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More and more people who are working in Beijing opt to live in Tianjin due to the high housing cost in the capital…
story  beijing  tianjin  commute  kid  education  work  life  choice  today 
17 days ago by aries1988
The Luxury Care Centers Pampering China’s Newly Minted Moms
Although few of the practices associated with zuo yuezi are based in medical science, many of them still flourish in China today — and in increasingly commercial forms. Three decades after Huang gave birth, her daughter, Qian Lang, has just had a baby of her own. Like her mother, Qian also plans to spend a month in bed. Unlike her mother, she’ll be spending it relaxing at Mammybest, a private postnatal care center near the wealthy eastern city of Hangzhou that’s charging her 69,800 yuan ($10,100) for a four-week stay. And that’s at the cheaper end of the price list: Mammybest’s premium services can cost up to 398,000 yuan.
mother  birth  hospital  luxe  care  china  today  hangzhou 
17 days ago by aries1988
陈纯:中国自由保守主义的没落(上)|观点|端传媒 Initium Media

不管是哪一种,在英美(和中国)谈保守主义,都绕不过英国思想家爱德蒙·伯克(Edmund Burke)。亨廷顿所总结的“伯克信条”大概有:一、人根本上是一种宗教性动物;二、社会是一个自然的、在历史中逐渐生长的有机体,权利是时间的产物;三、人是一种具有本能、情感和理性的造物,审慎、偏见、经验和习惯比理性、逻辑、抽象和形而上学能更好地引导人们,真理存在于具体的经验之中而不是普遍的命题之中;四、共同体高于个人,邪恶根源于人的本性而不是任何特定的社会制度;五、除了在一种最终的道德意义之外,人们都是不平等的,社会组织是复杂的,总是包括各种阶级、等级和群体,差异、等级制和领导阶层是任何公民社会都不可避免的特征;六、试图消除现有邪恶的努力通常会导致更大的邪恶。

以卢梭为代表的法国启蒙主义,抛开自身的经验传统追求“理性建构”,设想一种只有在“公意”中才能实现的自由——“积极自由”。这种疯狂的理想主义,不仅导致了“血腥恐怖”的法国大革命,而且还是二十世纪极权主义的根源。

中国的市场化改革从一开始,就是一种国家主义的筹划。这并不是说,国家对市场化改革的方向和具体任务,从一开始就是十分明确的,而是说市场化改革最根本的目的,从来就不是以经济发展来推动政治民主,而是延续毛时代对民众潜能的开掘,来实现国家的富强。毛时代透支了民众的“意识形态狂热”,而改革时代,需要挖掘民众的“私人欲望”。不管是计划经济还是市场经济,都是能量的再生产机制,归根到底是为国家服务的。
conservatism  chinese  today  liberalism  concept 
4 weeks ago by aries1988
专访宪法学者张千帆:宪政文明的暖流会融化中国体制的坚冰|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
张千帆是中国最负盛名的宪法学者之一,研究领域包括比较宪法与行政法,司法制度,中西方政治、道德与法律思想。

我们必须理解,宪法规定的党的领导是抽象和一般的,不是指治国理政日常实践中各级领导人的具体行为。任何领导人都是会犯错误的凡人,譬如某个县委书记完全可能滥用职权。宪法规定的党的领导显然不是要神化任何领导人,否则就变成了人治,就抵触了宪法第五条规定的法治和依法治国。这些问题早在八十年代就得到清理并达成共识,现在不应该再成为问题。

因此,问题不在于党的领导,而在于如何领导。执政党需要通过宪法和法律去体现其意志,执政党的意志应该通过民主和法治程序体现出来,而不是通过各种讲话或指示。当然,执政党的行为可以通过制定党内规章加以规范,但这些法规、规章都必须符合宪法。事实上,你用宪法规定来坚持党的领导地位,这本身已表明执政党只能在宪法与合宪法律的框架内行使权力。否则,宪法没有意义的话,党的领导也就没有法律根基了。

实际上,世界上每个国家的政府都是不愿意实施宪法的,但民主国家的政府不得不实施宪法,最终是因为有选票,不实施宪法的话会得罪太多的选民,领导人当选了也会下台。但如果没有真正的选举,政府不用对公民负责,不实施宪法也没有什么后果。

如果双方都能了解对方的真实想法,共同点还是很容易找到的,因为央港博弈是一种“协调博弈”,而非零和博弈。中央的主要目标维持主权统一,香港则希望维持高度自治的空间和制度的完整性。在主权统一的基础之上,中央应该还是愿意去谈的。现在,中央可能对于香港有一些误解,好像主张港独的人越来越多;香港则觉得中央似乎越来越强硬,这样下去会对双方之间的情感和认知产生负面影响。

中国现体制可以被视为两次世界大战的国际“冰河期”形成的一块坚冰。现在冰河早已融化,世界主流文明一直处于自由民主的暖流中。记得刚打倒“四人帮”的时候,叶剑英就说过“坚冰已经打破,航道已经开通”。此言不虚,四十年改革开放其实就是暖流和坚冰的“热交换”过程。当然,摩擦还会不断发生,自由民主国家也会遇到移民、民粹、两极分化等问题的困扰,但是应该会有惊无险,社会契约即便破裂也会修复。如果今后若干年我们仍然处在一个温暖的国际大环境下,我相信世界文明暖流最终会化解每一块坚冰。
interview  opinion  constitution  china  hongkong  game  theory  democracy  today  future  leader  intelligentsia  reform  politics 
8 weeks ago by aries1988
再访 Ian Johnson:宗教复兴遭遇收紧治理,中国要打一场“灵魂之战”吗?|深度|探索学院|端传媒 Initium Media
中国宗教政策的转机其实始于1982年,邓小平宣布落实“宗教信仰自由”政策,中共下发19号文件要求重新认识宗教和民族问题。即便是在文件公布的数字里,人们也惊奇地发现,在中国宗教遭受过控制、打压、改造甚至消灭的环境下,基督教人数仍然取得惊人增长。香港中文大学神学院院长邢福增认为,这绝不可能是1979年之后才发生的,他引用自己有关中国基督徒的口述史研究,佐证这场复苏是从文革期间的地下状态或第二社会(The Second Society)开始的。

英文学界的一些主张曾经认为,只有制度性的、正统的宗教才能酝酿出真正的信仰,并以此认为中国没有宗教。张彦没有囿于这种认识,他对中国宗教信仰的评价更接近学者杨庆堃的“弥散性宗教”(diffused religion,又译分散性宗教)的概念,即不成系统却无处不在。张彦形容所有宗教像在一个持续的光谱(Spectrum)里:“一方面,宗教是非常哲学化的,是关于精神领域的,另外一方面,宗教有纯仪式的一面。”因此,他不轻视“拜拜求平安”这样的普通民众看似“无主”的宗教生活,同时分配了一大部分注意力给不经中国政府认证的“地下教会”。

为加强“党的全面领导”,中国各地开展“四进”活动,意指国旗、宪法、社会主义核心价值观、中华优秀传统文化进入宗教场所,这些做法为境外各类“中国禁闻”增添了啼笑皆非的谈资。

我认为宗教复兴提供了一种新的方式,让中国人自己产出一套新的、属于中国人自己的价值体系。你知道,政府想要将自己的价值体系(社会主义核心价值观)强加到人民身上,政府也拥有这种至上而下的权力。虽然社会主义核心价值观中,也包涵一些有价值的传统观念,但这些传统观念是对政府有利的。我注意到的一件事是,很多人觉得中国在过去的一个半世纪里,丢失了很多框架、传统、价值体系和人们在社会中共同生存的方式。这些年人们尝试重新去寻找这些东西,很多底层的中国人民开始寻找自己的传统和价值观。

欧洲,柏林墙也倒塌了。中国的共产党看到并研究了欧洲的这一变化,他们注意到共产主义在欧洲失败的部分原因是因为那里有太多民主社会组织了,比如说波兰的基督教会、东德的新教教会,贸易组织等等。中国领导是不会允许宗教组织发展到如此有组织性的地步的。

我个人不认为任何一种宗教可以拯救中国,但中国可以通过发展宗教去改变自己。

政府想要利用宗教,并且选择宗教中的赢家和输家。比如现在,政府选择的就是佛教和道教,于是他们就攻击基督教和伊斯兰教,于是便会发生各种情况。

宗教局前局长叶小文,他管理宗教局很长一段时间,他相对比较独立、是个很有意思的人物,但是政府可能不喜欢这样,可能政府认为宗教局有太多所谓专家,而且对宗教太过同情。即便宗教局的人是无神论者,他们还是会同情并理解宗教。

法轮功跟基督教家庭教会相比,规模还是算小的。所以我认为政府不会再这样打压宗教。

去年政府关闭了三个最有名的地下教会(编注:北京锡安教会、成都秋雨教会、广州荣桂里)

政府注意到了宗教的复兴并且想去控制它,就像几年前政府控制了非营利组织(NGO)一样,在这之前他们还控制了网络。共产党有时可能需要一些时间去做出反应,但他们总是会做出反应的。

假如在中国有1600万天主教徒,一半在独立教会一半在政府教会,如果每个独立教会有500名成员,那么就会有16000个教会。实际数字一定比这个更多,因为不是所有教会都有500人这么大的规模。所以我认为政府不可能关闭所有教会,他们所做的是在警告:第一,不要有政治倾向,第二,不要有太高的组织性。

新疆发生的一切是很可怕的悲剧,你不能用武力去改变人们的想法。

中国对不同的宗教有不同的应对方式,培植佛教、道教、民间信仰,但打击外来宗教如天主教及伊斯兰教。

我认为“政府”(government)也是一样,它没办法控制社会的所有方面。它或许可以控制非营利组织、关闭独立电影节、终止女性运动、民办教会,但是到最后这些只会毁了政府自身。我认为一个健康的社会需要非营利组织和各种公民组织。一个稳定的社会不应是人造的、外表强大的国家,看似坚硬实则易碎,都是外强中干的。

天主教在过去几年间的人数增长几乎“停滞”。你看,新教教徒从1949年的100万人到今天,大概有5000-6000万的规模,佛教、道教的人数以亿计,而天主教徒仅仅是从300万到了1000万,这期间中国人口数量翻了三倍(编注:1949年的4亿到如今的近14亿),意味著天主教教徒的增幅仅与人口增长相当。

我认为天主教的问题是它没有参与到宗教复兴中去,它是唯一一个没有发展壮大的。教皇可能认为如果解决了牧师等人事问题,比如若是可以让主教、牧师都被合法认证,那么教会就可以更好的发展。

当中国政府说“宗教本土化”的时候,他们的真正意思其实是所有在中国的宗教都应该被完全控制。

我认为这种爱国主义的问题在于人们获取的信息有限,所以他们经常下意识的就认为政府有在做事。

至于共产主义,我认为现在几乎没有人真的信仰共产主义了。我觉得对很多人来说,他们寻找的是一种理想主义的东西,而这其中共产主义相对来说比较安全可靠,因为毕竟中国还是一个共产主义国家。但我不确定人们是否还真的有被共产主义所激励著。

有机的(Organic)东西是从公民社会中产生的。不管怎么说,好莱坞就是美国的一个软实力,但它不是政府的产物。所有的好莱坞电影,以及这些电影所传播的美国思想,都不是政府权力。

真正的软实力是,以佛教为例,如果中国的佛教足够活跃,有新的佛教思想家出现、新的佛教书籍出现,就像20世纪太虚大师创办的“人间佛教”,那么世界其他地方的人会赞叹中国发生的这一切,他们会认为中国一定是一个非常好的国家。这才是真正的软实力,而不是孔子学院这种政府控制的东西。
religion  interview  chinese  government  today  buddhism  christianity  opinion  explained  policy 
march 2019 by aries1988
The devil’s lottery: the perils of diving for ‘Baltic gold’

The rush for Baltic gold, which sometimes sells for more than the real thing, has been driven by consumers in China, where it is mainly used as jewellery for both men and women. From soyabean fields on the fringes of the Amazon to copper mines in the south of Congo, Kaliningrad is one of the many regions being reshaped by China’s voracious demand for commodities.

The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad is the epicentre for the world’s amber trade, with the region holding about 90 per cent of the global reserves of the fossilised tree resin. It also boasts some of the oldest amber in the world — the product of a coniferous pine forest that fell into the Baltic Sea between 40m and 50m years ago.

At the time when Mr Krupnyakov and his gang were offering their services to illegal miners, the market was booming. Amber dealers say prices increased as much as 10 times between 2012 and 2016 on the back of strong demand from China. Although used for little other than jewellery and ornaments these days, amber has been a prized commodity in China ever since the days of the Ming dynasty and is seen as carrying healing powers and good fortune.

In May last year, Hong Kong Customs seized about 50kg of suspected smuggled amber, which it said had an estimated market value of about $1.5m, making the amber worth about $30 a gramme. The white amber, dealers say, can be sold to China for as much as $40 a gramme, and if the piece is really special, up to $50 or even $100 a gramme. That is more than the current market price of gold: about $41 a gramme.

Amber jewellery for adults has gone out of fashion in the west over the past decade, but necklaces for babies have become popular, having been lauded for their ability to relieve teething pain. But after a one-year-old was strangled, the US Food and Drug Administration put out a warning in December about the safety risks of such necklaces.

The authenticity of amber can be tested by burning, drilling into or even rubbing it. If genuine, it should give off a pinelike smell. It can also be tested to see if it floats in salt water (it should), while a UV lamp shone at it should show up as blue or green. Amber divers who go out to sea at night take UV torches with them.
russia  history  today  china  consumer  death  sea  diving 
march 2019 by aries1988
China’s Ambitious Plan to Build the World’s Biggest Supergrid

But even as China celebrates the completion of more than 30,000 km of UHV lines, power engineers are struggling to master the resulting hybrid AC-DC transmission system. They must ensure that the new long-haul DC lines don’t destabilize China’s regional AC grids. For example, if the 8-gigawatt DC line from Gansu were to unexpectedly go off line, the power shock could cause widespread blackouts in Hunan and beyond.

To minimize the threat, the State Grid Corp. of China, a state-owned company that runs most of China’s transmission and distribution grids, intentionally limits the line’s throughput to no more than 4.5 GW. In practice, the line has carried less than one-quarter of its design capacity on average. That’s one reason why over one-third of Gansu province’s theoretical wind output and one-fifth of its solar potential went unused in 2017. Other UHV lines in neighboring regions have similarly operated below capacity. And eastern provinces don’t have sufficient incentive to import the cleaner power that the UHV lines offer.

State Grid’s long-term goal to interconnect its regional grids should also reduce curtailment, experts say. Zhang Ning, an authority on renewables integration at Tsinghua University, points out that the Southwest grid’s hydropower can balance the fluctuations in the Northwest’s wind and solar output. If we interconnect the West, curtailment of wind power there can be reduced from more than 20 percent to 5 percent, he estimates, and both regions’ use of coal can also be cut.
numbers  china  today  energy  eolien  technology  engineering  corporation 
february 2019 by aries1988
How one building reflects the Chinese economy’s struggle with itself

It was only in the 1990s that China settled on a model that has, in many respects, persisted to this day. It started evaluating local officials by how quickly the economy grew under their watch. They, in turn, competed with each other to woo firms, offering them cheap land, tax breaks and low-cost labour. Transforming the bureaucracy into something more like a large startup business, hungry to expand, yielded dramatic results. China accounted for 4% of the global economy in 1990; now that is close to 18%.

Tax reforms would also help. The government does not tax the investment earnings and property of the rich, which are basic revenue sources in developed economies. Officials seem more fearful of angering rich urbanites than of neglecting poor farmers.

There is an even bigger concern about the way that China wields its market power: as a lever to get companies to give up their technology. This is one of the core grievances behind America’s trade war with China. The American and European chambers of commerce estimate that a fifth of their members have faced such demands, and in high-tech sectors as many as two-fifths.

China is not the first country to steal intellectual property or demand tech transfers. Brazil, India and Mexico insist on joint ventures in various industries. China, though, is unusual in its heft. If the behaviour of, say, Malaysia or Argentina seems unreasonable, foreign firms can leave. Forgoing China is tougher.

Take the joint ventures. Perhaps the most notable fact is how rarely they have been effective. Despite an array of aviation partnerships, China has failed to create a decent passenger jet even after years of trying. A former industry minister famously described carmakers’ joint ventures as opium: Chinese firms are hooked on them for profits and make little of value themselves. Even theft only gets China so far. IMAX, for instance, believes the 3D technology stolen by its former employee is now outdated and that its Chinese rival has failed to keep up with its latest advances.
analysis  china  economy  today  finance 
february 2019 by aries1988
三代同堂的育儿生活:血缘是家庭的最终归宿|深度|端传媒 Initium Media

妮妮对小弟弟的到来非常焦虑。只要我给弟弟喂奶,或者只是看了弟弟一眼,妮妮便会发出尖叫。李媛说,晚上是外公外婆带妮妮睡觉,但只要妮妮夜里醒来发现妈妈不在身边,就会哭喊。刺耳的哭闹声回荡在黑漆漆的夜里,又把峰峰惊醒,两个孩子接连陷入歇斯底里的状态,四个大人只能惺忪着睡眼,哄着、抱着、照顾着……

但是,没有任何一个爷爷奶奶、外公外婆会后悔亲手带大了自己的孙辈,李媛说,孩子是我和家人情感最重要的体现,血缘才是一个家庭最终的归宿。
parents  family  grandparent  today  china  generation  work  life  senior  retirement 
february 2019 by aries1988
专访洪源远:「改革」与「开放」都面临空前危机,中国正处于历史转折点|改革开放40年|深度|端传媒Initium Media
殖民的经验对一个国家的意识有根深蒂固的影响,即使独立后,仍然会用西方人的眼光看自己。中国没有被西方统治,因此在思想和选择上有更大的自主空间,相对不受外国标准的约束。在这样的历史条件下,一旦改革开放,中国便冒出各种「别出心裁」的发展策略。

如果正确理解「改革开放」的故事,西方就不应该惧怕「中国模式」,应该担忧的是人们误解了这个故事,利用中国的经济起飞把专制行为合理化,又或者是某些中国人自己误解了这个故事。

打压贪腐本身是好事,但是现在的问题是卡在中间。如果说像过去那样,将官僚体制整个企业化,它起码能发挥一些优势,官员们敢于冒风险、担责任。相反的,如果让官僚系统变得循规蹈矩,也有好处。尤其是在一些一线城市中,经济已经发展到了一定程度,这时官僚系统就应该是服务型的,老老实实做事,权力受到制约的。

坦率讲,我认为「一带一路」只是一项愿景,而不是周密的计划,更不是西方想像的阴谋。「一带一路」官方网站上的一份《行动计划(2015-2017)》,只有短短七页纸,具体措施其实非常少,留下了许多空间给下面的人去想如何执行,这种做法在中国是很典型的,尤其符合「运动」的逻辑。

一些过分夸大的语言,它总是会和民族主义绑在一起,这对民主的发展也是没有好处的。真正的民主不单单包括选举、言论自由等等,还包括你思想开放了,能包容不同意见,能听进批评,能自我反省,但如果你整天都说自己「厉害了」,那其他人就没什么可说的了,因为你已经很「厉害了」。
china  opinion  reform  today  future 
january 2019 by aries1988
A history of China in 8m objects - Chaguan

the Cultural Revolution, the decade after 1966 when Mao Zedong unleashed terror on his own country, pitting neighbour against neighbour, students against teachers, children against parents and Red Guard mobs against officials whom Mao despised. More than a million lives were lost, and many more ruined. Centuries-old temples and libraries were smashed to so much rubble and firewood.

Other exhibits recall hardships. One museum in Anren is devoted to the nearly 18m urban youngsters who were banished to the countryside for years of ploughing, hauling manure and digging ditches instead of being educated.

Drawing the wrong lessons about the past can prompt charges of “historical nihilism”, an offence that sees museums punished and careers blighted.
history  today  museum  entrepreneurial  project  sichuan  artefact  mao 
december 2018 by aries1988
Professor Michael Puett in Conversation Julia Lovell - YouTube
33:52 censorship
37:30 Cambridge University Press
48:16 Utopia of getting rid of the Chinese Department. Hegel
https://youtu.be/edysgDkIKcU?t=5044 The most important question
Lovell: no soft power
china  history  historian  translation  world  university  west  today  softpower 
october 2018 by aries1988
陈浩武:为什么要让石门坎重新回归公众视野?
我们今天要让石门坎重新回归公众视野,并非突然发思古之幽情,而是因为中国当下普遍面临着一种深刻的精神危机,这种危机就表现在社会仅仅关注经济增长而罔顾对环境造成的破坏,甚至有断子绝孙之忧;再加上人际之间信任关系丧失,精神领域的荒废、理想的荒芜、信仰的崩溃、道德的沦丧这些方面,我相信所有的人都不会怀疑当今社会所存在的这些问题。

唐代“会昌法难”以后,佛教的精神气质在发生变化,它不再是原来印度的那个佛教。其中,以龙树为代表的大乘佛教哲学思想,逐步被佛教的净土宗和禅宗取代;佛教的净土宗和禅宗是非常世俗化的宗教,而具有哲学思辨意义的“三论宗”和“天台宗”基本消失。今天在中国大陆,已经找不到原教旨意义上的天台宗寺院。我几乎走遍了中国现存的大概几十座天台宗的寺庙,它们都成了禅宗寺院。

佛家由于没有经历过宗教改革,没有神学思想的觉悟,它对精英阶层慢慢地丧失了吸引力。另外,我们在全世界的范围内,也找不到一个佛家文化导致这个国家现代化的范本,说明佛教和现代文明是明显地缺乏亲和力的。

“五四运动”带来的一个最直接的结果,就是马克思主义在中国的传播。当时的思想领域有三大流派:以陈独秀、李大钊为代表的激进的革命派,以胡适、蔡元培为代表的所谓自由主义,和以章士钊、严复为代表的保守主义。前面两派在五四运动以后形成国共两党,他们在某一点上是完全一致的,就是主张激进革命,主张反传统,打倒孔家店;而保守主义的一派很快销声匿迹。在这种情况下,中国无论是儒、释、道,到了文革,统统都变得奄奄一息。
minguo  intelligentsia  religion  buddhism  confucianism  activist  today 
october 2018 by aries1988
In Defense of Empire - The Atlantic
From Rome’s widespread offer of citizenship to its subject peoples, to France’s offer of a measure of equality to fluent Francophone Africans, to Britain’s arrangement of truces among the Yemeni tribes, to the epic array of agricultural and educational services provided by the Europeans throughout their tropical domains—Britain’s Indian Civil Service stands out—imperialism and enlightenment (albeit self-interested) have often been inextricable.

That, I submit, would be a policy direction that internalizes both the drawbacks and the benefits of imperialism, not as it has been conventionally thought of, but as it has actually been practiced throughout history.
usa  today  world  empire  opinion  politics  order 
october 2018 by aries1988
How Islam Created Europe - The Atlantic
“the West” emerged in northern Europe (albeit in a very slow and tortuous manner) mainly after Islam had divided the Mediterranean world.

“The West,” if it does have a meaning beyond geography, manifests a spirit of ever more inclusive liberalism. Just as in the 19th century there was no going back to feudalism, there is no going back now to nationalism, not without courting disaster. As the great Russian intellectual Alexander Herzen observed, “History does not turn back … All reinstatements, all restorations have always been masquerades.”

Europe must now find some other way to dynamically incorporate the world of Islam without diluting its devotion to the rule-of-law-based system that arose in Europe’s north, a system in which individual rights and agency are uppermost in a hierarchy of needs.
europe  today  immigration  future  opinion  islam  mediterranean 
october 2018 by aries1988
王戴勃:央视记者英国闹场,折射中国外交“亮剑”困局|深度|端传媒 Initium Media
针对宣传工作,习近平强调“敢抓敢管,敢于亮剑”。在外宣系统中,这句话被引申为“必须始终站在党和国家的立场,旗帜鲜明、理直气壮地发出中国声音、阐明中国观点、讲明中国立场,绝不能失语、缺位。”在针对敏感问题时,要“正面交锋、敢于亮剑、坚决批驳、严厉回击,绝不能当左右迎合的‘摇摆人’、态度暧昧的‘两面派’、独善其身的‘老好人’。外宣工作, 需要的是‘战士’,绝不需要‘绅士’。”

无论是王天安、瑞典游客还是孔琳琳事件,都凸显出中国在处理外交争议时缺乏有效的沟通方式,不会也不愿运用西方人广为接受的公关手段为自己争取道义和情感支持,而这其实正是中国政府眼中的“敌对势力”最擅长的。
china  pr  diplomacy  today 
october 2018 by aries1988
China’s Health Care Crisis: Lines Before Dawn, Violence and ‘No Trust’ - The New York Times
The country does not have a functioning primary care system, the first line of defense for illness and injury. China has one general practitioner for every 6,666 people, compared with the international standard of one for every 1,500 to 2,000 people, according to the World Health Organization.

Instead of going to a doctor’s office or a community clinic, people rush to the hospitals to see specialists, even for fevers and headaches. This winter, flu-stricken patients camped out overnight with blankets in the corridors of several Beijing hospitals, according to state media.

Hospitals are understaffed and overwhelmed. Specialists are overworked, seeing as many as 200 patients a day.

China’s “barefoot doctor” system was one of the Communist revolution’s most notable successes. In 1965, Chairman Mao, troubled by the lack of health care in the countryside, envisioned an army of people who spent half their time farming (many worked in the fields without shoes) and half their time treating patients. They weren’t doctors, but rather a sort of health care SWAT team. The authorities gave them a short training period — several months to a year — and a bag of limited medicine and equipment.

When Dr. Huang saw a newspaper article about general practitioners, he decided to enroll in a training program in 2007. He was inspired by his aunt, a “barefoot doctor” in Mingguang, a city in Anhui Province, one of the poorest regions in China.

As a boy, he had followed his aunt as she went to people’s homes to deliver babies and give injections. “After becoming a doctor, I’ve realized that the people’s needs for ‘barefoot doctors’ is still very much in demand,” he said.

Dr. Yang, 31, said her practice was largely free of grumpy patients and, as a result, “yi nao.” She sees 50 to 60 patients in a workday of about seven and a half hours. In the United States, a family doctor has 83 “patient encounters” in a 45-hour workweek, according to a 2017 survey by the American Academy of Family Physicians. That’s about 16 patients in a nine-hour workday.

She’s available to dispense round-the-clock advice to her patients on WeChat, a popular messaging app in China. A patient is generally kept in the waiting room for a brief period and, if necessary, gets to talk with her for at least 15 minutes.
doctor  hospital  china  today  reform  reportage 
october 2018 by aries1988
Decorum is an unfashionable word but it has a radical core | Aeon Ideas
Cicero gives us the best sense of decorum’s richness. He did more than anyone in ancient Rome to develop the concept, and it sits at the heart of his ethical and rhetorical theory. Cicero defined decorum not as an inflexible code of conduct, but as the fit between an action and a moment, or between words and a rhetorical situation. To speak decorously is to say precisely what the moment demands.

Asking whether words have decorum is another way of asking what this circumstance and this audience call for.

Arguing over Trump’s decorum, or lack thereof, is about asking who counts – who is included in, and excluded from, ‘the sense of the community’ to which decorum appeals.
speech  politics  today  trump  audience  communication  latin  roman 
september 2018 by aries1988
內亞海洋與帝國秩序(四):羅馬時刻 – Zhongjing Liu | 劉仲敬 – Medium
你能夠征服,然後你的後代才能夠享受征服者留下的紅利,體現為福利形式。

勤奮是被征服者的美德,而勇敢是征服者的美德。

像孫恩(東晉五斗米教領袖,海寇頭領)那些人,或者像張角(東漢太平教教主,黃巾軍領袖)那些人,為什麼他出現在歷史記錄中的時候已經是連州跨省,擁有數十萬人馬,佔據了幾十個州的地方?

廬山會議實際上是他自己性格中小文人一面的體現,這種人比較容易幻想自己已經搞定了局面,他沈迷在自己的幻覺中,然後突然發現外在的形勢跟他的幻想不一樣,然後在這個幻想破滅的一瞬間會突然陷入人格崩潰的狀態,做出很多錯亂的事情來。

《大義覺迷錄》應該也是雍正在被他自己營造的環境所欺騙的一種產物。

日本人的問題是,他做事比較拘謹,也就是在有機會的時候,他沒有充分利用自己的機會,然後等機會喪失了以後他又後悔,來硬搶。這是極大的錯誤。在辛亥革命時,如果他當時就把東北整個吃下去,或者把愛新覺羅皇室遷到瀋陽的話,基本上沒有哪個列強會認真反對它,孫中山也不會反對,恐怕還會高興得不得了呢。

國民黨就是這樣完蛋的,它一定要冒充一個西方國家,也就是說要同時做獅子和蟑螂,於是它的成本太高而收效太低;而共產黨呢,效果雖然還不如他,但他至少把成本給壓到蟑螂的水平了,所以反而勝利了。

我見過很多次,被很多人認為是觀念的東西,到最後真的一查,結果都是跟當時的社會背景有非常密切的關係的。
japan  china  civ  today  idea  nation  qing 
september 2018 by aries1988
The Best Books on Modern Japanese Literature | Five Books Expert Recommendations
Make Your Own List recommended by Linda Flores To the western eye, Japan often appears as a surprising combination of very advanced development, and extreme…
list  reading  japan  youth  today  book  bestof 
september 2018 by aries1988
Xi Sets China on a Collision Course With History - The New York Times
Known as “modernization theory,” it says that once citizens reach a certain level of wealth, they will demand things like public accountability, free expression and a role in government. Authoritarian states, unable to meet these demands, either transition to democracy or collapse amid unrest.

So China is instead promoting “ideology and collective social values” that equate the government with Chinese culture, according to research by the China scholar Heike Holbig and Mr. Gilley. Patriotic songs and school textbooks have proliferated. So have mentions of “Xi Jinping Thought,” now an official ideology.
today  china  2018  xi  politics  state  people 
september 2018 by aries1988
L’Allemagne est-elle démunie face à l’extrême-droite ? — Du grain à moudre
durée : 00:40:15 - par : Hervé Gardette - Les manifestations anti-migrants se succèdent depuis plus d’une semaine à Chemnitz, en Allemagne. Face à l’émergence d’un discours raciste décomplexé, les autorités semblent avoir été prises de cours. Comment l’Allemagne peut-elle endiguer cette montée de l’extrême-droite ? - réalisé par : Alexandre Fougeron
deutschland  nation  origin  france  today 
september 2018 by aries1988
中产阶级轻松 社会没有未来:评《作为中产我对国家有哪些不满》
房价除了反映土地稀缺度,更反映基础建设水平。中国人都知道炒房要炒地铁房,说明即便是有投机心态,房价也得和基建投资挂钩。但问题在于,中国的城市基建不是天上掉下来的,不是全世界殖民地养的,不是世界大战的财富买单的,很大程度上是我们在一代人的时间里快速造出来的。这笔投资让目前享用城市基建的人口买单,是唯一的出路。

在一个大多数家庭都意识到教育重要性的年代,在一个阶层流动还非常明显的年代,中产阶级——从你的描述看,其实是顶层中产,占人口5%以内——要保持住自己的教育优势,本来就要比下面的人多花一些力气,多承受一些成本。

中产之所以是中产,有两种可能。一是在快速增长的经济体内,提供产业升级过程中稀缺的技术劳动和知识,从增量中获得超出平均水平的工资。另一种中产在稳定乃至停滞的经济体内,占据垄断性技术和人脉,用或明或暗的“编制”来凭空“制造稀缺”,维持远超平均水平的工资。这第二种中产,其实就是封建时代末期的小地主,清朝中期的盐业分销商,19世纪末的奴隶种植园打手,对生产力发展是绊脚石而不是推进剂。对于这种社会集团,我读书时的课本有一个简洁明了的描述:

反动
state  middle-class  china  today  debate  shenzhen 
august 2018 by aries1988
葛兆光:中国是现代民族国家和传统帝国的混合体 | 政见 CNPolitics.org
我们把civilization这个词用来做一个普遍性的规则,而文化culture这个词我们把它说是中国传统的东西。我们认为就传统文化而言,各个民族没有高低之分,没有哪一个culture好一点,哪一个culture比较不好。但是,文明是有不同的,因为文明是要学习的,而且是跟知识、教养、秩序是有关系的。

我总觉得中国是一个非常特殊的例子。一方面呢,我在书里面一再强调:从公元1000年,也就是差不多宋代的时候,就已经有类似于欧洲nation-state(民族国家)的那种意识。这个idea不是制度上的,而是思想上的。但是另外一方面呢,中国始终保留了帝国的观念,帝国的制度。比方说,一直到后来,它都觉得应该有朝贡体制,有一个天下的、中央的、天朝大国的那种秩序。所以,中国的历史和欧洲的历史不一样的地方,就是说中国并不是从传统的帝国转向现代的民族国家,而是民族国家和帝国是混在一起的。也就是说,一方面它有现代民族国家的一些因素,但是它另外一方面又保留了帝国的想象和意识。所以,这两个东西并没有像欧洲那样从传统到现代。

在中国,正因为传统的帝国和现代的民族国家混在一起,所以现在很多问题都出在这里。它面对的是一个已经现代了的国际秩序,但是它又有很多传统的帝国想象。怎么办?我们之所以会讨论这个问题,其实和中国当下的问题有许多联系。比方说,中国政府在处理对外关系的时候和处理对内的民族问题的时候,有许多复杂的问题其实跟这个历史──跟这个特别的历史——是有关系的,所以就带来很多很多困难。你单纯地按照现代国际秩序、国际法则来处理问题好办,或者干脆你回到帝国时代去也好办,但是这两个混在一起的时候,就带来很多麻烦。你看看现在中国政府官员的脑子里,到现在仍然是这两个东西是混在一起的。

这种以父子关系为主轴的这种放大了的家族、家国的结构,才是孔夫子的思想基础。脱离了这个社会结构,孔夫子就变成了抽象的道德。但实际上在那个时候,他不是抽象的道德,他还是一套治理整个社会、建立政治秩序的一整套方法。

历史记忆在中国太多地被控制。这也是为什么我们很多知识份子都希望重写历史,比如民间历史、公共历史(public history)。这样的东西,都是试图瓦解固定的、强大的、意识形态的那种历史记忆,这是大家都在做的事情。但是说实话,作用很有限,因为历史教科书你改变不了,公共的纪念性的东西你改变不了,还有电视电影要很多钱的,你也控制不了。所以你也没有办法

这些冲突呢,造成现在中国的很多问题。这些问题肯定都是跟历史有关的,这三个问题都来自历史,而且是很长的历史,可能是几百年的,甚至是一千年的历史。

马克思主义的论述方式和逻辑性对我们有影响,但是价值观大概影响很小,我们这一代人大概都会有这样的经历

您探索的这些关于身份认同、文化移入、跨文化现象、文化改变和文化的概念,这些问题从本质上而言都是人类学的问题。
像疆域民族国家宗教认同这样的问题,我们主要从历史角度来看,包括它的形成、变化和历史过程来看。但是,人类学会分析它的结构和现状这些问题。

在各个地方,你可以看到国家在塑造这些宗教的时候,它的力量很强。这一点跟西方的伊斯兰教和基督教很不一样。它们都是超越国家的宗教,超越了很多很多国家变成了一个宗教。可是佛教、道教本来都是一个宗教,但是在各个国家就变成了不一样的东西了,它们的命运也不一样。比如中国和日本的佛教完全不同,怎么理解这样的现象?
religion  ethnography  history  book  expert  china  today  interview 
july 2018 by aries1988
When Americans Say ‘Democracy,’ We Really Mean Something Else
We tend to see democracy as truly democratic only when it grants equal participation regardless of a person’s sex, race or religion. Even if it does, we consider strict majoritarian rule as not really democratic if it abuses or sidelines minorities. American founders talked a lot about resisting “the tyranny of the majority” for a reason. We also think of freedoms — of speech, of the press, of religion, and so on — as essential elements of democracy.
But those things are not democracy, per se. They are components of liberalism. (The term here refers to the political philosophy, rather than “liberal” in the sense of center-left party politics.)
definition  democracy  comparison  today  liberalism 
july 2018 by aries1988
Looking Through the Eyes of China’s Surveillance State - The New York Times
Many critics call China’s surveillance ambitions Orwellian, and they are. But for China today, the world imagined by Franz Kafka offers a closer vision: bureaucratic, unknowable and ruled by uncertainty as much as fear.
opinion  china  today  politics  state 
july 2018 by aries1988
这是今年最犀利的演讲:国家命运与个人命运
我认为,马克思在一百多年前的一些关于资本主义发展的具体结论有些时空的局限性,但马克思主义的基本原理是正确的,那就是生产力决定生产关系、经济基础决定上层建筑。美国经济结构的变化决定社会结构变化,也一定决定着美国政治利益、国家核心利益的变化。

从这个意义上讲,即便特朗普两年或者六年后下台,美国也不会因为更换总统而在战略上改变对中国的基本立场。这是我的一个基本看法。

经济全球化时代国家间竞争的本质是什么?二十几年前我就提出是制度竞争,即看谁的制度安排更有利于经济增长和发展。因此,改革那些阻碍创新的制度安排,创建更加包容、可以自主经营、自主选择和自主流动的现代市场经济体系是至关重要的。

欧洲人出口的是古老的贵族文明积淀下来的审美,几乎所有的奢侈品都来自欧洲。审美是一种历史积淀,前提是一个国家历史、文化的连续性。

这个话题其实是很沉重的,在此我只想谈谈自己的体会。对个人而言,审美是一种品质和修养。一个审美能力低下的民族不仅素养、品格不高,道德水准也会有问题。

一个人做好自己每一个人生阶段中应该做好的事情,把自己喜欢做的事情尽可能地做到极致甚至像清教徒那样对待自己喜欢的职业并愿意为此努力一生,你就是一个具有使命感的人。所谓工匠精神,本质上与这种对职业的敬畏和使命感的理解与坚守密不可分。
talk  china  usa  economy  today  opinion  youth  self  patriotism  advice  2018  trump 
july 2018 by aries1988
黄章晋: 在隔壁的中国,那些孩子已经长大了
2001年国务院颁布《国务院关于基础教育改革与发展的决定》,提出「农村地区学校布局调整」的改革计划,通俗的话讲,就是撤销村里的幼儿园、小学,将之合并到大的乡镇,有些地方,则是撤销乡镇教学点,集中到县城,这就是所谓的「撤点并校」。

我们同事邓飞采访时有个颠覆认知的意外发现,造成2万余学生伤亡的质量低劣校舍,几乎都是1990年代「普九」验收期间突击建造。「普九」即1986年颁布的教育法提出20世纪末普及九年义务教育。它有一套从校舍到图书室在内的验收标准。

当时国家财力不济,任务全部压在最基层的乡镇一级:资金自行筹募,自行设计、自行建设、自行验收。为满足必须一次验收通过、无楼不成校等硬性任务,各地普遍采取采取一次建校、逐年集资的办法应付建筑商。

也就是说,校车事故大幅减少,很大程度是越来越多的孩子在学校寄宿而不是乘坐校车。
today  china  countryside  children  school  transport  crisis  opinion 
july 2018 by aries1988
Why some countries come together, while others fall apart | Aeon Essays

A comparison between Switzerland and Belgium, two countries of similar size, with a similar linguistic composition of the population, and comparable levels of economic development, provides an example. In Switzerland, civil society organisations – such as shooting clubs, reading circles and choral societies – developed throughout the territory during the late 18th and first half of the 19th century. They spread evenly throughout the country because modern industries emerged across all the major regions, and because Switzerland’s city-states lacked both the capacity and the motivation to suppress them. In Belgium, by contrast, Napoleon, as well as the Dutch king who succeeded him, recognised the revolutionary potential of such voluntary associations, and suppressed them. Even more importantly, the associations that did exist in Belgium were confined to the more economically developed and more educated French-speaking regions and segments of the population.

In 1831, when Belgium became independent of the kingdom of the Netherlands, most of the new rulers of the country had long been members of these French-speaking associational networks. Without giving it much thought, they declared French the official language of the administration, army and judiciary. Despite forming a slight demographic majority, those who spoke only Flemish were not part of these networks, and were therefore excluded from the central government. Until the end of the 19th century, the Flemish were ruled as an internal colony of Francophone Belgium. Early nation-building failed, the language divide became heavily politicised during the 20th century, and the country is now close to breaking apart.

Generations of political ties across linguistic divides allowed nationalist intellectuals and politicians to imagine the Han nation as multilingual, but ethnically homogenous.

Supporting civil society organisations can lead to backlash against foreign influence and political interference. The recent crackdown on foreign-funded NGOs in many eastern European countries is just one example of the risks run by a strategy of cultivating civil society organisations from outside. In the long run, however, such organisations help to provide a political infrastructure to establish ties across ethnic divides and move toward national political integration. A consistent and long-term strategy, such as that pursued by Germany’s political foundations or the Soros foundation, might still be the best way to help citizens connect with each other based on a shared cause, rather than shared ethnicity.
book  nation  state  origin  irak  afghanistan  howto  today  aids 
june 2018 by aries1988
linsantu 5月27日 22:05 来自 微博

美国目前的教派势力图。最显眼的三家:红色天主教,蓝色美南浸会,土黄色摩门教。
usa  religion  today  numbers  list 
may 2018 by aries1988
高薪互联网对决CFD
CFD教授级高工自己写的了CFD代码(具备高水平的计算机编程水平),推得了算法(张量、离散求解、甚至自己提出模型)。这是基本素养,是CFD教授级高工和CFD工程师的区别。
CFD教授级高工,可以从你的云图看出你的网格数量,从流场看出是否调用高阶格式,从几何外形看出哪里需要网格加密。

重申,CFD不同于实验学科,这一行,充满了学术传奇和商业传奇:
开源CFD软件架构师Weller只是本科生,从不写文章,创立CFD软件OpenFOAM
Wilcox逝世之前一直都是讲师,生前提出kOmega模型
Gosman在帝国理工时期,提出各种Gosman模型,后创立CFD软件STAR-CD
Hirt提出VOF模型,单篇被引10000+,创立CFD软件Flow-3D
Peric放弃帝国理工大学教授职位创立公司,即为CD-adapco的前身
Spalding提出CFD模型无数,学术不倒,同时创立CFD软件PHOENICS
他们都是纯粹的CFD教授级高工,是神。或有教职,或创立公司,或商业咨询,或身兼数职。

CFD应届生去公司要高薪,要走【一事一议】。发挥经验优势,越老越值钱。
谈薪水,靠的自己的技能。赚多少钱,取决于你能拿多少东西上台面。但这里,问一下自己,你的CFD技能是否能做到一事一议?算例发散了怎么办?是否会植入新的大气流动模型?如何增加一个地面的造火源项?
拿多少工资,取决于你创造的效益。

在某一天,各大公司将不再看重花花绿绿的云图,而是真正的需要CFD做产品设计的时候。
他们终将填充一批强有力的CFD教授级高级工程师。
那个时候,将需要一个CFD理论功底扎实,行业经验丰富的人,以领导者开创者的身份,负责万亿体量产品的设计变革。
career  cfd  moi  future  today  history  comparison  internet  2018  industry  bat 
april 2018 by aries1988
A Brand-New Version of Our Origin Story - The New York Times
It turns out that those herders contributed about half the genes of Northern European and British skeletons beginning around 5,000 years ago. Evidently, the herders somehow outbred or exterminated most of Europe’s original farmers. How on earth could small numbers of herders have overwhelmed dense farmer populations?

Archaeological and linguistic evidence had already shown that Polynesians can be traced back to the island of Taiwan.
book  human  origin  research  today  gene 
april 2018 by aries1988
Ballasting the US-China Relationship - John Pomfret & Paul Pickowicz | China 21
Historian Paul Pickowicz interviews acclaimed author John Pomfret about patterns in the long history of US-China relations, and how it informs the controversies in the current moment of Sino-American relations ranging from the impact of Chinese students on US universities, Xi Jinping’s end to presidential term limits, and trade and business relations.
podcast  book  usa  china  history  today  politics  leader  people 
april 2018 by aries1988
Bright Lights, Big Shoulder Pads: A Timid Japan Recalls Its Bubble Era - The New York Times
She performs in a pop-music duo called Bed In that borrows heavily from the keyboard lines, electric drums and power chords of the ’80s. They dress ’80s, too: The shoulder pads are big, the skirts are mini and the hues are Day-Glo when they aren’t just plain shiny.

That era came to an abrupt end. Japan’s stock market crashed in 1990, and property prices plummeted. The period that followed is often called the Lost Decade, as Japan grappled with falling prices, slow growth and burdensome debt.

“I feel like back then, people weren’t afraid to be noticed,” said one dancer, Nanako Meguro, 18, who recently graduated from Tomioka High School in Osaka, about 250 miles southwest of Tokyo. “They wanted to be No. 1. I think that compared to people nowadays, everyone seemed to have a lot more confidence.”
1980s  japan  japanese  music  today  economy  mentality  future  youth  dance 
april 2018 by aries1988
Twitter
RT : 川总三十年不变的理念MAGA
trump  talkshow  history  today 
april 2018 by aries1988
Can Wine Transform China’s Countryside?
the wines produced are mostly Cabernet Sauvignons, Cabernet blends, and Chardonnays.
wine  china  story  success  gansu  region  desert  money  today 
march 2018 by aries1988
Hearing Poland’s Ghosts

The enormity of these events, combined with the suppression of basic truths about them, meant that their legacies were preserved covertly by their various inheritors, all with their own adamant loyalties and wrenching recollections, and that Poland in the postwar period became a place of often conflicting and fervently defended forms of collective memory.

a declaration that Polish history should be as much a part of the European historical imagination as, say, French or German history has been for educated citizens of the advanced world.

What had almost entirely vanished from collective memory was the fact that before World War II, Jewish and non-Jewish communities had coexisted in Poland for ten centuries, in a relationship that included phases of tension and benign indifference, of spiritual separateness and mutually advantageous commerce, of ideological anti-Semitism and what might be called multiculturalism avant la lettre.

more than 154,000 people, most of them civilians, lost their lives

His well-informed answer is given in a tone of almost trembling emotion, difficult to imagine among adolescent visitors to, say, the Imperial War Museum in London.

to insert the experiences of Poland and east-central Europe into Europe’s and the world’s historical memory.

As for the future of Poland’s cultural institutions, Kerski says that much depends on what might be called the civic courage of individuals in opposing repressive policies, as well as on the credibility of the European Union.
jew  poland  museum  history  today  ww2  memory  instapaper_favs  debate 
march 2018 by aries1988
The Interpreter: How to tell if your president is a "strongman"
The country is run by a vast bureaucracy, divided among powerful institutions. Any individual official fits within a system of hierarchies and factions. The whole thing operates on norms that are authoritarian but at least consistent.
Mr. Xi is changing this system. He’s centralizing more authority for himself than a modern Chinese leader is supposed to have. He’s defying norms, like presidential term limits. He’s purging some officials who belong to opposing political factions. He’s borrowing some pages from the strongman playbook.
But! Mr. Xi is doing all of this within the existing political system. The Chinese state is still deeply institutionalized. He’s not changing that. He is of the system.
Personalist leaders tend to smash the system. Hugo Chavez of Venezuela treated much of the government as something to conquer or destroy. So did Mr. Putin.
china  2018  today  politics  comparison  russia  leader 
march 2018 by aries1988
After 150 years, why does the Meiji restoration matter? - The Economist explains
It all went to Japan’s head. There was no clear break, as there was in Germany with Hitler’s rise to power, between the enlightened Japan that the Meiji reformers built and the militarist one that in 1937 launched into total war. The seeds of Japanese aggression and atrocities were sown in the emperor worship and glorification of the armed forces that were essential elements of the Meiji world.
japan  history  modernity  today 
february 2018 by aries1988
Who Killed More: Hitler, Stalin, or Mao? | by Ian Johnson | NYR Daily | The New York Review of Books

Their most prominent spokesperson is Sun Jingxian, a mathematician at Shandong University and Jiangsu Normal University. He attributes changes in China’s population during this period as due to faulty statistics, changes in how households were registered, and a series of other obfuscatory factors. His conclusion: famine killed only 3.66 million people. This contradicts almost every other serious effort at accounting for the effects of Mao’s changes.

According to Chang, Mao was responsible for 70 million deaths in peacetime—more than any other twentieth-century leader.

The peacetime adjective is significant because it gets Hitler out of the picture. But is starting a war of aggression less of a crime than launching economic policies that cause a famine?

How, finally, does Mao’s record compare to those of Hitler or Stalin? Snyder estimates that Hitler was responsible for between 11 million and 12 million noncombatant deaths, while Stalin was responsible for at least 6 million, and as many as 9 million if foreseeable deaths caused by deportation, starvation, and incarceration in concentration camps are included.

If one includes the combatant deaths, and the deaths due to war-related famine and disease, the numbers shoot up astronomically. The Soviet Union suffered upward of 8 million combatant deaths and many more due to famine and disease—perhaps about 20 million.

As for Hitler, should his deaths include the hundreds of thousands who died in the aerial bombardments of Germans cities? After all, it was his decision to strip German cities of anti-aircraft batteries to replace lost artillery following the debacle at Stalingrad.

Mao didn’t order people to their deaths in the same way that Hitler did, so it’s fair to say that Mao’s famine deaths were not genocide—in contrast, arguably, to Stalin’s Holodomor in the Ukraine, the terror-famine described by journalist and historian Anne Applebaum in Red Famine (2017). One can argue that by closing down discussion in 1959, Mao sealed the fate of tens of millions, but almost every legal system in the world recognizes the difference between murder in the first degree and manslaughter or negligence. Shouldn’t the same standards apply to dictators?

By contrast, Mao himself and his successors have always realized that he was both China’s Lenin and its Stalin.

In Xi’s way of looking at China, the country had roughly thirty years of Maoism and thirty years of Deng Xiaoping’s economic liberalization and rapid growth. Xi has warned that neither era can negate the other; they are inseparable.
comparison  dictator  leader  china  soviet  nazi  history  today  death  disaster  famine  numbers  research  narrative  mao  debate  ethic 
february 2018 by aries1988
Meet the pirate queen making academic papers free online
She cared less about the form than the function: she wanted a global brain. To her, paywalls began to seem like the plaques in an Alzheimer’s-riddled mind, clogging up the flow of information.
academia  stans  story  science  piracy  female  leader  russia  today  idea  world  brain  knowledge  share 
february 2018 by aries1988
From imitation to innovation: How China became a tech superpower
The most obvious example is DJI, a Shenzhen-based startup that virtually created the category of consumer drones, including the popular Phantom and Mavic series.

As Gu was discussing genius and mortality, his robot farted. The little machine is programmed to do so, but it happens

Now his team is working on “far-field speech recognition”, deciphering commands shouted or whispered from three to five metres away.
chinese  technology  leader  today  reportage 
february 2018 by aries1988
The Scandinavians ‘hitchhiked’ their way to the boons of empire | Aeon Ideas

Imperialists came in many different varieties in the 19th century. Scandinavia and the US (outside of North America) point us to a more sophisticated understanding of empire. Some imperialists administered territory and opened markets. Others provided capital to build railways and link the global economy. Still others produced migratory labour or hauled commodities. Administering territory was the most prestigious job. But it was not the only way to be an imperialist. Profit and power could also be won by hitchhiking.
colonialism  scandinavia  history  today  capital  world  order  comparison  theory 
february 2018 by aries1988
Millennials Are Screwed - The Huffington Post
There are millions of Scotts in the modern economy. “A lot of workers were just 18 at the wrong time,” says William Spriggs, an economics professor at Howard University and an assistant secretary for policy at the Department of Labor in the Obama administration. “Employers didn’t say, ‘Oops, we missed a generation. In 2008 we weren’t hiring graduates, let’s hire all the people we passed over.’ No, they hired the class of 2012.”
today  youth  housing  millennials  politics  usa  numbers  statistics  workforce 
february 2018 by aries1988
Kazuo Ishiguro - Nobel Lecture: My Twentieth Century Evening – and Other Small Breakthroughs
As the only foreign boy in the neighbourhood, a kind of local fame followed me around. Other children knew who I was before I met them. Adults who were total strangers to me sometimes addressed me by name in the street or in the local store.

When I look back to this period, and remember it was less than twenty years from the end of a world war in which the Japanese had been their bitter enemies, I'm amazed by the openness and instinctive generosity with which our family was accepted by this ordinary English community. The affection, respect and curiosity I retain to this day for that generation of Britons who came through the Second World War, and built a remarkable new welfare state in its aftermath, derive significantly from my personal experiences from those years.
japan  immigration  gaijin  story  childhood  children  uk  literature  writer  memory  politics  today  world  human  future  manifesto 
february 2018 by aries1988
於淵:走不出的「邊疆中國」|讀書時間|深度|端傳媒 Initium Media

孙中山在辛亥革命后所提出的五族共和,

章炳麟则更加极端,他不赞同继承异族王朝的疆域,而要恢复到汉、明时期的疆域,那才是汉族正统。于是在章炳麟眼中,在清朝与中国形同异国的缅、朝、越,变成中华民国必当恢复的领土;而在清代内附且至清末已明白划在中国近代国际疆界之内的蒙、回、藏部,反而成了可以任其去来的荒服。

首先,中国国内民族的数量远远多于五族;其次,五族共和是汉、满精英的妥协,并不是五族之间达成的。五族共和最直接的目的是将清帝国五域维系在民国之内,而中国实际上却进入了以分离为开端的大分裂时期──外蒙直接独立,最终成为无可挽回的结局。
qing  china  state  nation  challenge  history  today  ethnic  book  chinese 
january 2018 by aries1988
« Si l’Autriche avait assumé son passé, elle se serait engagée dans une autre voie »
Pourtant, affirmait Lacan, « la répétition demande du nouveau ». Un aphorisme à méditer dans la situation actuelle. En effet, qu’est-ce qui ne passe pas dans l’histoire autrichienne depuis l’Anschluss, pour faire ainsi turbiner cette compulsion de répétition que Freud n’hésitait pas à qualifier de démoniaque ? Un grand vide : l’absence de l’acte politique qui aurait confronté les Autrichiens avec ce qu’ils ont fait entre 1938 et 1945. A la différence du laborieux travail de mémoire en Allemagne, cette confrontation a, on le sait, été évitée en Autriche grâce à un tour de passe-passe : l’invasion du pays par Hitler prouverait que les Autrichiens ont été les victimes, et non pas les complices, voire les agents, de nombreux crimes !
austria  history  today 
january 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:艱辛探索的價值觀
在我看來,這才是廣被引述的這個採訪裏面最值得注意的問題。那就是認命,是對現實的完全肯定乃至於投降,是對權力以及贏家的絕對服從。假如那兩位年輕人所說的每一句都是真心話,那麼他們所接受的教育就可以說得上是十分完整了,與這次被修改的歷史教科書裏面所傳達的價值觀完全一致。

過去這麼多年,每次遇到和六四有關的爭議,不也有很多人告訴我們,要不是當年政府果斷,今天的中國又怎能成為全球第二大經濟體呢?每當有人批評中國共產黨幾十年前犯下的種種大錯,不也總是有人反駁,說今天的中國是全靠共產黨才能變得這麼有錢嗎?現在修改對於文革的認知,其背後的邏輯和上述這些說法是相當一貫的,乃過去二十多年來逐漸彌漫的主流價值觀。這種價值觀在某個意義上講,甚至是反價值的,因為它似乎要強調一切的是非對錯都是平等的,根本沒有絕對的錯誤,有的只是絕對的生死勝負,活下來就是對的,勝出了就是對的。兩個中學生能夠如此靈活運用這種「價值觀」,恰好說明這次教科書的修改,在整個教育之中只不過是水到渠成而已。

他們移民當然是為了生存,他們過去曾在公開場合表達自己的愛國,同樣也是為了生存。比起一本教科書上的一個章節,這種環境才是學生們的真正老師;比起不斷背誦「社會主義核心價值觀」的條目,這才是真正的德育教室。
essay  education  youth  opinion  chinese  today 
january 2018 by aries1988
元清非中國論 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

至明朝末期,「中國」一詞已經有著約三千年的使用歷史,最早只是作為一種地域專屬名稱,專指中原地區,此「國」意為「地域」,同「南國」、「北國」用法。後來隨著大一統思想的發展和鞏固[註 1],「中國」逐漸成為正統朝代的標誌性稱呼,例如宋金對峙時期,金國為表示正統,往往自稱「中國」。

清朝以前,「中國」兩字并不曾被作為任何某一個朝代的專屬名稱。自清入主中原、代明而立以來,清政府以中華正朔自居,開始以「中國」自稱其全部統治區域[11]。

1689年,中俄兩國簽訂《尼布楚條約》,國體意義上的「中國」首次正式出現在國際法條約文件上[13]。《尼布楚條約》是中國第一次與歐洲國家按照國際法原則、以對等方式談判達成的平等條約,該條約也被指是最早明確使用「中國」一詞來指代大清的國際法文件。條約中的「中國」指蒙古和中國東北在內的整個清帝國[14]。

矢野仁一認為,中國不能稱為所謂的民族國家,又宣稱滿、蒙、藏等原來就非中國領土,表示如果要維持大中國的同一性,那就根本沒有必要推翻清王朝,如果要建立民族國家,則應當放棄邊疆地區的控制,包括政治上的領屬和歷史上的敍述[5]。

徐明旭亦表示把國家與民族混為一談的觀點不見於國際法上,指出“蒙古民族”與“中國”是兩個概念,根據國際公法,民族與國家是完全不同的兩個概念,又引用比喻駁斥相關論調:「假如有人在美國聲稱:美國的愛爾蘭、猶太人等都不是美國人,只有盎格魯-撒克遜裔才是美國人,他一定會遇到麻煩,甚至被斥為種族主義者。中國像美國一樣,也是個多民族國家,有五十六個民族,為什麼漢族以外的民族就不算中國人呢?」[37]

1912年,清政府發布《大清國皇帝退位詔書》,宣布:「總期人民安堵,海宇乂安,仍合滿、漢、蒙、回、藏五族完全領土,為一大中華民國」,簡稱「中國」的中華民國繼承了大清國的全部領土、主權,以及自《尼布楚條約》以來,多個邊界條約規定的國界。二次大戰後,中華民國根據《開羅宣言》和《波茨坦公告》收復了被日本佔領的中國東北、台灣、澎湖以及南海諸島,同時外蒙古獨立。後來中華人民共和國在習慣線與條約線的基礎上,與其鄰國簽訂了一系列的邊界條約,確立了現在的領土範圍[66]。
debate  historiography  china  history  mongolia  manchuria  today  japan  historian  ethnic  state 
january 2018 by aries1988
梁文道:給「一部分」讀者的回覆

把一些黨政機構的通知和命令看作是一種「聲音」,然後將一些反對這些通知的民間意見看成是另一種不同的聲音,似乎要以此說明中國社會其實也是一個正常的多元現代社會,這是近幾年我在許多中國時局討論當中常常看到的思路。我非常懷疑,這樣子說話的人是不是太不懂得「國情」,把自己當成「外賓」了?
china  today  debate  government  society  expression  liberty  essay 
december 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:只准賣馬槽,不准過聖誕

一邊替全世界各種宗教生產他們最需要的東西,另一邊嚴格管控它們的流行;在我看來,想要瞭解今日中國社會境況,恐怕很難找到比這個看起來十分諷刺的矛盾更加鮮明的案例。「開放」的意思大概就是這個樣子:只要和錢相關,一切都好說;可是只要碰到意識形態,那就寸步難行。

卻照樣找得到安身立命之道。今天的問題是宗教也好,非宗教的精神傳統也好,所有能夠照顧終極關懷的精神資源,在中國似乎都沒有一片自由自在的立足之地。
trade  tradition  china  religion  spiritual  society  control  government  world  chinese  today  money 
december 2017 by aries1988
Austria and Italy clash over South Tyrol citizenship proposal
Vienna proposes citizenship for residents of region formerly part of Austro-Hungarian empire
italia  austria  war  ww1  today 
december 2017 by aries1988
West grows wary of China’s influence game

“The party under Xi [Jinping] believes it is engaged in a ‘huayu zhanzheng’ — a ‘discourse war’ — with the west, which it thinks enjoys media hegemony and must be challenged,” says David Shambaugh, director of the China policy programme at George Washington University.

He estimates China spends between $10bn and $12bn a year on a wide range of “soft power” efforts — from traditional lobbying and public relations campaigns to more clandestine forms of influence-building.

“The Chinese Communist party is seeking to suppress dissent among its diaspora in countries around the world,” says Rory Medcalf, head of the national security college at Australian National University. “It uses a tapestry of methods to achieve its goals: political donations, control of Chinese language media, mobilising community and student groups; and engaging in coercive activities that involve CCP proxies and even consular officials.”

Defenders of these initiatives say Beijing merely wants to “tell China’s story well” and is acting no differently from western countries. The US government supports organisations that fund pro-democracy groups around the world, while Washington-based think-tanks have international affiliates that promote an American world view.

“The Communist party’s United Front work is very different from western efforts to exert influence — there is a degree of long-term planning and central co-ordination between public and nominally private enterprises that democracies can’t even imagine,”
china  today  politics  debate  strategy  world  competition  democracy 
december 2017 by aries1988
L’éolien français manque de souffle

L’énergie éolienne ne fournit aujourd’hui que 4 % de l’électricité française. Lourdeurs administratives et efficacité des recours expliquent cette piètre performance. Le gouvernement tente cependant d’encourager l’essor d’une filière industrielle.

La loi de transition énergétique, votée en 2015, fixe ainsi un objectif d’au moins 22 000 mégawatts (MW) de capacité installée en éolien terrestre à l’horizon 2023, contre 12 000 MW aujourd’hui. Concrètement, pour atteindre cet objectif, il faudra ajouter plus de 4 000 éoliennes aux 6 500 existantes. Mais pour atteindre l’autre objectif de la loi, celui de réduire à 50 % la part du nucléaire dans la production d’électricité, il faudra aller bien plus loin.

« On nous fait poser des Nokia 3310 alors que l’iPhone est déjà disponible, résume un industriel du secteur. Auparavant, on avait quatre mâts de 1 MW chacun, alors qu’aujourd’hui on peut avoir un mât qui produit 4 MW. Mais on ne peut pas les installer puisqu’ils n’existaient pas au moment du dépôt du projet. »

« La complexité joue en faveur de l’Europe. Une éolienne, c’est plus compliqué à fabriquer et surtout à exporter qu’un panneau solaire. »

Grâce à ces modifications, le SER estime que le temps moyen de développement d’un projet d’éolien terrestre en France pourrait descendre à cinq ans – contre sept à dix ans aujourd’hui

Certains y voient même la possibilité de créer une filière industrielle française, après plusieurs faux départs. Siemens Gamesa a ainsi une usine d’éoliennes offshore qui pourrait être prête pour 2019 au Havre (Seine-Maritime), et défend une adaptation du port afin de pouvoir accueillir les gigantesques navires nécessaires à l’installation des éoliennes en mer. General Electric attend également de pouvoir faire fonctionner à plein régime ses usines de Montoir-de-Bretagne (Loire-Atlantique) et de Cherbourg (Manche)… une fois que les projets lancés en 2011 seront confirmés.
eolien  numbers  france  français  industry  project  politics  today  china 
december 2017 by aries1988
La traduction dopée par l’intelligence artificielle
« Tout le monde s’est rué sur ces technologies. C’était complètement fou ! », raconte Philipp Koehn, de l’université Johns-Hopkins (Maryland), pionnier d’une technique précédente, balayée par la nouvelle venue. « Avant ces inventions, on estimait qu’il fallait un an pour progresser d’un point sur une certaine échelle de qualité. Après, en un an, les bonds, pour certaines paires de langues, ont été de près de huit points », constate François Yvon, ­directeur du Laboratoire d’informatique pour la mécanique et les sciences de l’ingénieur (Limsi-CNRS) à Orsay (Essonne). Et en août, un nouveau venu, DeepL, aussi à l’origine du dictionnaire Linguee, se targuait d’un gain de trois points supplémentaires sur la même échelle de qualité par rapport à ses concurrents.

Puis nouvel hiver dans le domaine, avec des évolutions assez lentes. Jusqu’aux secousses de l’année 2014. Trois articles, quasi simultanés, l’un de chercheurs de Google, les deux autres de l’équipe de l’université de Montréal menée par Yoshua Bengio, expliquent comment de nouveaux algorithmes promettent de tout changer. Les mots-clés ne sont plus « linguistique » ou « statistique » mais « apprentissage » et « réseaux de neurones ». Ces derniers ont été inventés dans les années 1950 et remis au goût du jour, notamment par Yoshua Bengio, pour la reconnaissance de caractères manuscrits ou l’identification ­d’objets ou d’animaux dans les images.

« Formellement, apprendre, pour ces réseaux, c’est évaluer les paramètres de cette fonction qui associe une phrase source à une phrase cible », ­résume François Yvon.
reportage  ai  translation  literature  communication  history  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
War once helped build nations, now it destroys them

Revolutionary-era France, Jacksonian America and Maoist China – three signature periods of nation-building in global history – are as notorious for their crimes as for their enduring accomplishments.

global politics today is bereft of big ideas and revolutionary ideologies. Most nations have conformed to the Washington Consensus on norms in governance and economics. Even the remaining autocracies largely play by those rules.
war  world  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
How Europe's far right fell in love with Australia's immigration policy
Conjuring an imaginary “queue” was a clever way to conflate two different sorts of refugees in the mind of the public: those who manage to reach UN camps and patiently wait for years to be resettled, and those who flee their homelands and attempt to claim asylum upon arrival in Australia. But there is no such queue, because countries are not obliged to take in refugees assigned for resettlement by the UN; if they do, it is purely good will. Signatories to the UN refugee convention are, however, obliged to assess the claims of asylum seekers reaching their shores. Australia is a society obsessed with rules and fairness, and the queue-jumping argument resonates perfectly with a population primed to think in terms of orderly regulations, most of whom have never faced state-sponsored violence or war crimes.

More than 51,000 asylum seekers arrived in Australia by sea between 2009 and 2013.

The EU has earmarked around $2bn in the past two years to address the drivers of migration.

Libya offers a worrying picture of what the future might hold if politicians like Espersen and Le Pen get their way, or if these sorts of outsourced solutions come to be seen as palatable by mainstream parties.

The EU has declared it a goal to “significantly reduce migratory flows by enabling the Libyan coast guard to ‘rescue’ a higher number of migrants and bring them back to Libya before they reach EU ships or EU territory”,

if the Australian model is adopted more fully in Europe, then there will be no hope for legitimate refugees to claim asylum through legal channels, and more of them will seek illegal paths to Europe.

The far right’s goal is to make European social benefits the exclusive property of native-born citizens, a hard-earned jackpot to be protected from the grasping hands of supposedly undeserving new arrivals.

“We are encumbered throughout ex-Christian Europe by the phenomenon of compassion,” he tells me, hinting at the logical endpoint of the policies his ideas have unleashed. “Compassion is fabulous … but it is obvious that without the use of force, we will never stop the invasion.”
far-right  australia  reportage  refugee  2010s  crisis  europe  politics  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
江湖已逝,侠客转行──四个中国调查记者的转型样本(下)|大陆|端传媒 Initium Media
2014年,一篇名为《那些年离职创业的主编们》的文章在媒体圈内流传。原《凤凰周刊》的主编黄章晋离职创办了自媒体“大象公会”;《南方周末》头版编辑创办了投资者的社交网络“雪球”;《21世纪经济报导》新闻总监左志坚创办阅读社交平台“拇指阅读”……
china  journalism  story  journalist  reportage  youth  society  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
曾磊:元朝是中国吗—对“元朝非中国”论的批判_爱思想

在21世纪的中国,有一部分网络写手操纵舆论,鼓吹元朝非中国论,他们找出很多似是而非的理由,对我国现存历史观进行挑战,影响了一部分人,应该看到,这种历史虚无主义观点不仅是错误的,而且其背后操纵者妄议我党、我国,这种错误的观点,必须予以坚决的辩证。笔者认为,必须重新认识大蒙古帝国、元朝和现代蒙古国之间的关系,才能彻底认清元朝历史问题,对中国历史的多民族性进行统一认识。

众所周知,外蒙古原本是我国领土,但是在1924年蒙古人民革命党的带领下建立了相对独立的政权。在1946年腐朽的国民党政府统治时期,以公民公投的形式获得了正式独立。任何一个爱国者都应该人知道这一历史事实,并且认识到弱国无外交的道理,我们不能让历史重演,不能再让任何一块中国领土从我们手里分裂出去,否则就是中华民族的罪人。

2006年,我国邻邦蒙古国举办了大蒙古国建国八百周年的活动,应蒙古国总统恩赫巴亚尔邀请,全国政协副主席徐匡迪将作为胡锦涛主席的特使,于10日至13日访问蒙古国,并出席了大蒙古国800周年纪念活动。
china  mongolia  history  today  diplomacy  debate  ethnic  nation  chinese  question 
november 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:讀書加點吉拿棒(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子之二)

就好比「加點吉拿棒」之類的Youtuber,能夠用幾分鐘讓你「看完」一部時長兩小時的電影。它可以十分有趣,構思和判語巧到讓人叫絕。
reading  today  china  app  knowledge 
november 2017 by aries1988
What did Luther ever do for us? Not as much as we like to think

What is true of Luther, 500 years ago, is that backed by the painstaking detail of a scholar, he took an intellectual stand against the most powerful forces of his day. He was not a 21st century free-speech hero; he condemned those he saw as heretics. But Lutheranism ushered in an age in which debates were won by those who read the sources and rejected received interpretations.
twitter  history  religion  today 
november 2017 by aries1988
梁文道:給他二十塊,他替你做愛(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子二之一)
梁文道:給他二十塊,他替你做愛(一粒藥丸與一顆橘子二之一) via @instapaper
today  business  learn  knowledge  book  reading 
november 2017 by aries1988
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