手机中有不该有的内容,不收听国家电台或不收看央视等。


xinjiang  opinion  ethnic  policy  history  origin  terrorism 
6 weeks ago by aries1988
The Clash of Ignorance

Samuel Huntington’s article "The Clash of Civilizations?" appeared in the Summer 1993 issue of Foreign Affairs, where it immediately attracted a surprising amount of attention and reaction
to supply Americans with an original thesis about "a new phase" in world politics after the end of the cold war,

Certainly neither Huntington nor Lewis has much time to spare for the internal dynamics and plurality of every civilization, or for the fact that the major contest in most modern cultures concerns the definition or interpretation of each culture, or for the unattractive possibility that a great deal of demagogy and downright ignorance is involved in presuming to speak for a whole religion or civilization. No, the West is the West, and Islam Islam.

Instead of seeing it for what it is–the capture of big ideas (I use the word loosely) by a tiny band of crazed fanatics for criminal purposes–

what is so threatening about that presence? Buried in the collective culture are memories of the first great Arab-Islamic conquests, which began in the seventh century and which, as the celebrated Belgian historian Henri Pirenne wrote in his landmark book Mohammed and Charlemagne (1939), shattered once and for all the ancient unity of the Mediterranean, destroyed the Christian-Roman synthesis and gave rise to a new civilization dominated by northern powers (Germany and Carolingian France) whose mission, he seemed to be saying, is to resume defense of the "West" against its historical-cultural enemies.

These are tense times, but it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis
muslim  debate  islam  terrorism  power  community  civ  conflict  europe  population  theory  leader  instapaper_favs 
october 2018 by aries1988
How to tackle terrorism, by Oxford university’s vice-chancellor
Richardson’s insight into the terrorist mindset goes well beyond academic expertise. As a teenager, she was a Republican sympathiser, attending meetings and adopting Gaelic as her first language. She “would have joined the IRA in a heartbeat”, she confessed in her 2006 book What Terrorists Want. Her sympathies were the result of growing up in rural Ireland where a Republican version of history was taught, which she questioned when she learnt a different version at Trinity College, Dublin.

Education is the best form of counteracting extremism, she says. She is not in favour of the “safe spaces” that have crept into UK universities. Students should be exposed to extreme views, even those of radical imams, in a space where orthodoxies can be challenged. “We are educating students to go into the real world where you are not protected from views you don’t like.”
education  home  interview  university  uk  terrorism 
july 2017 by aries1988
The True Believers: Sam Harris
# Instapaper (2017/02/24)
## Added on Saturday, February 24-25

What I’m arguing for in the piece is not to discard either type of explanation but to remember the latter one and take the words of these ISIS people seriously. Even though at various points in the past we’ve ignored political or material causes, this doesn’t mean that ideology plays no role, or that we should ignore the plain meaning of words.

that’s really one of the things that social sciences have triumphed in doing: explaining that within certain boundaries, rationalities lie behind what at first looks like mere craziness or barbarity. Just calling behavior craziness is a trap that a lot of ISIS-watchers have fallen into. If you see members of the Islamic State as thrill-kill nihilists, then you’re not giving them enough credit.

There’s also a deep urge to deny agency to the Islamic State, and I think it’s fundamentally connected to a reluctance to see non-Western people as fully developed and capable of having intelligent beliefs and enough self-knowledge to express them. These people articulate well-thought-out reasons for what they do. And yet ignoring what they say somehow gets camouflaged in the minds of liberals as speaking up for them. It’s delusional.

although the Islamic State wants a civilizational war, of Muslims versus Crusaders, I think they’re consciously avoiding terrorist attacks on Western targets that would provoke too strong a response too soon. If they bombed the Super Bowl, they’d probably be looking at a ground invasion within weeks. They want the invasion, but on their own schedule.

I think we might be in a situation analogous to seeing someone writhing around on the ground in front of us, showing every symptom of having appendicitis. But instead of being surgeons, armed with sterile scalpels, we are just laymen who once read a first aid manual and have no tools other than a rusty soup can. There’s no good option, even though we recognize the problem. The overwhelming probability is that the patient will die a terrible death, and we will have to watch.

it’s abundantly clear that we are not good at massive occupations of countries we poorly understand. Not only that, we just don’t have the appetite for it.

The point of all propaganda is to create narratives about the world. Their view—and the view of jihadis everywhere, really—is that Muslims are under attack by a Crusader West.

confirm their narrative for other Muslims who are already inclined to believe that the West is at war with Islam. That’s not a view I would like to encourage.

The idea is that if we don’t walk on eggshells until the end of history as we fight jihadis, taking great pains to deny any link between the chaos they cause and the doctrine of Islam, then we’re doomed to provoke more-mainstream Muslims into choosing the wrong side in this conflict.

One of the things that is so refreshing about your article is that you didn’t do that. But you now seem to be saying that we must be very careful not to do anything that could give fodder to a “clash of civilizations” narrative.

The Islamic State leader identifies as Salafi, which means that he takes as his sources of authority the Qur’an, the hadīth of the Prophet Muhammad, and the actions of the generations immediately succeeding Muhammad.

The percentage of the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims who identify as Salafi—who subscribe to this literalist version of Islam—is quite small, probably single-digit. The percentage of Salafis who would identify as jihadis is vanishingly small. And then, of course, within that population a lot are going to be noncombatants because they’re too old, or too young, or whatever. So we’re still talking about large, but perhaps now manageable, numbers.

The point of bringing up this quietist group is to say that the problem isn’t Islam, or even Islamic literalism. Most literalist Muslims are essentially harmless, or even better than harmless—nice people you would like to have as neighbors. So the specificity of interpretation that leads to the Islamic State is really quite narrow.

What you seem to be expressing is a fear that there could be a mass changing of sides based on some secret sympathy, or some susceptibility to moral confusion, even in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

in the face of the clearest case for a just war that may have ever existed. Whatever the underlying causes of this form of jihadism, at the end of the day we have pure, fanatical, implacable evil vs. basic human sanity.

The Salafi neighbor may not be the neighbor you’d choose, if you could pick from a menu of atheists and liberals and, more generally, people who didn’t care what you thought about god.

there are many religious people whose beliefs about a far-off apocalyptic battle, and mass conversion at the sword, do not affect their lives much at all. People are good at compartmentalizing, and if they weren’t, the world would hardly be livable.

it is a lack of meaning or fulfillment in their lives, related to deep malaise and feelings of rejection or dissatisfaction with the worlds where they live.

If you think the high point of your life in England is going to be eating KFC, the promise of joining the greatest battle the world has ever known might be pretty attractive.

many of us experience such existential concerns early in life.

Where are your scholars?

huge numbers of scholars have been co-opted by politics—either the politics of the Middle East or the politics of the United States.

These differences between the palace scholars and ISIS seem minor, but I would encourage you to see them as significant.

I try studiously not to take a position on which one of these views is correct. I just don’t have any credibility as a non-Muslim to say whether one scholar or another espouses the best form of Islam. However, if I were able to choose what people believed, I’d hope it was the caliphate-later view.

Of course, there are Christians who think about the end times, which are also not envisioned as very pleasant. If you ask them, “Is it happening now?” some of them will say yes. But very few of them will act as if they actually believe it’s happening now. If they’re envisioning a terrible bloodbath at some unimaginably distant time, I can live with that.
illusion  debate  to:marginnote  islam  warrior  middle-east  religion  war  crisis  terrorism  explained  interview  muslim 
february 2017 by aries1988
After Eta: Spain’s history of violence
Eta was founded in 1959, during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. Its mission was to fight for the independence of the greater Basque country, a region straddling the Franco-Spanish border. The group went on to assassinate Luis Carrero Blanco, Franco’s chosen successor in 1973, a killing that had profound political repercussions. Since 2011 though, Eta has made news only sporadically, mostly when another of its dwindling band of members is arrested. The group inhabits a strange netherworld, neither dead nor alive, as it waits for a grand political settlement that will probably never come.

History matters, he says. It always does. “What is history today becomes social reality a generation from now,” he says. “And, what’s more, the victims have a right to the truth.”
espagna  history  terrorism  story  killing  conflict  nation 
january 2017 by aries1988
The Long Night
By 1975, Aeberhard was working part time for the organization and also had a cardiology practice in Saint-Denis, just down the street from the house where the terrorists were found. He worked there until six months ago, and had observed firsthand the demographic shift that had taken place in the neighborhood during the eighties and nineties. The postwar French working-class population had been replaced by immigrants from poorer European countries, like Portugal, Italy, and Poland. Then came the Maghrébins—people from the former French colonies of North Africa.

“We saw the signs of fundamentalism start,” Aeberhard said. “The women began dressing differently, and men began dressing differently. I’d say that was the first exterior sign.” The quality of the local school declined, as did that of the local hospital.

The journalists of Charlie Hebdo had known that they were terrorist targets, and had carried on their work at great personal risk. Last week’s victims were normal people doing normal Parisian things: eating and drinking together, going out at night to hear a concert or watch a soccer game. After a few days, the rhythm of Parisian life returned, but a new fatalism hung in the air. People seemed resigned to the idea that more attacks would happen, maybe soon.
france  terrorism  paris 
november 2016 by aries1988
Learning to live with it | The Economist
Terrorism is a form of psychological warfare against a society. It is supposed to have effects that are utterly disproportionate to the actual lethality of the attacks. Thanks in part to the extensive media coverage that terrorist attacks attract, thanks also to the reaction of politicians who glibly talk of threats being “existential”, and thanks too to the security services who, for their own purposes, inflate the capability of terrorists, the perception of risk is typically far higher than the reality.
risk  death  terrorism  society 
november 2016 by aries1988
Scared? Make women disrobe | The Economist
terrorism related murder = 25%

Even in the past year, a French citizen was three times more likely to be the victim of an ordinary murderer than of a terrorist.
france  2016  terrorism  policy  society  conflict  female 
november 2016 by aries1988
The Battle of Algiers: a film for our time

Far from glorifying the independence struggle, his film is a refreshingly non-partisan study in how people become radicalised, how violence breeds violence and how easily civil society can slide into chaos.
terrorism  algerie  history  war  france  movie  colonialism  1960s 
october 2016 by aries1988
Inside The World Of ISIS Investigations In Europe - BuzzFeed News
“Brussels has 19 administrative police districts that operate independently and three separate administrations for the government, NATO, and the EU,” said one of the Belgian cops involved in hunting Abdeslam. “And our government is deeply divided between the Dutch and French, so there are parallel bureaucracies for everything on the local level and dysfunction at the highest level. No wonder guys get missed.”

Fixing it would require national institutions — law enforcement, the military, and intelligence services — to give up some local autonomy in favor of further integration, something both the current political dynamic, as seen by the UK’s vote to leave the EU, and the entrenched mentality of the security establishment make very unlikely.
“No intelligence service in its right mind will regularly share intelligence with 27 other countries, because then it stops being intelligence if everyone else knows about it,” the French official said.
“Share one-on-one for a specific case, like France and Belgium on these terrorists? Sure, now that people are dead. But remember the biggest problem here is we’re all still spying on each other inside the EU.”
reportage  europe  france  belgium  police  intelligence  eu  terrorism 
august 2016 by aries1988
Paris Museums and Nightclubs Show Signs of Recovery After Attacks
The coordinated assaults — aimed at cafes and restaurants, a concert hall and a sports stadium — struck at the heart of a city famed for its night life, where the cancan first appeared, where Toulouse-Lautrec painted the demimonde, and where Hemingway and his Lost Generation debated literature on terraces.
paris  culture  tourism  terrorism 
january 2016 by aries1988
Paris Attacks Have Many in France Eager to Join the Fight
French military spending, which reached 42 billion euros, or more than $52 billion, last year for military operations, weapons, surveillance networks and other support, will grow by €600 million next year to finance the new positions and necessary equipment, Finance Minister Michel Sapin said last week. The French Army, currently the largest in Western Europe, will take on an additional 10,000 recruits this year and 15,000 more next year. The French national police force and gendarmerie will expand by about 5,000 members, along with 1,000 new customs inspection positions and 2,500 at the French Ministry of Justice.
nation  2015  military  people  français  terrorism 
december 2015 by aries1988
Après les attentats, la solidarité de la Chine n'est pas sans arrière-pensées
Pékin proclame sa solidarité avec la France. Mais demande le même soutien international à sa propre "lutte contre le terrorisme", l’&eacu...
policy  region  xinjiang  journalist  china  français  terrorism 
december 2015 by aries1988
Europe's Jihadists: What the Paris Attacks Tell Us about IS Strategy - SPIEGEL ONLINE
Olivier Roy, a French expert on Islamism, writes in Le Monde: “Almost all French radicals belong to one of two categories: They either come from the second generation of immigrants or they are converts.” What do the two groups have in common? “They break with their parents, or, to be more precise, with that which their parents represent when it comes to culture and religion.”

The younger ones can be found a hundred meters away, hanging out in front of a food stand and a café. There are perhaps a dozen of them, in their twenties and wearing sweat suits or sarwal, the baggy pants with the low-hanging crotch that Salafists prefer. It is just before noon on a workday, but none of those present have anywhere to be.

There are many like Mohammed in France, young men who live in housing projects on the outskirts of the city. Young men who feel oppressed as Muslims and who hate the country they live in. In Germany, there are no real ghettos of the kind found in France and there is also a lack of the historical rage that some French immigrants hold for the former colonial power.

there are more than 10,000 people in France with “Fiche S” files, which means they are seen as a potential danger to the state. There may not be as many in Germany, but officials here are also wondering what to do about them.
reportage  europe  middle-east  youth  numbers  deutschland  france  comparison  terrorism  germany  instapaper_favs 
november 2015 by aries1988
From Muhammad to ISIS: Iraq's Full Story - Wait But Why
Kamil was from Mosul, like everyone at the camp. Mosul is Iraq’s second largest city, only 30 miles west of the camp—and as of June 9th, an ISIS stronghold. After taking over, one of the first orders of business for ISIS was rounding up government workers for execution. Kamil, a police officer, was lucky to get out with his family before they got to him. When I asked him if he thought he’d return to Mosul at some point, he shook his head and said, Fuck Mosul.

The nation of Iraq, on the other hand, was created by two dicks with a pencil and ruler, and its history is mostly unpleasant.

When borders are drawn this way, two bad things happen: 1) Single ethnic or religious groups are sliced apart into separate countries, and 2) Different and often unfriendly groups are shoved into a nation together and told to share resources, get along, and bond together over national pride for a just-made-up nation—which inevitably leads to one group taking power and oppressing the others, resulting in bloody rebellions, coups, and sectarian violence. This isn’t that complicated.

According to Iraqi intelligence, ISIS has assets worth $2 billion, making it by far the richest terrorist group in the world. Most of this money was seized after the capture of Mosul, including hundreds of millions of US dollars from Mosul’s central bank. On top of that, they’ve taken oil fields and are reportedly making $3 million per day selling oil on the black market, with even more money coming in through donations, extortions, and ransom.

They knew they were removing a lid, but they seemed to think it was off a tupperware container of cookies, not a pressure cooker. And their plan to replace the wrought iron lid with a fresh sheet of democracy cellophane would have worked fine if it were a tupperware container of cookies. Just not if it were a pressure cooker.
story  irak  2014  2015  middle-east  history  islam  religion  politics  explained  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
L’Arabie saoudite, un Daesh qui a réussi
On veut sauver la fameuse alliance stratégique avec l’Arabie saoudite tout en oubliant que ce royaume repose sur une autre alliance, avec un clergé religieux qui produit, rend légitime, répand, prêche et défend le wahhabisme, islamisme ultra-puritain dont se nourrit Daesh.

Le wahhabisme, radicalisme messianique né au 18ème siècle, a l’idée de restaurer un califat fantasmé autour d’un désert, un livre sacré et deux lieux saints, la Mecque et Médine. C’est un puritanisme né dans le massacre et le sang, qui se traduit aujourd’hui par un lien surréaliste à la femme, une interdiction pour les non-musulmans d’entrer dans le territoire sacré, une loi religieuse rigoriste, et puis aussi un rapport maladif à l’image et à la représentation et donc l’art, ainsi que le corps, la nudité et la liberté. L’Arabie saoudite est un Daesh qui a réussi.
opinion  middle-east  religion  politics  conflict  history  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
Abdelhamid Abaaoud: from thief to jihadi linkman in two years -

“The flash-to-bang is now so much quicker,” he said, referring to the period between a threat emerging and then crystallising into a concrete attack.

It took al-Qaeda more than a decade to build upon the foreign fighter networks that grew out of the last big jihadi conflict in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the official noted. “Isis is doing it in months”.
story  jihad  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
Do Paris terror attacks highlight a clash of civilisations? -
The effects are now visible in Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Europe. Malaysia has long been held up as an example of a successful and prosperous, multicultural nation with a Muslim-Malay majority and a large ethnic-Chinese minority. But things are changing. Bilahari Kausikan, a former head of the foreign ministry in neighbouring Singapore, notes a significant and continuing narrowing of the political and social space for non-Muslims in Malaysia. He adds: Arab influences from the Middle East have for several decades steadily eroded the Malay variant of Islam . . . replacing it with a more austere and exclusive interpretation. The corruption scandal that is currently undermining the government of Prime Minister Najib Razak has increased communal tensions, as the Malaysian government has fallen back on Muslim identity politics to rally support. One junior government minister even recently accused the opposition of being part of a global, Jewish conspiracy against Malaysia.

The confluence of these developments in North America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia is fuelling the idea of a clash of civilisations. Yet the reality is that the Muslim and non-Muslim worlds are intermingled across the globe. Multiculturalism is not a naive liberal aspiration — it is the reality of the modern world and it has to be made to work. The only alternative is more violence, death and grief.
civ  world  future  2015  malaysia  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
Attaques à Paris : « J’ai senti comme un pétard qui explosait dans mon bras »
Le version mobile - Riverain du Bataclan et journaliste au « Monde », Daniel Psenny a été blessé par balle alors qu’il tentait de secourir des blessés qui s’étaient échappés de la salle de concert.
video  paris  temoignage  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
Paris witness: Simon Kuper in the Stade de France -
Tonight my family will probably be OK in Paris. But after that?
paris  story  temoignage  2015  children  terrorism 
november 2015 by aries1988
The Lessons of Anwar al-Awlaki
Four years after the United States assassinated the radical cleric in a drone strike, his influence on jihadists is greater than ever. Was there a better way to stop him?

Some government agencies have tried to boil the process of radicalization down to a few clear-cut and inevitable stages, but in reality, the journey to extremism is a messy, human affair that defies such predictability. This was true of Awlaki’s acolytes; it was also true of the great radicalizer himself. Before Awlaki could talk anyone else into violent jihad, he had to talk himself into it. One giant step came as the unintended result of surveillance by the United States government.
story  usa  religion  terrorism 
september 2015 by aries1988
The Terror Strategist: Secret Files Reveal the Structure of Islamic State - SPIEGEL ONLINE
The agents were supposed to function as seismic signal waves, sent out to track down the tiniest cracks, as well as age-old faults within the deep layers of society -- in short, any information that could be used to divide and subjugate the local population.

Attempts to explain IS and its rapid rise to power vary depending on who is doing the explaining. Terrorism experts view IS as an al-Qaida offshoot and attribute the absence of spectacular attacks to date to what they view as a lack of organizational capacity. Criminologists see IS as a mafia-like holding company out to maximize profit. Scholars in the humanities point to the apocalyptic statements by the IS media department, its glorification of death and the belief that Islamic State is involved in a holy mission.
reportage  terrorism 
june 2015 by aries1988
Anders Breivik’s Inexplicable Crime
He is a person filled to the brim with himself. And that is perhaps the most painful thing of all, the realization that this whole gruesome massacre, all those extinguished lives, was the result of a frustrated young man’s need for self-representation.
norge  race  story  death  terrorism 
june 2015 by aries1988
Brutal ISIS Videos Show Potency of Shock Value
Broadcast to frighten and manipulate, the Islamic State’s flamboyant violence consumes the world’s attention while more familiar threats kill far more people.
propaganda  video  death  terrorism 
february 2015 by aries1988
prison  japan  story  terrorism 
january 2015 by aries1988
« L'Etat islamique, l'alliance entre Al-Qaida et Call of Duty »
Il faut arrêter de croire que les Etats-Unis voient tout et entendent tout face à un mouvement qui a pris l'habitude de se protéger et qui sait que les téléphones sont écoutés. De plus, les drones américains sont considérés comme des engins ennemis dans le ciel syrien, tout comme les forces spéciales qui interviendraient en territoire hostile, tant du côté du gouvernement de Damas que des djihadistes.
middle-east  analysis  today  crisis  terrorism 
august 2014 by aries1988
Chinese scientists develop mini-camera to scan crowds for potential suicide bombers | South China Morning Post
Using hyperspectral imaging, which examines information across the electromagnetic spectrum, Chen and his research team have developed a "stress sensor" that measures the amount of oxygen in blood across exposed areas of a body, such as the face. "The higher the mental stress, the higher the blood oxygenation," he said.
today  technology  idea  terrorism 
august 2014 by aries1988
Toulouse: que sait-on de la mouvance djihadiste en France?
Le tueur de Toulouse et de Montauban, toujours cerné par le Raid ce mercredi, avait séjourné en Afghanistan et au Pakistan dans des camps d'entrainements djihadistes. L'Express revient sur les ramifications de la mouvance djihadiste en France.
france  terrorism 
august 2012 by aries1988

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